• Language and Culture: Vocabulary in Signs
• Developing vocabulary acquisition skills and strategies
• Using inference and deduction to explore layers of
meaning of a word
• Making relevant notes when approaching different
sources, comparing and contrasting information.
• Exploring Connotation/Denotation
• Using a variety of resources to study use and usage of
• Improving vocabulary for precision and impact
ABC news about Grantham
Britishsms and Britishation of
• Refer to the BBC text worksheet to answer the
• 1- Write down a list of Briticisms on a vocabulary log.
• 2-What is your opinion about this phenomenon?
• 3- What is the best way to keep yourself up-to-date
with the new language?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UIXHcOjJpxY (movie snippet)
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 (text)
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHX2mvFVQMs&NR=1 (american accent and stereotyping)
• BBC Podcast: The English we speak
• BBC One-minute news
• Cbbc news
• cbbcnews mobile phones girl fall in hole
• ‘ When you lose a language, you lose a
culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art.’
He sought to rescue languages that were dying
He held that meaning were fluid to be captured
and readily translated word-for-word from
one language to another.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8uUjtiaXqE (Dreaming in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think) Extra Time
True or False?
The ability to communicate is essential to deep
• Languages have patterns, structures and systems.
• Language is a tool to access knowledge.
• Language allows humans to share thoughts,
feelings and emotions.
• Language is part of the development of identity.
• Communication is an essential tool for
• Is language learning universal?
• Is there only one way to learn a language?
• Is language acquisition universal?
• How far does your language represent your
The politically correct use of English
• In order to minimize social and institutional
offense in regards to race, class, gender,
racial, sexual orientation, cultural, religious,
ideological, disability and age-related
contexts, certain vocabulary should be
avoided as it may be perceived as being
IDENTIFIED AS BEING
– Use of ‘his’
• Sexual orientation
The purpose of Politically Correct
1. It reduces the social acceptability of
using offensive terms.
2. It discourages the reflexive use of
words that import a negative
stereotype, thereby promoting
conscious thinking about how to
describe others fairly on their merits.
• ACQUISITION OF A LANGUAGE
• Learning a Target Language
‘PICK UP A
Jonhson, K. (2001) An Introduction to Foreign Language
Learning and Teaching . Harlow : Longman
Attempt to bridge the gap between theorists and
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, possible worlds.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University
‘ The security of the familiar with the excitement of
• Body movement
Acquiring vocabulary is like performing
a very intricate dance.
• The Terminal
• Brick Lane, by Monica Ali.
A sharply observed story about the
life of a Bangladeshi immigrant girl
who comes to London to marry, it is
ultimately a universal story about life,
love, cultural difference and the
power of the human spirit.
• Optical Illusion:
‘ Psychology . a perception, as of visual stimuli
(optical illusion), that represents what is
perceived in a way different from the way it is
in reality. ‘
Words presented with pictures
e.g. Optical illusion
• What's an Analogy?
by Ann Reckner
An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized tests. It is made up of two word pairs, like this:
GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: late : _______
• Your goal in solving an analogy is to find a word that correctly completes the second pair. At first glance the words in an analogy
may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. Both pairs of words have the same
kind of relationship. To solve the analogy you need to find that relationship. Read the analogy like this:
"Graceful is to clumsy as late is to 'blank.'"
• Ask yourself: What is the relationship between graceful and clumsy? They are antonyms—words that have opposite meanings.
The second pair of words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of late, and you've
solved the analogy. Early is the best answer.
Besides antonyms, the word pairs in an analogy could have one of these types of relationships: synonyms, or words that have
the same or similar meanings, as in WORK : LABOR
• descriptive, in which one word describes the other word, as in
• BLUE : SKY WHITE: SNOW
• part to whole, in which one word is a part or piece of the other,
• as in ARM : BODY kitchen: house
• item to category, in which one word names something that falls into the group named by the other word,
as in MILK : BEVERAGE
Roast : Food
PUPPY : DOG :: kitten : _______
Words presented in analogy
Using graphics to show word meaning
Presented in word families
Root Comes from Means
bio Greek life
cept Latin take
form Latin Form, shape
graph Greek write
script Latin write
spect Latin look
phone Greek voice
hydr Greek water
fect Latin Cause, make
Vid,vis Latin see
cis Latin cut
cent Latin hundred
Providing multiple exposures and opportunities to see, hear,
write and use new words
Supporting Developing Word Knowledge
• Repeat in various contexts
• Describe words
• Support with visuals
• Connect to yours or other
• Extend meaning with
• Make associations
• Give definitions
• Compare and contrasts
• Chart characteristics
• Rephrase sentences
• Analyze structure
• Provide tactile examples
• Give examples of correct
and incorrect use
IntroductionLet's face it - English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham
in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple.
