2. TRANSLATION :
Be needed to facilitate communication between speakers of different
Disseminate information originally produced in one language to speakers of
many other languages.
Translation has been proposed as a means for learning and teaching a
3. Arguments against translation.
A typical lesson consisted mainly of the presentation of grammatical and
lexical structures and rules exemplified by a text in the foreign language
which students had to translate into their mother tongue.
Interference :when learners translated from the foreign language to their
Bilingual mode :activation -two languages at the same time.
4. Arguments for translation.
Is a key feature in the so-called grammar-translation method.
Learners increase their confidence and motivation to learn a foreign
Promotes explicit knowledge about the foreign language and helps develop
awareness of differences and similarities between the native and the
foreign language systems.
Creates many opportunities for reflection on contrasts and similarities
between language at various linguistic levels.
Develop communicative competence in a foreign language.
5. Current issues
Aguirre Castillo Lizeth
6. Translation as intercultural
in a covert translation, a cultural filter is applied in order to adapt the
source text to the communicative norms of the target culture
the intercultural perception has been observed by the translator but
denied to the recipients of the translation.
Intercultural transfer is explicitly present and so likely to be perceived by
The received view of translation today is that it is first and foremost a
process of intercultural change, rather that a kind of cross-linguistic
7. The nature of the translation
process approach to translation is to ask translators what they are
thinking while they are translating as thinking aloud or introspection.
thinking aloud protocols elicited from translators are usually taped
,transcribed ,and often also presented to the translators at some later
stage for comment and evaluation.
8. Corpus studies in translation.
collection of texts ,selected and compiled according to specific criteria.
methods in translation studies has a number of advantages.
Corpus methods also allow us to focus on a combination of lexical
useful for analysing translations as parallel corpora.
Establish patters that are either restricted to translations or occur with
different frequency in them.
9. Translation and globalization.
New technological facilities have also led to the emergence of a worldwide
translation industry regard by many as the most important safeguard of
plays an important role in multilingual news writing and in provision of
tourist information worldwide.
LOCALIZATION: process of adapting products and information
technology to local markets.
GLOBALIZATION :global processes of economic ,political ,social, cultural
and information distribution across the globe.