ARTID121 Early Medieval Art
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ARTID121 Early Medieval Art

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. erat autem hora tertia et crucifixerunt eum And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Scavinia, Germania, Gallia, Roma
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

ARTID121 Early Medieval Art ARTID121 Early Medieval Art Presentation Transcript

    • ART ID 111 | Study of Ancient Arts
        • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD
        • NYIT Center for Teaching and Learning with Technology
        • With modifications by Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP
    Europe after the Fall of Rome: Early Art Medieval Art
  •  
    • The Art of the War Lords
    • Fusion of Celtic-Germanic culture, Christianity, and the Greco-Roman heritage.
    • Historians once referred to the thousand years (roughly 400 to 1400) between the dying Roman Empire's adoption of Christianity as its official religion and the rebirth (Renaissance) of interest in classical antiquity as the Dark Ages.
    Early Medieval Art (500-1000 BCE)
  • “ Barbarian” Art
    • The Art of the War Lords
    • Art historians do not know the full range of art and architecture these "barbarian" peoples produced.
    • One of its chief characteristics is a highly disciplined sense of abstract decorative design using zoomorphic elements.
    • Interlace patterns are integrated with animal forms in the decoration of metal craft ornaments, manuscript decorations, stone sculptures, and wood carvings.
      • “ Barbarian” Art
  • Frankish Looped Fibula France 6th - 7th Centuries silver gilt worked in filigree with inlays of garnets and other stones 4 in. long Most characteristic, perhaps, of the prestige adornments was the fibula, a decorative pin the Romans (and the Etruscans before them) favored.
  •  
  • Purse cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England ca. 625 | gold, glass and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds | 7 1/2 in. long
  • Scandinavian “Viking” Art The pirates of the North In 793 the pagan traders and pirates known as Vikings (named after the viks - coves or "trading places" - of the Norwegian shorelines) set sail from Scandinavia and landed in the British Isles.
  •  
  • Burial Ship Oseberg, Norway ca. 825 wood 75 1/2 ft. long The art of the Viking sea rovers was early associated with ships - wood and the carving of it.
  • Animal-Head Post Oseberg, Norway ca. 825 wood approximately 5 in. high
  •  
  • Wood carved portal of the stave church at Urnes Urnes, Norway ca. 1050 - 1070 wood
  • Hiberno-Saxon Art
    • Christian missionaries
    • A style art historians designate as Hiberno-Saxon (Hibernia was the ancient name of Ireland), or sometimes as Insular to denote the Irish-English islands where it was produced, flourished within the monasteries of the British Isles.
      • Hiberno-Saxon Art
    In 432 Saint Patrick established a church in Ireland and began the Christianization of the Celts on that remote island that had never known Roman rule.
    • Christian missionaries
    • Among the notable examples of Early Medieval art in the British Isles are illuminated manuscripts embellished with detailed ornamental patterns of elaborately interlaced abstract and zoomorphic forms.
    • Human figures are also reduced to patterns with little understanding of Late Antique pictorial illusionism such as modeling.
    • Megalithic Celtic crosses were also carved with interlace patterns and figure panels in relief.
      • Hiberno-Saxon Art
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  • Man (symbol of St. Matthew) Book of Durrow possibly from Iona, Scotland ca. 660-680 ink and tempera on parchment 9 5/8 x 6 1/8 in. In the Book of Durrow each of the four Gospel books has a carpet page facing a page dedicated to the symbol of the Evangelist who wrote that Gospel, framed by an elaborate interlace border.
  • Lion (symbol of St. Mark) Book of Durrow possibly from Iona, Scotland ca. 660-680 ink and tempera on parchment 9 5/8 x 6 1/8 in.
  • Carpet Page Book of Durrow possibly from Iona, Scotland ca. 660-680 ink and tempera on parchment 9 5/8 x 6 1/8 in. An excellent example of the marriage between Christian imagery and the animal-interlace style of the North is the cross-inscribed carpet page of the Lindisfarne Gospels.
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  • Chi-rho-iota page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in. The greatest achievement of Hiberno-Saxon art in the eyes of almost all modern observers is the Book of Kells, the most elaborately decorated of the Insular Gospel books.
  • Evangelists symbols page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in. This book boasts an unprecedented number of full-page illuminations, including carpet pages, evangelist symbols, portrayals of the Virgin Mary and of Christ, New Testament narrative scenes, canon tables, and several instances of monumentalized and embellished words from the Bible.
