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ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2
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ARTID111 Ancient Egyptian Art - Part 2

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Transcript

    • 1. <ul><li>ART ID 111 | Study of Ancient Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NYIT Center for Teaching and Learning with Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With modifications by Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP </li></ul></ul></ul>Pharaohs and the Afterlife: Ancient Egyptian Art Part 2
    • 2. New Kingdom Art The Middle Kingdom ended with the invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos from the east. Soon after Ahmose came to the throne in 1550 BCE, the Hyksos were expelled and Egypt entered the period known as the New Kingdom. Like its predecessor, the Middle Kingdom disintegrated, and power passed to the Hyksos, or shepherd kings, who descended on Egypt from the Syrian and Mesopotamian uplands.
    • 3. New Kingdom Art This period can be viewed as the final development of the classic Egyptian style of the Middle era, a combination of the monumental forms of the Old and the drive and inspiration of the Middle. The paintings of this period are noted for boldness of design and controlled vitality. In sculpture the emphasis is on bulk, solidity, and impersonality.
    • 4. New Kingdom Art This period can be viewed as the final development of the classic Egyptian style of the Middle era, a combination of the monumental forms of the Old and the drive and inspiration of the Middle. The paintings of this period are noted for boldness of design and controlled vitality. In sculpture the emphasis is on bulk, solidity, and impersonality.
    • 5.  
    • 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Deir_el-bahri_temples.jpg The three temples at Deir el-Bahri from the top of the cliff behind them. Hatshepsut's temple on left, Tuthmosis III's temple in center and Montuhotep II's temple on right.
    • 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SFEC_AEH_-ThebesNecropolis-2010-Hatshepsut-023.jpg
    • 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GD-EG-Deir_el_Bahari-map.png
    • 9. Deir el-Bahari with temples of Hatshepsut, Thutmosis III and Mentuhotep II http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hatshetsup-temple-1by7.jpg
    • 10. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (designed by the architect Senemut) Deir el-Bahri, Egypt ca. 1,473-1,458 B.C.E. New Kingdom architecture is dominated by grandiose temples, often built to honor pharaohs and queens, as well as gods. The most majestic of these royal mortuary temples, at Deir el-Bahri, was constructed for the female pharaoh, Hatshepsut, on of the most remarkable women of the ancient world.
    • 11. http://stockpicturesforeveryone.blogspot.com/2010/01/temple-and-statues-of-queen-hatshepsut.html
    • 12. Hatshepsut’s temple is considered the closest Egypt came to the Classical Architecture. It marks a turning point in the architecture of Ancient Egypt, which forsook the megalithic geometry of the Old Kingdom for a temple which allowed for active worship, requiring the presence of participants to create the majesty.
    • 13. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mortuary_Temple_of_Hatshepsut_032010_004.jpg http://stockpicturesforeveryone.blogspot.com/2010/01/temple-and-statues-of-queen-hatshepsut.html
    • 14. http://www.maat-ka-ra.de/english/bauwerke/djeser/dj_chapel_hathor_beschreibung.htm
    • 15. Osirian statue of Hatshepsut 
    • 16. Statue of Hatshepsut Deir el-Bahri, Egypt ca. 1,473-1,458 B.C.E. limestone 76 3/4 in. high Hatshepsut (meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies; 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty.
    • 17. Hatshepsut with offering jars Deir el-Bahri, Egypt ca. 1,473-1,458 B.C.E. red granite 8 ft. 6 in. high
    • 18.  
    • 19. The Great Temple, was dedicated to the deified king Ramses II. Politically, the temple anchors the southern line of Egypt's expansion into Nubia, and was intended to overawe the Nubians into acceptance of Egyptian hegemony. http://www.megalithic.co.uk/a558/a312/gallery/tunisia/Tunisia_and_North_Africa/nubia/Abu_Simbel_Temple_of_Ramses_01.JPG
    • 20. Great Temple of Ramesses II (left) and Small Temple of Nefertari (right). The complex is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the &quot;Nubian Monuments“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panorama_Abu_Simbel_crop.jpg
    • 21. A scale model showing the original location of the 13th century BCE Abu Simbel temples, the site submerged under reservoir water since the 1970s, and the rescued and relocated temples' new higher sites. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abu_Simbel_relocation_by_Zureks.jpg
    • 22. Temple of Ramses II from Abu Simbel, Egypt ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. | colossi approximately 65 ft. high The Great Temple at Abu Simbel, which took about twenty years to build, was completed around year 24 of the reign of Rameses the Great (which corresponds to 1265 BCE). It was dedicated to the gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty, and Ptah, as well as to the deified Rameses himself. It is generally considered the grandest and most beautiful of the temples commissioned during the reign of Rameses II, and one of the most beautiful in Egypt.
