What is Digital Storytelling? Digital Storytelling is a process of creating a short movie -script or an original story -images, video, music -narration Basically, Digital Storytelling is a process of creating a short movie that combines a script or an original story with various multimedia components such as images, video, music and a narration, often an author’s own voice. The stories can be between 2-10 minutes. Center for Digital Storytelling (CDS) is an early pioneer Examples of digital stories began to appear in the early 1990s and coincided with the increased availability of computer and multimedia technology (Paull, 2002). The non-profit Center for Digital Storytelling (CDS) was an early pioneer in the field and provided some of the first examples of digital stories. CDS assisted people in using digital multimedia tools to tell autobiographical stories as short video pieces (Paull, 2002). They still conduct workshops and are recognized for publications such as “Cookbook for Digital Storytelling” Some sample uses in education An ever increasing number of K-12 teachers are using Digital Storytelling as an exciting way of teaching content in the classroom (Weiss, Benmayor, O&apos;Leary & Eynon, 2002). -teaching content -empowering students -teaching writing, -meeting technology standards An ever increasing number of K-12 teachers are using Digital Storytelling as an exciting way of teaching content in the classroom (Weiss, Benmayor, O&apos;Leary & Eynon, 2002). It has been used in the classroom for various purposes such as -teaching content to the students, -empowering students by making them active researchers and storytellers, -teaching writing, -meeting technology standards such as (ISTE) International Society for Technology in Education Technology Standards -and building communities through storytelling
Dearth of research on DS. There are few research studies that show the use of Digital Storytelling as an educational tool in the classroom. Especially how it can be used effectively in the classroom. LITE initiated a series of workshops at the University of Houston In light of current research on effective use of Digital Storytelling in K-12 education, (LITE) at the University of Houston initiated a series of workshops on Digital Storytelling and its uses in education for teachers. Goal of the workshops was to introduce educators to DS to explore how it can be used as an effective teaching tool in their classrooms.
Learn about the different types of digital stories. Learn about the different types of digital stories that can be created by students and instructors. Examine the elements of digital stories. Examine the most common elements of Digital Storytelling. Acquire hands-on experience. Acquire hands-on experience using computer-based software to design and create their digital stories. Gain theoretical knowledge about how DS can be used to promote 21st century skills. Gain theoretical knowledge about how Digital Storytelling can be used to promote 21st century skills ESPECIALLY students’ research and writing skills as well as technology skills. Investigate the most important considerations for educators who want to begin integrating DS. Investigate the most important considerations for educators who want to begin integrating Digital Storytelling in their instruction.
Specifically, the research will investigate if and how teachers incorporated DS in the classroom, and what kind of problems they faced in the implementation process.
In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the following questions will be addressed:
This is the outline of the methodology chapter.
In Survey I, participants were asked whether they were familiar with digital storytelling before they registered for the workshop, what they thought digital storytelling was, and how they might use it in the classroom. 77.4% of the participants indicated that they were not familiar with digital storytelling before the workshop Two main themes emerged from the analysis of the open ended question item in Survey I, “What do you think digital storytelling is?” Most of the participants’ responses fell into the “telling a story using various media/technology components” category
Several survey items were used to find an answer to this research question. One survey item from Instrument I asked if the teachers were aware of digital storytelling before registering for the workshop; 77.4% of them reported that they were not familiar with digital storytelling Almost all of the teachers (except 2) who trained in the workshop said that they would use digital stories in the classroom after the workshop, there is no way to tell how many of these teachers actually used digital storytelling in the classroom. This was mainly because not all of these teachers had responded to the second survey. The results of the second survey, which only constituted 58% of the original respondents, show that half of the respondents to the second survey used digital stories in the classroom. Out of 18 people who responded to the second survey, half did not use digital storytelling in the classroom. As seen in Table 11, from those teachers who used digital storytelling, 25% reported that they had created a digital story of their own at least once, used a digital story created by others, or used a digital story created by themselves and others.
