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Running Water and Groundwater

Running Water and Groundwater






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    Running Water and Groundwater Running Water and Groundwater Presentation Transcript

    • The Water Cycle
      • Water constantly moves among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere.
      • Water Cycle Processes
      • Ev ap oration – liquid water gains enough energy to become water vapor, water evaporates from the oceans to a lesser extent the continents
      • Condensation – water vapor cools and becomes liquid water
      • Precipitation – rain or snow falls to the Earth
      • Transpiration – water absorbed by plants is released to the atmosphere
      • Infiltration – the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces
      • Run-off – excess precipitation flows into streams, rivers and lakes
      • The Earth’s Water balance – the amount of precipitation equals the amount of evaporation
      • Streams
      • Gravity pulls water downhill
      • Maximum velocity is in the center of the channel
      • The work of stream includes erosion , transportation , and deposition
      • Base level is the lowest point to which a stream can erode . Sea level is the ultimate base level. Lakes are temporary base levels
      • Dams create a temporary base level. Upstream of the dam, the stream loses velocity and sediment deposits, forming a delta. After the dam, the increased velocity of the stream erodes the channel.
      • Streams transport sediment in three ways: dissolved load , suspended load , and bed load , rolling or scooting along the bottom of the stream.
      • Deposition – well-sorted material deposited by a stream is called alluvium
      • Delta – when a stream enters a still body of water, its velocity stops abruptly and the sediment drops out forming a delta
      • Natural levees – form parallel to the channel, when the stream overflows its banks and the velocity immediately slows and deposits the sediment
    • Factors influencing stream velocity
      • Gradient – the slope
      • The steeper the slope, the more energy the stream has as it flows downhill
      • Stream Channel – course the water flows
      • The smoother the channel, the easier water can flow
      • Discharge – the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time.
      • As the size of the stream increases, there is less friction, and the water flows more easily. To calculate stream discharge you multiply the velocity of the stream by the area.
      • The velocity of a stream is actually greatest at the mouth
      • Even though the gradient decreases from the headwaters to the mouth of the stream, the discharge increases .
    • Stream Profile
      • Headwaters – young streams, mountain streams, steep, V-shaped valleys, rough stream beds increase friction, cold, downcutting due to erosion is rapid, little or no floodplains, waterfalls and rapids
      • Mature Stream – downward erosion diminishes and lateral erosion dominates to begin to create a floodplain and meanders, the gradient is much lower and the profile is much smoother
      • Mouth – old age, floodplain is several times wider than meander belt, sifts rapidly, floodplain dotted with oxbow lakes and old cutoffs. Natural levees, backswamps, and yazoo tributaries are features.
    • Oxbow Lakes
      • Rejuvenated Streams – old age streams uplifted and made young again. Downcutting again occurs and causes entrenched meanders and new higher floodplains
      • Meanders – stream that flow on floodplains move in sweeping bends, eroding sideways
      • The sideway movement occurs because the maximum velocity of the stream is on the outside of the bend, causing erosion of the outer bank. This is called the cut bank.
      • Reduced erosion on the inside meander results in the deposition of sediment and is called the point bar.