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    • Zulisnita Annieda Ainul Azyan [email_address] 3 rd May 2007 “ A study of community culture towards community informatics of local council websites services between neighbouring communities of 2 different local councils.” Transformation of e-service delivery of local council websites Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Roadmap Roadmap Thesis statement Research Design Research framework Research Method Research Scope Research Question Research Taxonomy Data resources & support Data Analysis Pilot Study Conclusion No Easy Way Out!! Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Introduction
    • Introduction Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis COMMUNITY
    • Introduction Because local council websites are filled with tremendous advantages to the community , local authority website developers should be able to engage community and citizens , reshape current service delivery and address the issue of excluded social groups and accessibility . Thesis Statement Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Developer: Local authority officials Users: Local community Democracy Social Capital Sense of community Individual Empowerment Economic development opportunities Community Informatics: (O’ Neil, 2001) Research Framework Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Local Council Websites
    • 3 Main Research Questions How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics lead to better community engagement with communities and citizens ? How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics address the issue of excluded social groups and accessibility ? How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics reshape service delivery ? Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
      • Scope: 2 local governments in neighbouring communities that belong to 2 different borough councils.
      • Type of study: Ethnography.
      • Research methods: Interviews, surveys, focus group discussions, usage statistics, existing public data, stakeholder analysis, content analysis, ethnographic fieldwork, action research, document review, etc.
      Research Design Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Egham, Surrey Research Method RUNNYMEDE is a local government district with borough status in the English county of Surrey. Places in the district include Addlestone, EGHAM ,Chertsey, Thorpe, Virginia Water and Englefield Green Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Runnymede population: 76, 400 Egham population: 12, 000
    • Staines, Middlesex SPELTHORNE is a local government district and borough in Surrey, England. It includes the towns of Ashford, Laleham, Shepperton, STAINES , Stanwell and Sunbury. Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Spelthorne population: 90, 000 Staines population: 52, 400
    • “ The research tradition recognises and embraces multiple perspectives and individual voices”. (Cohen et al., 2000) Why ethnography? The rational E-services understanding is often speculative rather than research “ The interpretive approach allows exploration where a sound knowledge base is not present already” (Cohen et al., 2000). Given the formal and general nature of e-services, it would seem that a more scientific approach could lose the wholeness of the issues and erode the complexity of the interactions involved. Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Ethnography has been selected to:- Capture the depth of the local authority – local community relationship through website Recognize the complexity of the situation being researched. Allow a context specific insight: the context of this investigation is specific Account for unintended/unexpected findings and discoveries and provide a step to further research. Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Research Method Ethnographic strategies for this research
      • Member of the community for almost 3 years
      • Developed contacts and relationships with citizens through
      • part-time job in research area.
      • Understand community culture and local interest
      • Observing members of the community everyday life for
      • almost 3 years
      • Lived in different areas of the community within the time.
      • Able to identify key informants and have time flexibility with
      • contacts and key informants because living in area.
      • Able to use establish relationships through work for gathering
      • of research data through favors and network developed.
      Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
      • Nature of part-time job in the printing industry allows researcher
      • to be aware of community activities through newsletters and etc
    • Access to local authority websites Publicly available online Access to local authorities Contact local authority websites of both councils involved via contact on website Access to local community Contact local business, clubs, associations and other social groups within the community Access to tools Qualitative and quantitative softwares obtained through department Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Research Method Local Clubs, Institutions and Small Business in research area Acumen Blakestone Limited (Jacques Van Der Merwe) Cube Interior Solutions (Hayley Naylor) Christian Science Reading Room Cardiff Property PLC (Roger Smart) Runneymede Jazz Club (Harriet Coleman) Egham District Music Club (Mrs. R.B. Benlley) Egham Youth Music (Louise Butler) Greyhounds in Need Intercrate Rentals (Paul J. Hetherington) Peter Hobbs Ltd (Peter Hobbs) Interactive Health PLC (Glen) Gordon R Kimber & Associates SCJohnson Eurafne Ltd Runneymede Historical (Mr. Robin Doran) Runneymede & Spelthorne Ladies Probus Club (Andrew Lowther or Mrs. J. Scott) Runneymede Jazz Club (Mrs. P. Moloney) Research In Motion UK (Una Lydon/Steve Dugon) Staines & District Probus Club (Roger Marsden/John Loiver - Secretary) SMP Playgrounds Ltd (John Cox) Tornex (Europe) Ltd (Nick) Egham Chamber of Commerce Strodes College Redan Press Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Taxonomy of community informatics used to guide data collection and analysis Democracy Social Capital Individual Empowerment Sense of community Economic development opportunities (O’ Neil, 2001) Research Method Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis * Taxonomy: The classification, or categorization, of things making it easier to analyze the data collected.