    • 23. http://www.photography-edu.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/abu_simbel.jpg Temple of Ramses II from Abu Simbel, Egypt ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. | colossi approximately 65 ft. high
    • 24. Temple of Ramses II from Abu Simbel, Egypt ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. colossi approximately 65 ft. high
    • 25. http://www.jamiejermain.com/home/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Aswan-Merged-1.jpg
    • 26. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/images/abusimbelint.jpg Main Hall Temple of Ramses II from Abu Simbel, Egypt ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. atlantids approximately 32 ft. high
    • 27. Temple of Ramses II from Abu Simbel, Egypt ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. atlantids approximately 32 ft. high
    • 28. http://hawkebackpacking.com/images/pictures/africa/egypt_2007/abu_simbel/egypt_2007_abu_simbel_10.jpg The temple of Hathor and Nefertari, also known as the Small Temple, was built about one hundred meters northeast of the temple of Ramesses II and was dedicated to the goddess Hathor and Ramesses II's chief consort, Nefertari.
    • 29. http://hawkebackpacking.com/images/pictures/africa/egypt_2009/abu_simbel/egypt_2009_abu_simbel_22.jpg
    • 30.  
    • 31. Karnak Temple Complex, Egypt ca. 15th century B.C.E. The Karnak complex is the work of several Pharaohs and is dedicated to the supreme deity Amun-Ra. The site consists of several huge temples (notably the Great Temple of Amun), a forest of columns, pylons, obelisks, and avenues of sphinxes. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes, the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt.
    • 32. Karnak consists of four main parts (precincts), of which only the largest, the Precinct of Amun-Ra, currently is open to the general public. The term Karnak often is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors normally see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, and the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV , are closed to the public. There also are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, as well as several avenues of goddess and ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Ra, and the Luxor Temple. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Karnak_Temple_Map.jpg/300px-Karnak_Temple_Map.jpg
    • 33. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precinct_of_Amun-Re
    • 34. Great Forecourt First Pylon Second Pylon Third Pylon Fourth Pylon Temple of Rameses II Temple of Amenhotep http://www.wayfaring.info/images/temple_of_amun_karnak.gif
    • 35. Obelisk of Thutmose I Sacred Lake Hypostyle Hall Avenue of Ram-Headed Sphinxes http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/egypt/
    • 36. Obelisk of Thutmosis I Kings like Thutmosis I erected obelisks to emphasize their link to the Sun god. The Obelisk, with its gilded tip, points to the Sun. It stands at 64 feet tall and weighs about 140 tons The base is carved with baboons, creatures famous for getting excited at sunrise. https://picasaweb.google.com/105794895136876423688/Egypt20093# Obelisks of Hatshepsut
    • 37. Obelisk An obelisk is a tall four-sided narrow tapering (often monolithic) monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, said to resemble a &quot;petrified ray&quot; of the sundisk.
    • 38. http://www.masters-table.org/pagan/oblis.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_obelisks_in_Rome
    • 39. The sacred lake provides pure water for washing the god and for him to drink. Priests and Priestesses bathe here before entering the temple. http://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/favorites/page64/?view=lg
    • 40. http://www.sights-and-culture.com/Egypt/karnak-sphinxes-avenue.jpg Avenue of Ram-headed sphinxes The mythical lion-bodied sphinx is associated with the king and the Sun god. Those with ram heads, known as criosphinxes, are a symbol of the god Amun. https://picasaweb.google.com/105794895136876423688/Egypt20093#
    • 41. http://cassian.memphis.edu/history/hypostyle/Tour/Tour_hall.htm Hypostyle hall Temple of Amun-Ra Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX | ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E. In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. In this case the columns flanking the central avenue are of greater height than those of the side aisles, and this allows openings in the wall above the smaller columns, through which light is admitted over the aisle roof, through clerestory windows. With its forest of pillars, the hypostyle hall represents the reeds of the swamp out of which the Earth arose at the time of creation. The 134 pillars, some 23 metres high, are carved like papyrus plants.
    • 42. Model of Hypostyle hall Temple of Amun-Ra Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX | ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
    • 43. Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
    • 44.  
    • 45. Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
    • 46. A panoramic view of the great hypostyle hall and frieze in the Precinct of Amun-Ra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karnak
    • 47. Akhenaton from the temple of Amun-Ra, Karnak, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. sandstone | approximately 13 ft. high
    • 48. Senmut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high An example of an Egyptian block statue, in which Ka could find an eternal home in the cubic stone image of the deceased. Here, Hatshepsut's chancellor holds the pharaoh's daughter in his lap.