  • Matthew and Mark symbols Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland | 8th - 9th centuries | tempera on vellum | 13 x 9 1/2 in.
  • Luke and John symbols Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland | 8th - 9th centuries | tempera on vellum | 13 x 9 1/2 in.
  • Virgin and Child page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in.
  • Illuminated text from the Gospel of Mark Erat autem hora tercia Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in.
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  • Cross and Carpet page Lindisfarne Gospels Northumbria, England ca. 698 – 721 | tempera on vellum | 13 1/2 x 9 1/4 in.
  • Saint Matthew page Lindisfarne Gospels Northumbria, England ca. 698 - 721 tempera on vellum 13 1/2 x 9 1/4 in.
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  • The scribe Ezra Codex Amiatinus Jarrow, England ca. 689-716 tempera on vellum 20 x 13 1/2 in.
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  • High Cross of Muiredach (east side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca. 923 16 ft. high The medieval artist did not go to nature for models but to a prototype- another image, a statue, or a picture in a book. The preserved art of the early Middle Ages is, as has been noted, confined almost exclusively to small and portable works. The high crosses of Ireland, erected between the 8th and 10th centuries, are exceptional in their mass and scale.
  • High Cross of Muiredach (east side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca. 923 16 ft. high
  • Last Judgment High Cross of Muiredach(east side) | Monasterboice, Ireland | ca. 923 | 16 ft. high
  • Weighing of Souls High Cross of Muiredach(east side) | Monasterboice, Ireland | ca. 923 | 16 ft. high
  • High Cross of Muiredach (west side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca. 923 16 ft. high
  • Crucifixion High Cross of Muiredach (west side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca. 923 | 16 ft. high
  • High Cross of Muiredach Monasterboice, Ireland ca. 923 16 ft. high Arrest of Christ
  • Mozarabic Art
    • Visigoths and Muslims
    • The Christian culture of Iberia is called Mozarabic and refers to Christians living in Arab territories.
    • In 711, Muslim armies brought Islam into Spain.
    • In the early fifth century the Iberian peninsula fell to German invaders, most notably, the Visigoths, who had converted to Christianity.
      • Mozarabic Art
    The Mozarabic style is identifiable only in religious art; in the minor arts—especially textiles, ceramic tiles, and pottery—the style is so close to contemporary Islāmic work that only by the Christian subject matter is it known that the artists were not Arabs.
    • Visigoths and Muslims
    • The conquered Christians were tolerated, although called mustaʿrib (“arabicized,” from which “Mozarab” is derived), and maintained their traditional religion.
    • Exposure to Islāmic culture and art forms proved to be influential, however, and their art became a synthesis of the two traditions.
    • The subject matter is Christian, but the style shows the assimilation of Islāmic decorative motifs and forms.
    • Even those who emigrated to reconquered territory or to other countries continued to produce art and architecture in the Mozarabic style, and it was in part the result of these movements that Arabic influences spread northward into Europe.
      • Mozarabic Art
    • Visigoths and Muslims
    • The conquered Christians were tolerated, although called mustaʿrib (“arabicized,” from which “Mozarab” is derived), and maintained their traditional religion.
    • Exposure to Islāmic culture and art forms proved to be influential, however, and their art became a synthesis of the two traditions.
    • The subject matter is Christian, but the style shows the assimilation of Islāmic decorative motifs and forms.
    • Even those who emigrated to reconquered territory or to other countries continued to produce art and architecture in the Mozarabic style, and it was in part the result of these movements that Arabic influences spread northward into Europe.
      • Mozarabic Art
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  • Emeterius The tower and Scriptorium of San Salvador de Tàbara, colophon (folio 168) of the Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus from Tàbara, Spain 970 C.E. tempera on parchment 1 ft. 2 1/8 in. x 10 in. The following colophon to the illustrated Commentary on the Apocalypse presents the earliest known depiction of a medieval scriptorium. Because the artist provided a composite of exterior and interior views of the building, it is especially informative.
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  • Stephanus Garsia Enthroned Christ with 4 Evangelists and the 24 Elders folios 121 verso and 122 recto of the Apocalypse of Saint-Sever from Saint-Sever-sur-l’Adour, France | ca. 1050-1070 | ink and tempera on vellum | 14 1/2 x 22 in.
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  • Stephanus Garsia Rain of Fire and Blood folios 137 verso Apocalypse of Saint-Sever from Saint-Sever-sur-l’Adour, France ca. 1050-1070 ink and tempera on vellum 14 1/2 x 11 in.
