Abril and Martin
Britain: birthplace of the industrial
Before the advent of the Industrial Revolution,
most people resided in small, rural communities
where their daily life was about farming.
Life for the average person was difficult. People produced
the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most
manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops,
Why was Britain the first country to
This change, which occurred between 1750
and 1830, happened because conditions
were perfect in Britain for the Industrial
Revolution. Having used wood for heat
instead of coal, Britain was left with large
deposits of coal remaining to fuel the new
The Product and Market were the simple requirements, and many countries had
them. What set Britain apart from the others, however, were three unique
❖ "modern" work attitudes
❖ “modern" government.
Great Britain had a larger educated workforce to run the machines and
create manuals. The population in Great Britain was ready to move out of
the country and to the city to work. Britain, also had the large middle class
and flexible mercantile class necessary.
Lastly, Britain's government, a long-time constitutional monarchy, was just
It is not only necessary to have people with money.
They must also be prepared to risk losing that
money in order to make new commercial
In Britain this "middle class "existed; in the rest of Europe it did
not. This was because the British middle class not only had
money, they also had political power (which made them unique in
Europe). This meant that they had the power to abolish the old
laws which, up to then, had discouraged trade, commerce and
profit, and introduce new laws.
During the 18th. century Britain had built up a large colonial
empire. If the
populations of this empire wanted to purchase manufactured
products, they had no choice other than to buy British goods. With
time this empire grew enormously, at the expense of Britain’s major
rivals, France, Spain and Holland, and the " captive market " for
British goods grew in consequence. Even the loss of the United
States made little difference to Britain economically. For over half a
century, the U.S.A. would be a major market for British manufactured
products while the Americans created their own manufacturing base.
Many regions of Europe were often rich in raw materials but were so far from
major rivers that they were ignored. Britain, by contrast, was aided by its small size
❖ A growth in demand - a result of the growth in population, but also
because of the opening up of the export market
❖ Technological change and innovation - the use of machinery
❖ The use of unskilled, cheap labour
❖ A move to bigger units of production - the factory system
❖ A change in location, away from south-east of England. - the first
factories were situated in the hills of Lancashire and Yorkshire near to
fast-flowing streams, which could power the water-wheels. With the
❖Commercial chambers and banks were
❖Companies and corporations
❖A high degree of productivity of labor
❖ Large cities appeared and became industrial centers.
❖ The emergence of two classes of capitalist society: the
industrial bourgeoisie and industrial proletariat . The 2
large social groups : capitalist and worker.
❖ The rapid development of the economy led to an
increase of luxury and wealth of the bourgeoisie and in
turn, poverty and destitution in the working masses.
❖ The population concentrated in cities with industrial
❖ Mass production cheapened many items. And thus
improved living conditions .
❖ Domestic work was shorter
❖ The customs of the family´s changed as women began
The industrial Revolution changed nearly all aspects of life
through new inventions, new legislation, and spawned a
As a result of many new inventions such as the steam engine,
locomotive and powered looms production and transportation of goods
radically changed. With new mechanized machinery factories could be
built and used to mass-produce goods at a rate that human labor could
As a result…