Three main themes emerged from responses for the open ended item, “How do you think you might use digital storytelling?” in Survey I. As shown in Table 13, most of the responses for the use of digital storytelling in the classroom fell into “teaching a subject or content area” category. Analysis of open-ended question item in Survey II “How did you and your students use digital stories in the classroom?” revealed two themes: “projects that are created by students” and “teacher created stories to teach content” (See Table 14). Even though teachers who never used DS in classroom before predicted that they would use DS mainly for “Teaching a subject or content area” and also “Student projects or presentations” along with other purposes, it turned out to be that teachers who actually used DS in class used DS for only those two purposes in fact half used it for “Teaching a subject or content area” and the other half “Student projects or presentations” Same teachers also said that in the future they plan to have students to create DS (29.4%) more than themselves, which is a different anticipation than the anticipation of teachers after the workshop. Some of the examples of digital stories by students included a video yearbook, history fair project, descriptions of field trips taken, and social and science investigations presentations. Example uses for “teacher created stories to teach content” included using digital stories as opposed to PowerPoint, highlighting a time in history, and sharing personal experiences.
In conclusion, even though teachers perceived that digital storytelling would help their students primarily with presentation skills, more teachers who actually used it in the classroom selected “students’ technical skills increased” as a response than “their presentation skills increased.” Teachers also reported that there was an increase in students’ media literacy skills. Overall, digital stories were reported to have positive effects on students’ 21st century skills. These results were in line with what was found in the literature. As seen in Table 16, perceived impacts on students included “research skills,” “organizational skills,” “writing skills,” “technical skills,” and “presentation skills.” A large majority of the participants indicated that they would see an impact on the “presentation skills” of their students (74.2%). Only 58.1 percent felt that digital storytelling would impact students’ “technical skills.” As can be seen in Table 17, the analysis of the question items on “impacts” in Survey II yielded mean scores of between 3 and 4 for each question. A mean scale score close to the value of 5 indicates that the participants’ “strongly agreed” with the statement and a mean scale score close the value of 1 would indicate that the participants “strongly disagreed” with the statement. Therefore participants were mostly neutral about these statements. “Increase in technical skills” had the highest mean with 3.90 among all the impacts. When participants were asked about perceived impacts on students in Survey I, “presentation skills” was rated highest among all categories with 74.2%. “Technical skills” were rated to have the least impact by the teachers (See, Table 16). The same question (observed impacts on the students) was asked in Likert-style form in Instrument II. However, this time “increase in technical skills” had the highest mean among all the impacts, while “increase in presentation skills” and “increase in engagement level” had the second highest mean value (See, Table 17).
As seen in Table 18, “personal or narrative stories” were the most used digital story types according to Survey II respondents, followed by “stories that inform or instruct” and “stories that re-tell historical events.” Results for interview question “Was there a cross-curriculum use of digital storytelling in your school?” revealed that all of the teachers shared digital stories with other teachers in their schools. Interviewee #3 reported that an English teacher in her school implemented digital storytelling after she gave a mini-workshop on digital storytelling in the school. Interviewee #1 also exchanged digital stories for cross-curriculum purposes in her school. Since Interviewee #2 was teaching all subjects to his 5th grade students, he explained that he used digital storytelling in various subjects, such as history, science and creative writing.
Three main impacts emerged from the analysis of the research data results: impacts on 21st century skills, impacts on motivation and engagement level, and impacts on special groups of students. When students actively participate in the creation process of digital storytelling, they most notably develop certain 21st century skills, such as information literacy, visual literacy, technological literacy, and media literacy; (Howell & Howell, 2003; Jakes, 2006; Robin, in press). Observed Impacts on Students
The high rating of “increase in technical skills” than other impacts in second survey might be explained by differences between the two survey participants. It was explained later in the chapter that respondents to the second survey were more technologically proficient; (THEY PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO TECHNICAL SKILLS) they anticipated fewer problems; they had better access to technology; and they had more time and possibilities for using digital stories in the classroom. (OBSERVATION) Also, even though teachers anticipated that digital stories would mostly “increase [students’] presentation skills” right after the workshop, once they used digital stories in class with students, they saw that digital stories actually had more impact on “technical skills” than the others.