  • Carolingian Art
    • Rome rises again
    • The Following his coronation as the new Holy Roman Emperor in 800, Charlemagne sought to revive Roman imperial art, culture, and political ideals.
    • Carolingian art consciously emulated Roman models in sculpture and architecture, and sought to revive learning through the increased production of books.
      • Carolingian Art
    On Christmas day of the year 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles the Great (Charlemagne), King of the Franks since 768, as emperor of Rome (r. 800-814).
    • The Art of the Book
    • Manuscript illumination borrowed a wide variety of styles from Late Antique prototypes.
    • In several cases, Classical illusionism was merged with north European linear traditions to produce a distinctive new type of expressive image and new forms of narrative illustration.
    • Book covers were also wrought in precious metals and decorated with gems and ivory and figures in relief.
    • Charlemagne was a sincere admirer of learning, the arts, and classical culture.
      • Carolingian Art
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  • Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne(?) from Metz, France early 9th century bronze, originally gilt | 9 1/2 in. high When Charlemagne returned home from his coronation in Rome, he ordered the transfer of an equestrian statue of the Ostrogothic king Theodoric from Ravenna to the Carolingian palace complex at Aachen.
  • Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne(?) from Metz, France early 9th century bronze, originally gilt | 9 1/2 in. high
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  • St. Matthew Coronation Gospels Aachen, Germany ca. 800-810 ink and tempera on vellum 12 3/4 x 10 in. The style evident in the Coronation Gospels was by no means the only one that appeared suddenly in the Carolingian world.
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  • Saint Matthew Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca. 816 - 835 ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.
  • Saint John Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca. 816 - 835 ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.
  • Canon Table Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca. 816 - 835 ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.
  • Canon Tables from the Ebbo Gospels | Hautvillers, France ca. 816 – 835 | ink and tempera on vellum | 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.
  • Psalm 44 of folio 25 recto of the Utrecht Psalter Hautvillers, France (near Reims) ca. 820 – 835 | ink on vellum | 1 ft. 1 in. x 9 7/8 in. The Carolingians also revived narrative illustration, so richly developed in Early Christian and Byzantine art, and produced many fully illuminated books (even some large Bibles).
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  • Psalm 57 front cover Psalter of Charles the Bald Denis, France ca. 865 ivory panel set in silver-gilt with filigree work and precious stones panel 5 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. cover 9 1/2 x 7 3/4 in. The Carolingians also revived narrative illustration, so richly developed in Early Christian and Byzantine art, and produced many fully illuminated books (even some large Bibles).
  • Psalm 57 front cover Psalter of Charles the Bald Denis, France ca. 865 ivory panel set in silver-gilt with filigree work and precious stones panel 5 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. cover 9 1/2 x 7 3/4 in.
  • Psalm 57 front cover Psalter of Charles the Bald Denis, France ca. 865 ivory panel set in silver- gilt with filigree work and precious stones panel 5 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. cover 9 1/2 x 7 3/4 in.
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  • Crucifixion front cover Lindau Gospels Pierpont Morgan Library, New York ca. 870 gold, precious stones and pearls 13 3/8 x 10 3/8 in.
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  • Odo of Metz Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ca. 792-805 Carolingian architecture revives Roman building techniques and forms and is marked by a solid robustness and a clearly articulated geometric structure. The Palatine Chapel at Aachen was modeled on the Byzantine church of San Vitale at Ravenna but with a simplified the plan.
  • Odo of Metz Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ca. 792-805
  • Odo of Metz Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ca. 792-805
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  • Torhalle (gatehouse) Lorsch, Germany 9th century The gatehouse to the Lorsch Monastery imitates the design of a Roman city gate but with several features that mark it as a northern building
  • Torhalle (gatehouse) Lorsch, Germany 9th century
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  • 9th C. ms. And 20th C. model St. Gall, Switzerland ca. 819 The plan for the monastery of Saint Gall was systematically designed using a module of two and one-half feet to lay out the buildings. Carolingian churches followed the basilican plan and included numerous towers.
  • Schematic plan for a monastery St. Gall, Switzerland ca. 819 redrawn after a 9th century manuscript
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  • Drawing of the monastery church of St. Riquier Centula, France ca. 800 engraving made in 1612 after a now destroyed 11th century miniature
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  • Westwork of the Abbey Church Corvey, Germany ca. 873-885 Towers incorporated into the fabric of the west end of the building creating a unified monumental façade. This has been referred to as westwork in later churches. In contemporary documents they are referred to as castelium (Latin, castle or fortress) or turris (tower).