    • 49. Semnut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high
    • 50. Fowling Scene from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,400-1,350 B.C.E. fresco secco (fresco on dry plaster) 32 in. high
    • 51. Akhenaton sacrificing a duck ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. limestone 9 5/8 in. high
    • 52. bust of Nefertiti by Thutmosis from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. painted limestone 20 in. high The Nefertiti Bust is a 3300-year-old painted limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Due to the bust, Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women from the ancient world as well as an icon of female beauty.
    • 53.  
    • 54. Tiye from Gurob, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. wood with gold, silver, alabaster, & lapis 3 3/4 in. high The Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III.
    • 55. C anopic jar from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,349-1,336 B.C.E. alabaster with stone and glass inlay 20 1/2 in. high
    • 56.  
    • 57. Death Mask of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 21 1/4 in. high
    • 58. Sarcophagus of Tutankhamun on its discovery. http://www.crystalinks.com/tutstomb.html
    • 59. Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 73 in. high
    • 60. Replica of the golden outer sarcophagus of Tutankhamun. Luxor Hotel, Las Vegas.
    • 61. http://www.emillustration.co.uk/history.html
    • 62. Painted chest of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. painted wood 20 in. long
    • 63. The &quot;Golden Throne“ The chair is solid, heavy and strongly cuboid in shape, with a completely flat seat, not curved like the other six chairs found. The whole is heavily decorated in gold, with pictures of the King and Queen on the flat back. The arms of this chair have lions' heads at the front while the side view shows crowned hooded cobras bearing large cartouches, shapes resembling a loop of rope with a knot, inscribed with the name &quot;Tutankhamun&quot;. http://wysinger.homestead.com/kingtutankhamun2.html
    • 64. In the picture of the chair back, the young King rests an arm on the back of his chair while his wife, Ankhesenamon, gently holds out a protective hand towards him. She wears a diadem with twin plumes -- the atef crown, usually associated with Aten, the god of Karnak, and, in a woman, frequently worn by the God's Wife. Between and above the figures, radiating from a central sun-disc in the top frieze, hand the life-giving rays of the Aten. 
    • 65. Wedjat (Eye of Horus) pendant of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. | gold and precious stones | 2 in. wide The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess  Wedjat.
    • 66.  
    • 67. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,290-1280 B.C.E. | painted papyrus scroll | 18 in. high
    • 68. Book of the Dead from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,040-945 B.C.E. | painted and inscribed papyrus | 13 3/4 in. high The Book of the Dead is the modern name of an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom.The original Egyptian name for the text is translated as &quot;Book of Coming Forth by Day&quot;. The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BC.
    • 69. Ptolemaic Art During the last millennium BCE, Egypt lost the commanding role it once had played in the ancient Near East. <ul><li>Persian invaders occupied Egypt in the sixth century BC until 332 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and entered Egypt, he was welcomed as the son of the god Amun. </li></ul><ul><li>He founded a new city on the shores of the Mediterranean, Alexandria. </li></ul><ul><li>After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his commander Ptolemy 1 Soter founded the Ptolemaic State in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt became one of the great powers of the Hellenistic world, at various times extending its rule over parts of Syria, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Libya and Phoenicia. </li></ul>
    • 70.  
    • 71. Main entrance showing the first pylon Edfu Temple Edfu, Egypt | ca. 237-47 B.C.E. The temple of Edfu is the largest temple dedicated to falcon god Horus and Hathor of Dendera.
    • 72. cat goddess Bastet from Thebes, Egypt 304-31 B.C.E. bronze 11 in. high Cats, known in Ancient Egypt as the mau, were important in ancient Egyptian society. Beginning as a wild, untamed species, cats were useful for limiting vermin in Egyptian crops and harvests; through exposure, cats became domesticated and learned to coexist with humans. The domesticated cat became a symbol of grace and poise. The goddess Mafdet, the deification of justice and execution, was a lion-headed goddess. The cat goddess Bastes eventually replaced the cult of Mafdet, and Bast's image softened over time and she became the deity representing protection, fertility, and motherhood. As a revered animal and one important to Egyptian society and religion, some cats received the same mummification after death as humans.