    • Data Analysis Ontology : the science of what things exist and how they relate to each other Nominalism Realism ontology The subjectivist approach to social science The objectivist approach to social science Epistemology - The study of theories of knowledge or ways of knowing, particularly in the context of the limits or validity of the various ways of knowing Anti-positivism Positivsm epistemology Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Data Analysis Why Nominalism? “… believing that each individual’s conception of reality is different, individuals and their interpretations construct that reality and that there is no common objective shared reality.” (Cohen et al, 2000). The use of e-services is varied in function, purpose and format : Individuals have different views of the world around them and this is reflected in their usage of the medium thereby realism was rejected. Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Data Analysis Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Why Anti-positivism? It is assumed that the lifestyle of each user are very different between users”. (Burrell & Morgan, 1979). The study assumes an anti-positivist stance, in keeping with the subjectivist approach to social science but also taking a positivist stance where needed.
    • Data Analysis Strong Democracy: Increasing democratic participation with a meaningful association of citizens within a civic community Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Data Analysis - Attitude
      • Attitude towards local politics
      • Attitude towards communication with local council
      • What are the issues that you are most concerned with?
      • How would you describe the overall impact of participation initiatives on your local authority website on final decision-making in your authority?
      • Strengths and weaknesses of your local council
    • Data Analysis Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Increasing social capital: Includes features of social organization such as social networks, norms, and trust that facilitate co-ordination and co-operation for mutual benefit; Data Analysis - Attitude
      • Attitude towards your community
      • Attitude towards your neighbours
      • Do you feel valued by society?
      • Are you involved in helping out a local group as a volunteer?
      • Does you local community feel like home?
    • Data Analysis Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Empowering individuals: Includes discussions of information literacy and ICT access for disadvantaged communities so that all people have opportunities for meaningful participation in an increasingly digitized society Data Analysis - Attitude
      • If you need information to make a life decision, do you know where to find that information?
      • Do you have problems finding places to access the internet?
      • Gives ideas on events you’d like to happen in your community to your local council.
    • Data Analysis Revitalizing sense of community: Includes discussions of increasing community involvement and commitment to geographic communities Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Data Analysis - Attitude
      • Do you enjoy living among people of different lifestyles?
      • Do you feel part of the local geographic community where you work?
      • Do you feel apart of a team at work?
    • Data Analysis Providing economic development opportunities: Includes theories about the use of ICTs to encourage economic activity. Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Data Analysis - Attitude
      • Is your authority working on schemes to enhance public participation online in collaboration with other local agencies?
      • Is your local authority website a marketing tool for small business?
      • Are local authority websites enablers for mobilization for a wider range of resources for community economic development?
    • Pilot Study * The pilot study is purposed to complete sometime in June 2007 and the actual fieldwork will commence a month after that. Willesden Green London Borough of Brent Kilburn London Borough of Camden Convenience sampling A survey of all members of the community in the research area. (Target data collection for this research is 30 selected from a random sample ) A survey of the local authority website developer in the research area. (Target data collection for this research is 2 selected from a purposive sample ) Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Developer: Local authority officials Users: Local community Democracy Social Capital Sense of community Individual Empowerment Economic development opportunities Community Informatics: (O’ Neil, 2001) Conclusion Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Local Council Websites
    • Conclusion Example of key success factors outcomes of CI projects (O’ Neil, 2001) Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics lead to better community engagement with communities and citizens ? How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics address the issue of excluded social groups and accessibility ? How can participation online in local council websites supported by community informatics reshape service delivery ? Conclusion Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis
    • Any Questions? Introduction Roadmap Research Framework Research Question Research Method Pilot Study Conclusion Data Analysis Wish to participate in this study? Email: [email_address] Subject: Participate in study