  • Ottonian Art
    • After Charlemagne
    • 30 years after the death of Charlemagne and subsequent to the death of his son Louis, the Carolingian Empire was divided between the sons of Louis.
    • The Frankish lands were partitioned into western, central and eastern, roughly foreshadowing the later nations of France and Germany, and a long strip of land stretching from the Netherlands and Belgium to Rome.
      • Ottonian Art
    Only in the mid-10th century did the eastern part of the former empire consolidate under the rule of a new Saxon line of German emperors called the Ottonians.
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  • Nave of the church of St. Cyriakus Gernrode, Germany ca. 961-963 Ottonian architects built several large abbey churches with towering westworks. In some cases, a modular approach was adopted in the plan, and an alternate-support system introduced in the design of the nave.
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  • Abbey church of St. Pantaleon Cologne, Germany ca. 966-980
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  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031
  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Hildesheim, Germany | ca. 1001-1031
  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031
  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s | Hildesheim, Germany | ca. 1001-1031
  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Hildesheim, Germany | ca. 1001-1031
  • Abbey Church of St. Michael’s Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031
  • Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031 Ottonian sculpture includes examples of large-scale bronze reliefs and monumental figural sculpture in wood. In 1001, when Bishop Bernward was in Rome visiting the young Otto III, he resided in Ottos's palace on the Aventine hill in the neighborhood of Santa Sabina, an Early Christian church renowned for its carved wooden doors. These doors may have inspired the remarkable bronze doors the bishop had cast for his new church in Germany.
  • Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031
  • Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1001-1031
  • Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1015-1022 bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high The great doors of Saint Michael's were not the only large-scale masterpieces of bronze-casting Bernward commissioned.
  • Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1015-1022 bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high
  • Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1015-1022 bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high
  • Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1015-1022 bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high
  • Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca. 1015-1022 bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high
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  • Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero Cologne Cathedral, Germany ca. 970 painted wood 6 ft. 2 in. high Nowhere was the revival of interest in monumental sculpture more evident than in the Crucifix.
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  • Abbess Uta folio 2 of the Uta Codex Regensburg, Germany ca. 1025 tempera on parchment 9 5/8 in. x 5 1/8 in. Manuscript illumination maintains a certain expressiveness, but the movements and gestures of figures are less naturalistic than earlier Carolingian examples. Ottonian artists carried on the Carolingian tradition of producing sumptuous books for the clergy and the royalty alike. The Uta Codex illustrates the important role women could play both in the religious life and as patrons of the arts during the Middle Ages.
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  • Annunciation to the Shepherds Lectionary of Henry II from Reichenau, Germany ca. 1002-1014 tempera on vellum 17 x 13 in. Uta presented her codex about the same time the last Ottonian emperor, Henry II, died. He also commissioned a book of Gospel readings for the Mass, the Lectionary of Henry II, a gift to the Annunciation of Christ's birth to the sherpards.
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  • Otto III enthroned Gospel Book of Otto III from Trier, Germany ca. 997-1000 tempera on vellum 13 x 9 3/8 in. A picture from the Gospel Book of Otto III, representing the emperor himself, sums up much of what went before the points to what was to come.
  • Tribute of the Provinces Gospel Book of Otto III from Trier, Germany ca. 997-1000 tempera on vellum 13 x 9 3/8 in.
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  • Otto III Enthroned Liuthar (Aachen) Gospels from Aachen, Germany ca. 1000 ink and tempura on vellum 10 7/8 x 8 1/2 in.
  • Glossary
    • Colophon A publisher's emblem printed in a book (usually on the title page)
    • Filigree Delicate and intricate ornamentation (usually in gold, silver or other fine twisted wire)
    • Gilt Having the deep slightly brownish colour of gold
    • Scriptorium A room in a monastery that is set aside for writing or copying manuscripts
    • Tempera Pigment mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as size and egg yolk
    • Vellum Fine parchment prepared from the skin of a young animal e.g. a calf or lamb
  • Sources
    • http://www.wadsworth.com/art_d/templates/student_resources/0155050907_kleiner/studyguide/ch16/ch16_1.html
    • http://websites.swlearning.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0155050907&discipline_number=436
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Medieval_art
    • Art Through the Ages, 12th/11th ed., Gardner