Another important effect observed by teachers was the increased motivation and engagement levels of their students. Teachers believed that creating digital stories increased their students’ motivation and engagement levels. Results also suggest that the reason digital storytelling captures so much of students’ attention and makes them motivated is the “director’s chair effect” (Paull, 2002) and being able to express themselves (Banaszewski, 2005). One of the important points of using digital storytelling is that the whole process of creating a digital story from scratch puts the author of the story in the “director’s chair.” (Banaszewski, 2005; Paull, 2002) This gives students a chance for self-expression by creating their own movies. Studies have suggested personal narrative types of digital storytelling are especially effective in representing an individual’s voice, and they provide valuable opportunities for identity construction (Banaszewski, 2005). The researcher wanted to know what motivating factor in digital storytelling captured students’ attention and interest. Therefore, interviewees were asked what they thought on this issue. Interviewee #1-believed “Director’s chair” and “chance of self expression” It [creating digital stories] is an expansion of their [students’] electronic skills and an educational avenue they didn’t explore before, so they get to have sound and image, writing and put it all together. It is like they are creating a new Hollywood. (Interview with Interviewee #1, 5/31/2006) -Increased technical skills, increased presentation skills, and increased motivational levels of students Their [students’] technical skills certainly improved magnificently, but it [digital storytelling] also generated greater interest in history or in political science. They were able to research and many times could select their own topics with my approval and so it generated a more whole interest in history and in conducting historical research. (Interview with Interviewee #1, 5/31/2006) Interviewee #2 also expressed that his students were able to go more in depth. He also thought that this was because they had to present their projects: They [students] would do a little more research than if they were just writing a paper. They knew that they weren’t just writing a research paper and turning it into me. They were going to be presenting this material to me and to their peers and oftentimes to the greater school community and their parents. We do a world bazaar where each classroom either picks a country or an area. We did this year for the world bazaar, we did South America. And the students created digital stories about the country they were researching on the continent of South America. Then we had a school wide sort of bazaar where they would set up their laptops out in the common area and then people came by and put the headphones on and watched their digital story about the country. (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006) Another effect observed by Interviewee #1 was increased levels of presentation skills with the students: They became very poised, very confident in making presentations standing before a class and starting, “this is the beginning”, and “here is the end”, and “do you have any questions”, and being able to respond to those questions. But they became much more sophisticated. --------- -Two of the interviewed teachers thought that digital storytelling strategy had an affect on students’ academic performance When interviewee #1 was asked this question, she explained: “Yes. It [using digital storytelling] made them [students] more excited even about coming to class.” Interviewee #2 pointed out that students really enjoyed working with digital stories; in return it had a positive effect on their academic performance: Especially I think that the students that may have been less than motivated about just writing a paper did see academic improvement because they actually enjoyed making the digital stories. So it became that they were more “into” it because it seemed less academic and more creative. (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006) “What do you think that made students motivated about digital storytelling?” Interviewee #1 explained why she thought that students were very motivated with the digital storytelling approach: “It is expansion of their electronic skills and also a new avenue to explore. It’s like they’re creating the new Hollywood” (Interview with Interviewee #1, 5/31/2006). According to Interviewee #2, simply getting to use computers and technology while creating digital stories was a motivating factor for his students: “They are 21st century kids and they like to do anything on the computer. It motivated them to a higher degree, I believe” (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006). Interviewee #3 thought that creating a story about themselves and having the chance of self expression made them very motivated about the project: “I think that this is absolutely, by far, their favorite project to do. It was an inspiration for most of them; they were so inspired to create… that they got to tell a story about themselves” (Interview with Interviewee #3, 5/31/2006). All of the interviewees had something to say about their students’ increased motivation and engagement levels due to use of digital stories in the classroom. For example, Interviewee #2 said: “In creating stories for their oral presentations, they were able to go more in depth; they would like to have 10 or 20 slides, so they would do a little more research than just writing a paper” (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006). Interviewee #3 explains her situation in the classroom: “This was absolutely by far their favorite project to do. It was an inspiration for most of them. They were so inspired to create a story. They got to tell a story about themselves” (Interview with Interviewee #3, 5/31/2006). Interviewee #1 also agreed that her digital storytelling project with her students “made them more excited even about coming to class.”
