The Renaissance Rebirth of Greco-Roman learning Humanism - Man as a subject of culture, art and literature The Reformation Individualism in Christianity - Personal relationship with God “ Grace” Dissenting sects “ National Churches”The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Method Empirical observation Experimentation “ The MechanisticUniverse” Mathematical proofs ThE Enlightenment Reason Individualism Social Contract Theory Inalienable Rights Natural Law T Right of Revolution Science L he iberty T F he ree Market
The Medieval World was a “ Throne and Altar ” society based on a Rule-Set of Feudalism and Monotheism (in Asia the Rule-Set was Confucianism and Caste) You were defined by your birth - serf, peasant, knight, noble - and your belief - Christianity, Islam, Judaism.Nations did not exist yet General religious wars called Crusades and Jihad couldKings or powerful Nobles break out.waged DYNASTIC wars toincrease their family’s The Pope claimed to beholdings and power the leader of all Christians.What you did during a wardepended on your station and The Caliph was theyour lord. leader of all Muslims Eventually, some religious wars saw Muslims fighting Muslims and Christians battling Christians.
The Renaissance Means “Rebirth” - of Humanism, Classical Rebirth Culture & Reason. 1350s- 1650 Renaissance Italy is the home of a cultural explosion – Art, War, Politics, Business, Finance, Literature, PhilosophySpreads to other European countries (not all) Petrarch, Machiavelli, Da Vinci Raphael, Michelangelo, Dante Catholic Church at peak of wealth but power & piety in sharp decline Ignites Age of Exploration, Exploration Reformation and Scientific Revolution
THE REFORMATION Individualism Simplifying Bible based Grace not works Born Again King over Church Fracturing National or LocalMartin “Reform” orLuther purge Church of John Calvin Sin King Henry VIII Radical
Changed how mankind identified knowledge in order to better understand the universeDramatically sped up the rate of cultural evolution, especially technological progress. Sir Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Novum Organum Put as i de ol d i deas , s t udy t he worl d and us e i nduc t i ve reas oni ng ( f rom s pec i f i c f ac t t o t he general The Advancement of Learning pri nc i pal ) Knowledge is power. Practical knowledge is true knowledge Renee Descartes 1596- 1650 Invented coordinate Geometry Discourses on Method Doubt everything not reasonably proven Physical world can be measured, quantified and calculated.
Galileo Copernicus Kepler Laws of Terrestrial Motion Heliocentric Theory Laws of Planetary Motion Rejected PtolemySir Isaac Newton 1642 -1727 Invented Calculus Discovered the Laws of Motion Discovered the Law of Gravity Deeply influenced Western civilization Seek “ scientific explanations” of events proved through mathematics Discoveries influenced Natural Law Theory of Hobbes and Locke