English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France.
Sweetmeats are candies while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat.
We take English for granted. But if we explore its paradoxes, we find that
quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square and a guinea pig is
neither from Guinea nor is it a pig.
‘Learning involves the search for patterns, regularity and
And why is it that writers write but fingers don't fing, grocers don't groce
and hammers don't ham?
If the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn't the plural of booth, beeth?
One goose, 2 geese. So one moose, 2 meese?
Doesn't it seem crazy that you can make amends
but not one amend? If you have a bunch of odds
and ends and get rid of all but one of them, what
do you call it?
if teachers taught, why didn't preachers praught?
If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a
• In what language do people recite at a play
and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send
cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet
How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy
You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn
up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out and in which, an
alarm goes off by going on.
• English was invented by people, not
computers, and it reflects the creativity of the
human race, which, of course, is not a race at
• That is why, when the stars are out, they are
visible, but when the lights are out, they are
• Make amends
• usage notes: after to/by/with
• e.g. I hope that by winning this game I will make amends to
my fans for losing such an easy match yesterday.
• at the end of a sentence: I embarressed my friends
and want to make amends.
• Odds and ends(pl)
• Run an errand /run errands
Note: When logging vocabulary one should add some examples to turn input
• Smelly feet / flat foot/ ingrown nail/ athlete’s
• Running nose/ Have the flu / cold/ congested/
feel sick, be sick/ ill
‘ Memory can be thought of as a kind of conveyor belt, which when in
operation receives a constant stream of information, which it processes as
• How many words do we know?
• How many do we need to know in order to be
• How many do native speakers know at the age
of 3, when they start speaking?
• How many can we learn ?
How many words do we know?
• Average first grader – 6,000 words
• Average high school senior – 45,000 words
• The Math:
– 39,000 words over 12 years
– About 3,000 words a year or 10 words a day
• The range:
– 1,000 words a year for low achieving children
– 5,000 words a year for high achieving children
• I will learn..... words a day.
At the end of the year it will be
Setting a smart target
What does it mean to KNOW a word?
• A preliminary definition
– Read/decode a word
– Understand its meaning and use
– Use it in oral response
– Use it in written work
• Levels of word knowledge
• There are many other strategies used to learn a
vocabulary and the following links may give you
food for thought.
EAL teaching strategies - supporting pupils for whom English is an
EAL strategies and resources to make planning and teaching
easier and help your pupils achieve the four Ps;
- make accelerated progress
- fulfil their potential
- be happy motivated and proactive learners
- be proud of their identity and language skills
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Second
Perspectives of critical/sensitive periods, maturational
effects, individual differences, neural regions involved,
and processing characteristics. The research methods
used include functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and event
related potentials (ERP).
Core questions including: which brain areas are reliably
activated in second language processing? Are they the
same or different from those activated in first
language acquisition and use? And what are the
behavioural consequences of individual differences
Off you go
Top of the morning
The penny has dropped
How giant amplifiers can help Mr Moose hear for miles
By DAVID DERBYSHIRE
They are a sign of maturity, impress the ladies and come
in handy for giving rivals a nasty poke in the ribs.
But moose antlers have another crucial function - as giant
• 1-Think about the words you have come
across in context that you understood without
using a dictionary or consulting someone.
• 2-When checking the meaning of words in
dictinaries, how many words relate to the
original search you come across?
Learning through Language
• Associating it with picture
• Learning other words related to original search
• Learning something interesting about the word
• Experiencing the word in different contexts
• Using the words
Maximizing learning opportunities
1- Jeopardy, objection, overruled, court, parole,
death sentence, jailhouse, appeal.
2- Flood, flash flood, torrent, downpour, in land
tsunami, cats and dogs, flood appeal.
What word generated the following
1- Jeopardy, objection, overruled, court, parole,
death sentence, jailhouse, appeal.
2- Flood, flash flood, torrent, downpour, in land
tsunami, cats and dogs, flood appeal.