The third theme, which emerged from both instruments and interviews, was impacts on special group of students. The survey results showed a pattern similar to what has been stated in the literature about the impacts of digital storytelling on special groups of students (Salpeter, 2005; Weiss, 2002). Positive impacts on special groups of students were one of the three main themes that emerged from the survey data. Interviews also supported this idea. In response to an open-ended question item, one of the teachers who used digital storytelling made the following observation about the students: “Students felt more confident about their work.” Another teacher stated, in response to an open-ended question item, that digital stories can be used for targeted groups of students: “We have some students who are new to our school and to the USA. I would like to have them create a digital story that explains to others who come along in the future, the essential knowledge they must have to survive as a student. I also would like for them to share about their home country and culture with others through digital storytelling. I am also currently planning a project with an English teacher to have students complete a digital story to describe themselves through theme music for their lives.” Interviewee #2 also indicated that he saw benefits, especially with his “marginal students”: I found it [digital storytelling] to be very helpful for the students that are marginal. This was a way to engage them, to allow them to be successful, to allow them to create a product that was visually pleasing and instructional for their peers, so it was able to really mainstream these students that are low performing students. They were very happy with their product. When they went home, they made sure their parents downloaded the program so that they could show their presentations. (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006) When he was asked who “marginal students” were, he explained: By marginal students, I mean special education students; lower performing students, academically; students who may be operating barely in that grade level; students that are a result of inclusion; and learning disabled students. Maybe they couldn’t get up in front of the class with a paper they have written and orally present this paper, but they can get up in front of the class and, with a digital story going on, coming up to a computer through a digital projector and talking about that. So it is not like they are presenting a dry research paper, they are just talking about this subject they have done some studying about. It gives them a level of involvement that they might not have; it puts them more on a level with their peers. (Interview with Interviewee #2, 5/31/2006)
As seen in Table 19, “time issues” was the overwhelmingly an expected problem among all the barriers anticipated by the participants in Survey I. However in Survey II, “access to hardware” was the highest ranked barrier followed by “time issues.” Surprisingly, lack of technical assistance and support was not reported as a problem at all (See Table 20). Open-ended responses for “access to hardware” revealed what kind of problems participants had. Responses revolved around students not having access to computers, schools having outdated computers or lacking computer labs, and getting to a computer lab were problems for the teachers. Time issues were also a reported barrier for not using digital stories in the classroom. Especially with so much emphasis on “testing,” there would not be enough time for teachers to integrate digital storytelling into their teaching. Even though the teachers did not report “access to software” as a serious problem, open-ended responses indicated that some teachers had problems with access to software. These problems included software not approved by the district, not having the necessary software installed in the lab computers, and not having the necessary operating system to run the software. Interviewed teachers didn’t report major problems. One of the Interviewed teachers biggest problem was not having computers in the classroom. She had to have her students create their digital stories at home, and most of the work was given as homework.
The participants in Survey Instrument I indicated that “time issues” would be the biggest problem for implementing digital storytelling in the classroom; however, teachers who actually tried to use digital storytelling in the classroom reported that “access to hardware” was the biggest problem for them. In survey II, “time issues” was the second most reported barrier. In line with: Lacking time to explore the new technology tools is considered one of the biggest barriers to the successful implementation of technology tools in the classroom (Rodriguez & Knuth, 2000). The ACOT study also concluded that if teachers have more time to explore a specific technology tool, they are more likely to use it and keep using it (Apple Inc., 1995). In the case of lack of computers in the classroom, teachers tended to have students create digital stories at home. For example, interviewee #1 said “We had no computers in the class. So, everything was homework; they did all the technical work at home.” Surprisingly, lack of technical assistance and support was not reported as a problem at all (See Table 39). This might have been due to more technologically proficient teachers responding to the second survey.
This section will describe some of the results that were not intended to be researched but that emerged after the analysis of the research data. These considerations might be used for further research studies about digital storytelling. Interviewee #1 explained how digital storytelling had an effect on her teaching style: For one thing it [digital storytelling] allowed me to incorporate more technology into the curriculum; for another thing, it enabled us to cover more material faster, and it certainly created greater excitement in the classroom rather than my lecturing or even my showing a PowerPoint presentation; this is something that they [students] had generated, so they took great ownership of the class. (Interview with Interviewee #1, 5/31/2006) Interviewee #2 was also one of those teachers who believed that digital storytelling had changed his teaching style, which was “now more dynamic.” He elaborated on this effect as follows: It [digital storytelling] is not just lecture or presenting the material. I think it added another dimension to my teaching style. When I would use ‘PhotoStory3’ to present material myself, it just raised my teaching style to another level. Because it is much more versatile, exciting tool then just say “PowerPoint”. I find it to be a great tool because it is easy to use. (Interview, 5/31/2006) Another teacher also pointed out that what she liked most about creating digital stories was that it was easy to create them with the tools and resources available, such as Photo Story 3 and digital images. These results indicate that teachers find creating digital stories with Photo Story 3 software easy to learn and to teach; therefore, digital storytelling has the potential of spreading and being accepted in K-12 educational settings.