    • 73. Ancient Egyptian Symbols
    • 74. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankh The Ankh, also known as key of life, the key of the Nile or crux ansata, was the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic character that read &quot;eternal life“. Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. An Osiris Pillar of Senusret I from the 12th Dynasty Ankh
    • 75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraeus The Uraeus (Greek &quot;rearing cobra&quot;) is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian spitting cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity, and divine authority in ancient Egypt. Uraeus
    • 76. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_sun The winged sun is a symbol associated with divinity, royalty and power in the Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia). Winged Sun The queen Nefertari is in a party on her boat. And behind her two sisters goddess Isis and Nephtes, surmounted by the winged sun disk.
    • 77. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarab_(artifact) Ancient Egyptian scarabs were popular amulets in ancient Egypt. According to ancient Egyptian myths, the sun (Ra) rolls across the sky each day and transforms bodies and souls. Scarab Commemorative scarab of Amenhotep III
    • 78. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouroboros The Ouroboros is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail. It comes from the Greek words oura (Greek οὐρά) meaning &quot;tail&quot; and boros (Greek βόρος) meaning &quot;eating&quot;, thus &quot;he who eats the tail&quot;. Ouroboros Ouroboros on papyrus
    • 79. The goddess Isis is portrayed as a woman, wearing a headress shaped like a throne; sometimes she is also shown with bird's wings. Osiris, lord of the dead. His green skin symbolizes re-birth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osisis
    • 80. Amun depicted with a tall feather crown Amun-Ra
    • 81. Glossary <ul><li>adobe The clay used to make a kind of sun-dried mud brick of the same name; a building made of such brick. </li></ul><ul><li>amulet An object worn to ward off evil or to aid the wearer. </li></ul><ul><li>ashlar masonry Carefully cut, regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar. </li></ul>
    • 82. Glossary <ul><li>ben-ben A pyramidal stone; a fetish of the Egyptian god Re </li></ul><ul><li>block statue In ancient Egyptian sculpture, a cubic stone image with simplified body parts. </li></ul><ul><li>canon A rule, for example, of proportion. Beauty was considered a matter of “correct” proportion & sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure & for buildings. </li></ul>
    • 83. Glossary <ul><li>ca no pic jar In ancient Egypt, the container in which the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy. </li></ul><ul><li>capital The uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order. </li></ul><ul><li>chamfer The surface formed by cutting off a corner of a board or post; a bevel. </li></ul>
    • 84. Glossary <ul><li>clerestory The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. </li></ul><ul><li>colonnade A series or row of columns, usually spanned by lintels. </li></ul><ul><li>demotic Late Egyptian writing </li></ul><ul><li>engaged column A half-round column attached to a wall, principally on columns & pilasters. </li></ul>
    • 85. Glossary <ul><li>Egyptian faience A non-clay based ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright luster of various blue-green colors. </li></ul><ul><li>flute or fluting Vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters. </li></ul><ul><li>hypostyle hall A hall with a roof supported by columns. </li></ul>
    • 86. Glossary <ul><li>fresco Painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet. In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. </li></ul><ul><li>hieroglyphic A system of writing using symbols or pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>impost block A stone with the shape of a truncated, inverted pyramid, placed between a capital and the arch that springs from it. </li></ul>
    • 87. Glossary <ul><li>ka In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force. </li></ul><ul><li>mastaba An ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft. </li></ul><ul><li>mummification A technique used by ancient Egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the eternal home of the immortal ka . </li></ul>
    • 88. Glossary <ul><li>nemes In ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front. </li></ul><ul><li>obelisk A tall four-sided narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, said to resemble a &quot;petrified ray&quot; of the sundisk. </li></ul><ul><li>papyrus A plant native to Egypt and adjacent lands used to make paperlike writing material; also, the material or any writing on it. used by an artist. </li></ul>
    • 89. Glossary <ul><li>pictograph A picture, usually stylized, that represents an idea; also, writing using such means; also painting on rock. </li></ul><ul><li>pier A vertical, freestanding masonry support. </li></ul><ul><li>portico A roofed colonnade; also an entrance porch. </li></ul><ul><li>pylon The simple and massive gateway, with sloping walls, of an Egyptian temple. </li></ul>
    • 90. Glossary <ul><li>sarcophagus (pl. sarcophagi) Latin, “consumer of flesh.” A coffin, usually of stone. </li></ul><ul><li>serdab A small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>sphinx A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human. </li></ul><ul><li>ushabti In ancient Egypt, a figurine placed in a tomb to act as a servant to the deceased in the afterlife. </li></ul>
    • 91. Sources <ul><li>http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dsteppyramid2.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wadsworth.com/art_d/templates/student_resources/0155050907_kleiner/studyguide/ch03/ch03_2.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://websites.swlearning.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0155050907&discipline_number=436 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aldokkan.com/art/art.htm </li></ul>

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