What word generated the following
• Write down as many words as you can think
related to the ones bellow:
1- To walk
2- To say ( tell, whisper, shout, yell, cry…)
3- Tired (exhausted, beat, dog tired, worn out,
• To sway= to totter
• Move back and forth unsteadily.
e.g. The drunks swayed as they sang the song.
e.g. The mother rocked the baby in her arms.
Words associated to walk
• To bounce- to move up and down by force
e.g.The kids bounced a ball on the sidewalk.
• To nod- move head up and down
e.g. He nodded his head.
• To shiver- to shudder from fright or cold.
e.g. She sat shivering on the street on the cold
Use the Word
• The drunks swayed as they sang the song.
• The mother rocked the baby in her arms.
• Diamonds dangled on her ears.
• The kids bounced a ball on the sidewalk.
• He nodded his head in agreement.
Think of sentences using the words:
• To shiver:
• To flicker:
• To stir
• To wiggle
Think of sentences using the words:
• To shiver: I began to shiver as the cold rain fell
• To flicker: The screen of the television
flickered a few times before it went blank.
• To stir: I stirred the contents of the saucepan
vigorously to ensure it didn’t burn.
• To wiggle: I wiggled the cable a few times but
still my phone wouldn’t begin to charge.
• Grouping them into themes
A very interesting text to be read is the chapter 4 of this Bolivian post-
grad student paper on how she has overcome her difficulties in
learning vocabulary for a post-grad purpose.
Among many other things, she mentions that she benefitted from
cognate awareness when acquiring new vocabulary.
So she can draw upon her L1 experience to try and guess the meaning
of a new word as well.
She also calls our attention to the false cognates.
Try and complete this exercise on false cognates and see how many
you know or how many you can guess.
DAY AT WORK
In the morning I 1-_______ a meeting between management and 2-_____
representatives. The discussion was very 3-________, covering topics like working
hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement
and ready to 4-_______. The secretary 5-______everything in the notes. 6-
________, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the
Back at the 7-______, a colleague of mine asked me if I had 8-_______ that the
proposed agreement would be partially against the company 9________ not to
accept workers that have already 10-________. I 11-_______ to be really busy and
late for an 12-_______, and left for the13-_______. Actually, I didn't want to
discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers
in the office.
After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax
legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government
intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve
college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle
emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the
Fill in the gaps
• DAY AT WORK
• In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The
discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age,
etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded
everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the
• Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement
would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I
pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I
didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in
• After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a
graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and
senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish
tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the
(an English Speaker Learning Portuguese)
False cognates are words that look similar in different languages, but mean different things.
‘ Compromisso - looks like compromise, but really means
“comittment”. (and the word “comprometido” means that
you are in a relationship, or “committed”).
cobra – you might think this word is referring to a cobra snake,
when really “cobra” is actually the Portuguese word for
snake, all snakes.
desgraça – this is a very strong word in Portuguese, while it
looks like the English word “disgrace,” this is not the
appropriate translation. Rather it is used to refer to things
that are really abhorrent such as major tragedies or
educado – this Portuguese adjective looks like it means
“educated” but it really means “polite” or “well-
raised”. To describe someone as being educated in
Portuguese, say: “ele tem estudo” literally meaning:
“he has study,” and translates to “he is educated.”
esperto - while this word looks like it means “expert,” it
really means clever, sly or intelligent in a savvy way.
local – does not mean “local.” In Portuguese this is a
noun that means “place,” as in a location.
atualmente – looks like “actually,” but really means
“currently,” “nowadays” or ”at the moment”. (To say
“actually” in Brazilian Portuguese, say: “na verdade”).
• a word pronounced the same as another but
differing in meaning a
e.g. heir and air.
Write down the pair of homophones for the
1- e.g.She was stung by a __bee____. ( be, bee)
2-After her illness, she looked very _____.(....)
3- I’d like some ____ of the chocolate cake,
How do you make a sausage roll? Push it!
Why are movie stars so cool? Because they have so
Why did the boy take the pencil to bed? Because he
wanted to draw the curtains.
Why did the teacher wear sunglasses? Her students
were too bright.
same spelling, same pronunciation
• Homographs are words with different
pronunciation, meanings and origins but the
• bow – type of knot OR to incline
• minute – tiny OR unit of time
• row – line OR argument OR propel a boat
It seems to be appropriate to apply some of the
strategies we have visited today while exercising
our memories .
The exercises proposed now will provide
Language teachers/learners with examples of
different types of vocabulary exercises .
