Order Sphenisciformes
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Order Sphenisciformes

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This is a presentation that I was required to make for my Zoology class. Our class was on the topic of Class Aves (Birds). My presentation was specifically on Order Sphenisciformes (penguins).

This is a presentation that I was required to make for my Zoology class. Our class was on the topic of Class Aves (Birds). My presentation was specifically on Order Sphenisciformes (penguins).

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  • Penguins are flightless. Their wings have been modified as paddles. They have very short legs and fleshy toes that are joined by webs. Their posture is erect when on land or ice except when they’re “sledding” on their bellies. They are superb swimmers and divers, often leaping porpoise-like into the water. Prevailing colors are black or gray dorsally, white ventrally, sometimes with yellow feathering on the head or neck. They are gregarious. All 17 species of penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere.Penguins are found on every continent in the Southern Hemisphere. They are abundant on many temperate and sub-antarctic islands.Penguins generally live on islands and remote continental regions free from land predators, where their inability to fly is not detrimental to their survival.
  • I chose the Adelie penguin. Its scientific name is Pygoscelis adeliaenamed after the wife of a French explorer in the 1830sThey are the smallest of the penguins living on the continent of AntarcticaThey are about 28 inches (70 cm) tall and weigh about 8 to 9 lbs.These penguins nest and breed on the rocky, ice-free beaches in large colonies of tens of thousands of birdsThere are over 2.5 million breeding pairs living in the Antarctica region. They don’t drink water, but eat snow
  • These penguins are one of the stiff-tailed penguins with long tail feathers that drags the ground when they walk. They have a white belly with a black head and back. They have a white ring around the eye. Feathers cover most of the short beak. They are powerful swimmers and can jump straight out of the water onto the land. They often move on the land by sledding down hills on their bellies.
  • Adélie penguins live on the Antarctic continent and on many small, surrounding coastal islandsThere are 38 colonies of Adélie penguins, and there are over 5 million Adélies in the Ross Sea region. Ross Island supports a colony of approximately half a million Adélies. They spend the winter offshore in the seas surrounding the Antarctic pack iceAdélies feed on tiny aquatic creatures, such as shrimp-like krill, but also eat fish and squiddiet varies depending on geographic locationThey may travel 185 miles round-trip to procure a meal.
  • Adelie Penguins arrive at their breeding grounds in OctoberAdélies build nests and line them with small stones. Sometimes the competition for breeding sites gets so fierce that mothers will steal stones from neighbors’ nestsAfter bonding and mating, the female lays two eggs in the nestIn December, the parents take turns incubating the egg; one goes to feed and the other stays to warm the eggWhen parents return with food for the chicks they will run from the chicks making the chicks chase and catch them for the food. Often only one chick will surviveTheir chicks grow the fastest of all penguins.
  • April to September – MigrationSeptember to October – SettlementOctober to November – Egg layingNovember to December – Chick rearingDecember to February – FledgingFebruary to March – MoltingThen starts all over again

Order Sphenisciformes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Order Sphenisciformes
    “Penguins”
  • 2. Background Info.
    Classification
    Class: Aves
    Subclass: Neornithes
    “True Birds”
    Order: Sphenisciformes
    Family
    Spheniscinae
    17 species, sometimes 18
  • 3. Penguin Species
    Emperor, Aptenodytes forsteri
    King, Aptenodytes patagonicus
    Adélie, Pygoscelis adeliae
    Gentoo, Pygoscelis papua
    Chinstrap, Pygoscelis antarctica
    Rockhopper, Eudyptes chrysocome
    Macaroni, Eudyptes chrysolophus
    Royal, Eudyptes schlegeli
    Fiordland crested, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
    Erect-crested, Eudyptes sclateri
    Snares Island, Eudyptes robustus
    Yellow-eyed, Megadyptes antipodes
    Fairy (also known as little blue), Eudyptula minor
    Magellanic, Spheniscus magellanicus
    Humboldt, Spheniscus humboldti
    African (formerly known as black-footed), Spheniscus demersus
    Galápagos, Spheniscus mendiculus
    **18th Species:
    white-flippered form of the Fairy Penguin, Eudyptula albosignata
  • 4. Order Characteristics
    Flightless
    Wings used as paddles
    Short legs w/ fleshy toes
    Excellent swimmers & divers
    Colors:
    Black
    Gray
    White
    Yellow
    Gregarious
    Located in Southern Hemisphere
    Every Continent
    Temperate & sub-antarctic islands
  • 5. Adélie Penguin
    Pygoscelis adeliae
    Named after French explorer’s wife
    Smallest penguins
    Large colonies
    2.5 million breeding pairs
    Don’t drink water
  • 6. Adélie Description
    Stiff-tailed w/ long feathers
    White belly w/black head & back
    White ring around eyes
    Feathers cover beak
    Powerful swimmers
    Sled down hills on belly
  • 7. Adélie Habitat & Diet
    Antarctic & surrounding islands
    38 colonies
    Over 5 million
    Spend winters offshore
    Carnivores
    Krill
    Fish
    Squid
    Diet varies
    Travel 185 mi for food
  • 8. Adélie Reproduction
    Breeding - October
    Build nests using smalls stones
    Sometimes steal rocks from neighbor
    Female lays 2 eggs
    Parents take turns incubating
    Make chick chase & catch them for food
    Common for one of the two chicks to survive
    Fastest growing chicks
  • 9. Adélie Routine
    Fledging
    Chick rearing
    Egg Laying
    Molting
    Settlement
    Migration