2. EditingEditing is largely to do with organising time.It controls:• WHAT we look at,• in what ORDER we look at it,• and HOW LONG it is before we look at something else.
3. Editing• In most TV Dramas the main purpose of editing is to create CONTINUITY – a sense that the film makes LOGICAL SENSE in terms of immediate CAUSE and EFFECT and that it is CONSISTENT in the way it presents its world.• Through continuity, audiences can make sense of, and believe in, the narrative.
4. What are we looking for when analysing editing in a clip?• Order of shots• Continuity/montage You need to be• Transitions able to discuss how these• Shot duration technical• Pace and rhythm elements help create meaning.• Special effectsMany of these areas overlap, i.e. order of shots and continuity.
5. Give a brief explanation or examples for each area of editing: Order of shots Special Continuity/ effects montage Editing Transitions Pace and e.g…. rhythm Shot duration
6. Order of shots• The meaning of a clip can change depending on the order the shots are cut together• Hitchcock Loves Bikinishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCAE0t6KwJY&feature=PlayList&p=DC6A8F00C8251D25&index=3• Putting two shots together can suggest a connection or emphasise contrast (juxtaposition).• Refer to handout for further editing functions relating to this, e.g. intercutting.
7. ContinuityContinuity editing• Cutting shots to tell a story with narrative continuity, helping the viewer make sense of the action by implying spatial relationships and ensuring smooth flow from shot to shot.• Continuity techniques: • Establishing shot (establishes the space in which action is to happen) • The 180º rule (ensures that the same space is described in each shot) • Shot/reverse shot • Eyeline match (e.g. character looks off-screen, next shot shows us what they see) • Match on action (character begins to move in one shot, we see continuation of the same movement in the next shot)• Realism - edit is invisible so action appears real rather than constructed.
8. Non-Continuity• Montage – giving information in compressed form – the shots that are cut together may not appear connected but can be suggestive of particular meanings/ideas overall.• Many of the title sequences we looked at during the coursework unit used a montage editing style).• In Non-continuity editing – Continuity is broken and construction is more apparent. Meaning often created through juxtaposition and metaphor shot inserts.
9. Transitions• The process of cutting from one shot to another usually involves a simple straight cut. However there are other means of transition available to a film editor, e.g.• Fade to black• Dissolve/cross fade• Wipe• What meaning could be created by the use of the transitions above?• As well as simply moving to another shot, transitions can imply a passage of time or location, or emphasise a connection, perhaps what a character is thinking or dreaming about (dissolve/cross fade).
10. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
11. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
12. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
13. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the followingshot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer thedissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
14. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the followingshot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer thedissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
15. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the followingshot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
16. Shot duration/pace• The duration of a shot will usually reflect the narrative context.• Generally speaking short shot duration conveys action and urgency (say in a chase sequence). Click here for a chase sequence from Die Another Day. See if you can count the number of shots!• Whilst long duration conveys intensity and intimacy within the narrative, it allows us to focus upon facial expression and other aspects of mise en scene which would otherwise be missed.
17. Some editing devices• Parallel editing - crosscutting or intercutting between different locations can convey the impression that two or more events are occurring simultaneously. This is often used to build tension.• split screen – where the frame is split into sections so that we can see different events occurring at the same time. This technique was used on the TV series 24.
18. Editing controls what information we get and when we get itWhen analysing a clip consider how editingtechniques are used to control:• What information is revealed to or hidden from a) the characters? b) the audience?• As well as being used for dramatic effect, this control of information can tell you whose perspective is privileged - this is important when considering representation.