Digital storytelling definitely has the potential to be a widely used educational teaching tool or strategy in K-12 education if it is used effectively in the classroom. Similar to other educational technology tools, the successful implementation of digital storytelling will depend on various factors, such as access to technology, proper training of the users, and on-going technical support. One remarkable thing about using digital stories in the classroom is that teachers can really draw students’ attention and have them work on a subject easily. As the survey results show, this phenomenon might be explained by the director’s chair effect , the chance for self expression, and simply the opportunity to use computers in education. One problem that consistently hindered the researcher during the study was the lack of structured research on digital stories. The review of the existing literature, however, revealed a general consensus that digital storytelling has received positive reviews from educators. It was, therefore, immediately recognized for its potential. Future success and the persistence of digital storytelling will depend on more effective and broad research studies on various aspects of digital storytelling. The following section will list possible research topics for future researchers.
IMPLEMENTATION OFIMPLEMENTATION OF
DIGITAL STORYTELLINGDIGITAL STORYTELLING
IN THE CLASSROOMIN THE CLASSROOM
TEACHERS TRAINED INTEACHERS TRAINED IN
A DIGITAL STORYTELLINGA DIGITAL STORYTELLING
WORKSHOP (Brief Paper)WORKSHOP (Brief Paper)
SITE 2008SITE 2008
by Bulent Dogan, Ed.D.by Bulent Dogan, Ed.D.
Dr. Bernard Robin, Ph. D.Dr. Bernard Robin, Ph. D.
University of HoustonUniversity of Houston
Digital Storytelling (DS)Digital Storytelling (DS)
DS: process of creating a short movieDS: process of creating a short movie
– Script or an original storyScript or an original story
– Images, video, musicImages, video, music
– 2-10 minutes2-10 minutes
Some sample uses in educationSome sample uses in education
– Teaching contentTeaching content
– Empowering studentsEmpowering students
– Teaching writingTeaching writing
– Meeting technology standards (Banaszewski, 2002; Salpeter,Meeting technology standards (Banaszewski, 2002; Salpeter,
2005; Weiss, Benmayor, O'Leary & Eynon, 2002).2005; Weiss, Benmayor, O'Leary & Eynon, 2002).
The Laboratory for InnovativeThe Laboratory for Innovative
Technology in Education (LITE)Technology in Education (LITE)
Dearth of research on DSDearth of research on DS
LITE workshops at the University of HoustonLITE workshops at the University of Houston
– Elementary, Middle, High school teachersElementary, Middle, High school teachers
– Summer 2005Summer 2005
– DS and its uses in education.DS and its uses in education.
Goal of the workshopsGoal of the workshops
– to introduce educators to DSto introduce educators to DS
– to explore how it can be used as an effective teaching tool into explore how it can be used as an effective teaching tool in
their classrooms.their classrooms.
Workshop ObjectivesWorkshop Objectives
Learn about the different types of digital stories.Learn about the different types of digital stories.
Examine the elements of digital stories.Examine the elements of digital stories.
Acquire hands-on experience.Acquire hands-on experience.
How DS can be used to promote 21How DS can be used to promote 21stst
century skills.century skills.
Important considerations for educators who want toImportant considerations for educators who want to
begin integrating DS.begin integrating DS.
Purpose of the studyPurpose of the study
To document teachers’ use of DS in the classroom afterTo document teachers’ use of DS in the classroom after
attending the workshop at the UH.attending the workshop at the UH.
Research questionsResearch questions
1.1. To what extent do teachers trained in theTo what extent do teachers trained in the
University of Houston’s DS workshop integrateUniversity of Houston’s DS workshop integrate
DS in the classroom?DS in the classroom?
