La Toya Jackson Review Paper- PowerPoint Presentation Advanced General Psychology April 15, 2011 Dr. Dana Hardy
The fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classifies, defines, and describes over 200 mental disorders. DSM-IV-TR emphasizes the description of symptom patterns and courses of disorders, rather than etiological theories or treatments (Argosy University, 2011
Axis I (Clinical Disorders) : This section presents symptoms or patterns of behavioral or psychological problems that typically are painful or impair an area of functioning. Disorders are presented as symptom clusters and by disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence versus adulthood (Argosy University, 2011).
Diagnostic and Statically Manual of Mental Disorder
Bipolar disorder involves episodes of both major depression and mania.
Bipolar disorder has become a controversial area within the field of children mental health Carlson (1990).
The disagreement is about the increase of bipolar disorder in childhood/adolescents and the increase in the diagnoses. Although it’s not uncommon, much is not known about the disease which avails to further discussion.
Child and adolescent mania
There are several bipolar risk factors that may increase an individual's chances of developing the disorder, including family medical history, drug abuse, engaging in high stress activities and mourning the loss of loved ones or other major life changes Martin (2006).
Risk factors that increase your likelihood of manifesting bipolar disorder
The number of visits to a doctors office that resulted in a diagnosis of Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents has increase by 40 times over the last decade, reported researchers funded in part by National Institutes (NIH). Scientist are yet unsure of the reasons for this increase Merikangas, Kathleen R (2011) although the recorded number of cases may have simply risen as a result of increased awareness of the disease which in turn led to an increase in the prevalence of diagnoses the fact there is an increase in the disease among children is somewhat amazing. This presentation will review several studies in order to explore the reason for the increase in diagnoses in childhood/adolescent bipolar disorder. It is hypothesized that the increase is due to the lack of understanding of how Bipolar disorder affects childhood/adolescents.
Strengths & Weakness in studies
In the articles or studies reviewed there were prevailing arguments in the literature that stated how the disorder affected males and female (genetics). According to Craddick & Jones (1999) Unfortunately both males and females can get this disease.
Bipolar disorder in males or females is a complex disorder that ranges in extreme mood disturbance and severe depression that consequently affects thinking and behavior
a strength in this study is that it identified that both males and females childhood/adolescent can have bipolar disorder and that it doesn’t only occur in one gender.
Strengths and weakness in studies
This article critically reviews the evidence from controlled trials of these proposed “mood stabilizers”, highlighting the strengths and limitation of the data for each compound Mitchell & Malhi (2002). The strength of this article signifies how mood swings can be with a child or adolescent who has a Bipolar disorder. The history of mania in children and adolescent extends back at least Kraepelin who recognized the condition about 3% of patient by age 15 and almost 28% by age 20 (Kraepelin, 1992).
The controversy regarding the frequent mania and mania depression in childhood and adolescent has been an issue for three reasons.
1. The defined childhood and adolescent disorder separately.
2. They had criteria to define the two distinctions of childhood and adolescent disorder.
3. They demonstrated the continuity of pre-pubertal manic depression with the adult disorder by describing a 12 yr old boy whose episodes continued into adulthood.
Evidence Based Assessment
Marsh & Hunsley (2005) states the main purpose of this section is to encourage greater attention to evidence.
The study gave evidence that will support the difference between childhood/adolescent pertaining to bipolar disorder.
The strengths in this particular study signified the difference by dividing the two groups by age for example, pre- puberty onset beginning before age 13 and adolescent onset beginning at or above age
Bipolar is difficult to recognize and diagnose in youth however it does not fit precisely the symptoms criteria established for adults its symptoms can resemble or co- occur with those of other common childhood- onset mental disorders in addition, symptoms of bipolar disorder may be initially mistaken for normal emotion and behaviors of childhood and adolescent Carlson & Jensen (1998). Due to this argument bipolar may be being misdiagnosed.
The reason for diagnoses increasing in children is due to misunderstanding of the development process of childhood and adolescents. Evidence was based on studies that were proven to be true. Existing evidence indicates that bipolar disorder beginning in childhood or early adolescence may be different, possibly more severe form of the illness than older adolescent Carlson & Jensen (1998).
Carlson G (1990), Child and adolescent mania: diagnostic considerations, J child Psychology Psychiatry 31:331-342
Craddock, N., Jones, I (1999) Genetics of bipolar disorder. Journal of Medical Genetics 36, 585-594.
Carlson GA, Jensen PS, Nottelmann ED, eds. (1998) Special issue. Current issues in childhood bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders.