Health & Medicine By : Álvaro Gaita, Nicolas Murga, Augusto Vidal, Miguel Ángel Macias and Adrián Pavón
Some questions to think about it <ul><li>We are going to talk about some questions that explain our topic but also we are going to compare them with present. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the question: </li></ul><ul><li>What are three common diseases? </li></ul><ul><li>What are three common medicines? What are they used for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the lifespan of an average individual? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the educational requirements of doctors (or anyone who is treating others for illness)? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the mortality rate in the 16th century? </li></ul>
What are three common diseases? Past Measles: also called rubeola, is a highly contagious — but rare — respiratory infection that's caused by a virus. It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms, including a fever, cough, and runny nose. Since measles is caused by a virus, symptoms typically go away on their own without medical treatment once the virus has run its course. But a person who is sick should be sure to receive plenty of fluids and rest, and kept from spreading the infection to others. Smallpox: is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor ...Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Between 20 and 60% of all those infected—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.Transmission of smallpox occurs through inhalation of airborne variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal. It is transmitted from one person to another primarily through prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected personSmallpox virus preferentially attacks skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples associated with the disease.. Black-death: The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the most deadly pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis . It probably began in Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late 1340s. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people.
What are three common diseases? <ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis: is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people older than fifty-five years. There are different forms of arthritis; each has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, autoimmune diseases in which the body attacks itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical and occupational therapy, lifestyle changes, and medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer: Cancer is a disease that starts in our cells. Our bodies are made up of millions of cells, grouped together to form tissues and organs such as muscles and bones, the lungs and the liver. Genes inside each cell order it to grow, work, reproduce and die. Normally, our cells obey these orders and we remain healthy. But sometimes the instructions get mixed up, causing the cells to form lumps or tumours, or spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The first sign that a malignant tumour has spread (metastasized) is often swelling of nearby lymph nodes, but cancer can metastasize to almost any part of the body. It is important to find malignant tumours as early as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS : AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.An HIV-positive person receives an AIDS diagnosis after developing one of the CDC-defined AIDS indicator illnesses. An HIV-positive person can also receive an AIDS diagnosis on the basis of certain blood tests and may not have experienced any serious illnesses. A positive HIV test does not mean that a person has AIDS. A diagnosis of AIDS is made by a physician according to the CDC AIDS Case Definition. Over time, infection with HIV can weaken the immune system to the point that the system has difficulty fighting off certain infections. These types of infections are known as opportunistic infections. Many of the infections that cause problems or that can be life-threatening for people with AIDS are usually controlled by a healthy immune system. The immune system of a person with AIDS has weakened to the point that medical intervention may be necessary to prevent or treat serious illness. </li></ul>
What are three common medicines? What are they used for? Past Herbs: they are used for different types of symptoms, depending the type of herb. Humour: The theory stated that within every individual there were four humours, or principal fluids - black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, these were produced by various organs in the body, and they had to be in balance for a person to remain healthy. Too much phlegm in the body, for example, caused lung problems; and the body tried to cough up the phlegm to restore a balance Religion: they thought that if they have a disease the saints and the gods will save them. Present Ibuprofen: It is used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, fever, and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component Amoxicillin: is used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms Paracetamol: is commonly used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains.
What is the lifespan of an average individual? Past In the past life expectancy before the health transition of the modern era is thought to have varied between about 20 years and 60 years. WHY: Also, the life expectancy for women was lower throughout history than it was for men; because, until modern medicine, one in four women died in childbirth. If you survived childhood you could expect to live into your old age in any time throughout history Present Today There are also variations because women live 5 years less than men . But the lifespan of an average individual is between 20 and 80 years WHY: Because these gender differences have been lessening in recent with men living five years more than women. the life for men today is being reduce because if you smoke you have more probabilities dyeing more faster.
What are the educational requirements of doctors (or anyone who is treating others for illness)? Past In order to become a doctor after the XV century, one had to study for up to six years in a school. For this reason, doctors began to improve and they were given more importance as medieval people realized that the power of God did exist - but not in everything Present After we complete 4-6years of education in the medical school we enter post-graduation, paid employment. After that if you are successful, you will go through about 5 years of training to become a specialist.
What was the mortality rate in the 16th century? Past The mortality rate in the 16 century was about 50 thousands up to 10 millions because the were a lot of diseases like: the black death ,measles ,etc. Present The mortality rate now is about 50 thousands up to 8 millions because of the advantage of the technology and the medicine
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.