2.2. If they have used digital stories in theIf they have used digital stories in the
classroom, in what ways have they been usedclassroom, in what ways have they been used
by the teachers? What purpose did teachersby the teachers? What purpose did teachers
have in using digital stories in the classroom?have in using digital stories in the classroom?
3.3. If they were not used, what were the barriersIf they were not used, what were the barriers
that kept teachers from using DS in thethat kept teachers from using DS in the
Research DesignResearch Design
– Instrument IInstrument I
– Instrument IIInstrument II
Data CollectionData Collection
Data Analysis ProceduresData Analysis Procedures
Results for Research Question 1Results for Research Question 1
77.4% of the participants unaware of DS before the workshop77.4% of the participants unaware of DS before the workshop
Half of the respondents didn’t use DS in the classroom.Half of the respondents didn’t use DS in the classroom.
How did you use it? Who used it?How did you use it? Who used it?
– ““I created my own digital stories” –the most selected responseI created my own digital stories” –the most selected response
– ““I used digital stories created by others”I used digital stories created by others”
– ““I had my students to create their own”I had my students to create their own”
Frequency: Digital Stories createdFrequency: Digital Stories created
– ByBy students- the most frequently usedstudents- the most frequently used
– By self and othersBy self and others
– By selfBy self
Interpretations for Research Question IInterpretations for Research Question I
Survey I: Almost all teachers wanted to use DSSurvey I: Almost all teachers wanted to use DS
Response rate: 58%Response rate: 58%
Only half of the respondents (in Survey II) used DS in theOnly half of the respondents (in Survey II) used DS in the
Results for Research Question 2Results for Research Question 2
Sample usesSample uses
– By studentsBy students
Video yearbook,Video yearbook,
History fair project,History fair project,
Description of field trips taken,Description of field trips taken,
Social and science investigations, etc..Social and science investigations, etc..
– By TeachersBy Teachers
As opposed to PowerPointAs opposed to PowerPoint
Highlighting a time in historyHighlighting a time in history
Sharing personal experiencesSharing personal experiences
Teaching a subject matterTeaching a subject matter
– Perceived use vs. Emerged themesPerceived use vs. Emerged themes
Perceived in Survey IPerceived in Survey I
– ““teaching a subject or content area” (46%),teaching a subject or content area” (46%),
– ““student projects or presentations” (29%),student projects or presentations” (29%),
– ““supplement curriculum” (6%).supplement curriculum” (6%).
Emerged Themes in Survey IIEmerged Themes in Survey II
– ““teaching a subject or content area” (50%),teaching a subject or content area” (50%),
– ““student projects or presentations” (50%),student projects or presentations” (50%),
Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)
Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)
Perceived vs. Observed impacts on studentsPerceived vs. Observed impacts on students
– Perceived impactsPerceived impacts (Survey I)(Survey I)
““Presentation skills” was rated highest 74.2%.Presentation skills” was rated highest 74.2%.
““Technical skills” were rated to have the least impactTechnical skills” were rated to have the least impact
– Observed impactsObserved impacts (Survey II)(Survey II)
““Increase in technical skills” had the highest meanIncrease in technical skills” had the highest mean
“ ““ “increase in engagement level” had the second highest meanincrease in engagement level” had the second highest mean
Increase in presentation skills”Increase in presentation skills”
Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)
Further ImplementationFurther Implementation
Types of Digital StoriesTypes of Digital Stories
– In Survey IIIn Survey II
Personal or narrative stories (52%)Personal or narrative stories (52%)
Stories that inform or instruct (47%)Stories that inform or instruct (47%)
Stories that re-tell historical events (35%)Stories that re-tell historical events (35%)
Cross-Curriculum UseCross-Curriculum Use
– All interviewed teachers shared DS with other teachersAll interviewed teachers shared DS with other teachers
Interpretations for Research Question IIInterpretations for Research Question II
Broad range of ideasBroad range of ideas on the use of DSon the use of DS
3 main themes emerged from the data:3 main themes emerged from the data:
– impacts on 21st century skills,impacts on 21st century skills,
– impacts on motivation and engagement level,impacts on motivation and engagement level,
– impacts on special groups of students.impacts on special groups of students.
The creation process of DS and 21st century skillsThe creation process of DS and 21st century skills
Interpretations for Research Question II (Cont’d)Interpretations for Research Question II (Cont’d)
Technical skills vs. Presentation SkillsTechnical skills vs. Presentation Skills
Possible explanation:Possible explanation:
– Differences between the two survey participantsDifferences between the two survey participants
– observation resultsobservation results
Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)Results for Research Question 2 (cont’d)
Interview QuestionsInterview Questions
Motivation factor & “Director’s chair” Effect (Banaszewski, 2005;Motivation factor & “Director’s chair” Effect (Banaszewski, 2005;
Paull, 2002)Paull, 2002)
Interviewed TeachersInterviewed Teachers
– ““It’s like they’re creating the new Hollywood”It’s like they’re creating the new Hollywood”
– ““Getting to use computers and technology” ”21Getting to use computers and technology” ”21stst
century kids”century kids”
– Chance of self expression: “They were so inspired to create… that they got toChance of self expression: “They were so inspired to create… that they got to
tell a story about themselves”tell a story about themselves”
Students’ academic performanceStudents’ academic performance
Interpretations for Research Question II (Cont’d)Interpretations for Research Question II (Cont’d)
Impacts of DS on special groups of students (Salpeter,Impacts of DS on special groups of students (Salpeter,
2005; Weiss, 2002).2005; Weiss, 2002).
– Interviewed teachers:Interviewed teachers:
““Students felt more confident about their work.” –Response to anStudents felt more confident about their work.” –Response to an
open-ended itemopen-ended item
Another teacher: DS for targeted groups of students, such asAnother teacher: DS for targeted groups of students, such as
students who are new to U.S.students who are new to U.S.
Interviewee #2 saw benefits with his “marginal students”Interviewee #2 saw benefits with his “marginal students”
Results for Research Question 3Results for Research Question 3
Expected problem: “Time issues”Expected problem: “Time issues”
Results: “Access to hardware”Results: “Access to hardware”
Lack of technical assistance and support: No problemLack of technical assistance and support: No problem
Open-ended responsesOpen-ended responses
Interviewed teachers: no major problems.Interviewed teachers: no major problems.
Interpretations for Research Question IIIInterpretations for Research Question III
““Time issues” vs. “Access to hardware”Time issues” vs. “Access to hardware”
““Access to software” : also a problemAccess to software” : also a problem
““Lack of technical assistance and support”Lack of technical assistance and support”
– Possibly due to more technologically proficient teachers inPossibly due to more technologically proficient teachers in
Survey IISurvey II
Other results/considerationsOther results/considerations
Teaching StyleTeaching Style
– Interviewed teachersInterviewed teachers
Digital Storytelling Outside of the ClassroomDigital Storytelling Outside of the Classroom
– Both survey results indicated thisBoth survey results indicated this
– Other teachers or family membersOther teachers or family members
– potential uses for DS outside of the classroompotential uses for DS outside of the classroom
Digital Stories: Easy to Use, Learn and TeachDigital Stories: Easy to Use, Learn and Teach
– One of the 5 themesOne of the 5 themes
– easy to create and teach with available resourceseasy to create and teach with available resources
Photo Story 3Photo Story 3
digital images.digital images.
Future Potential of DSFuture Potential of DS
Future Potential in K-12Future Potential in K-12
Implementation of DS depends onImplementation of DS depends on
– access to technology,access to technology,
– proper training of the users,proper training of the users,
– and on-going technical support.and on-going technical support.
Remarkable FEATURES about DS:Remarkable FEATURES about DS:
– creates motivationcreates motivation
– draws attention easilydraws attention easily
Motivating factorsMotivating factors
– director’s chair effect ,director’s chair effect ,
– the chance for self expression,the chance for self expression,
– opportunity to use computersopportunity to use computers
Future ResearchFuture Research
Lack of structured research on DS in classroomLack of structured research on DS in classroom
General consensus: positive reviews from educators.General consensus: positive reviews from educators.
Effective and broad research studies on various aspects ofEffective and broad research studies on various aspects of
DS is neededDS is needed
THANK YOU!THANK YOU!
– For more informationFor more information
– a copy of detailed power point version ofa copy of detailed power point version of
this presentationthis presentation
– Research ideas and projectsResearch ideas and projects