Metaphor: figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made
between two unlike things that actually have something in common.
• 1- Effects of humour are injuries
• 2- Time is money
• 3- Words are weapon
• 4- darkness is a cover
• Affection is warmth
• Emotions are physical forces.
• Knowing is seeing.
• 9. a Did you scrub the floor?
• 10. V Put on some warm gloves.
• 11. P This cake is soft and fluffy.
• 12. D I want to do well on my tests.
• 13. H This bed sheet is very clean and
• 14. S I can't understand this question.
• 15. Z He will get lung cancer if he's
• 16. d My father taught me many
• 17. G Why is she taking so much
• 18. f I have heard that story many
• 19. I He's such a sloppy eater.
• 20. W He doesn't listen to anyone.
• 21. O The patient looks very ill.
• 22. J He doesn't eat very much.
• 23. K She sings with much feeling.
• 24. F The man can lift this heavy box.
• 25. R We shouldn't waste time
• 26. N Go to the bathroom to clean
• 27. X The boy is very lazy.
• 28. Q The pudding tastes delicious.
• 29. U She has very poor eyesight.
• 30. E Did you step on this?
• 31. T She is very excited about
getting her driver's license.
• 32. C I will go check on the baby.
• The (0) ... of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many
people (1) ... in everyday situations. It is important to (2) ... between a fear and a
phobia. It's (3) ... usual for all of us to have our own peculiar fears, for example
being anxious around snakes or nervous about flying. However, only a very small
proportion of us actually have a phobia of these things. When these fears begin to
(4) ... you embarrassment or you feel that your life is being disrupted then you
would be wise to (5) ... treatment for what could potentially be a phobia. By far
the most (6) ... phobia and potentially the most disruptive is agoraphobia. The
word derives from Greek and (7) ... means 'fear of the marketplace' but we apply
it today to describe a distressing (8) ... in which people (9) ... going outside
because of the awful feelings of anxiety that arise. Treatment of phobias usually
consists of the patient (10) ... behavioural therapy during which they gradually get
used to being near the object or the situation that causes them fear. Drugs may be
(11) ... to treat anxiety and many people opt for alternative therapy such as
acupuncture or hypnosis to help them come to (12) ... with their fear and conquer
1-) a) face b) confront c) meet d) join
2- ) a) choose b) distinguish c) select d) pick
3-) a) very b)absolutely c) quite d) truly
4-) a) cause b)make c) create d)give
5-) a)explore b) hunt c) search d) seek
6-) a) standard b) average c) normal d) common
7-) a) precisely b) specifically c) literally d) exactly
8-) a)illness b)condition c) disease d) injury
9-) a) dodge b) avoid c)miss d) slip
10-) a) undergoing b) taking c) experiencing d)doing
11-) a) release b)issued c) cerified d) prescribed
12-) a) acceptance b) terms c) realisation d)comfort
Sound Advice for Language Learners
A recent (0) issue of a language learning magazine has consulted a
number of experts in the (1) ........ of second language acquisition. Their
advice may prove invaluable for those (2) ........ a language course. One
suggestion is that you (3) ........... whether you are likely to be successful at
learning a language. Did you enjoy studying languages at school, for
example? Do you have enough time to learn a language? The major
(4) ........ will be your own time and effort.
If proof of your level of proficiency is important you must make sure that
the course on offer leads to a (5) ........ qualification. Also, be realistic in
your (6) ...... . If you don't set achievable aims you are more likely to give
up. Do not be deceived (7) ........... thinking that the most expensive
courses are the best. (8) ........... around to get the best possible value for
money. You should also bear in mind that the quicker you learn a
language the more quickly you forget it. Sandra Miller, a French teacher,
tried to teach herself German by enrolling on a (9) .......... course. Already
fluent in four languages and with a sound knowledge of teaching
methodology her chances of (10) ............ progress were high. Three years
(11) ........ she remembers very little. She feels her biggest mistake was not
to follow (12) ............ her first experience. "I should have consolidated
what I'd learn by continuing to study, even if it were by myself."
Read the text and then write the correct form of the word on
the right. There is an example at the beginning:
It is not (0) unusual to make a hobby pay for itself
even if initially you had no (1) ... of turning it
into a business.
Depending upon the hobby, the necessary (2) ...
can be expensive and the idea of (3) ... offering items
up for sale can at the very least help pay for the
For those looking to make a profit on their (4) ...,
these days an audience for products can range from
the local to the truly global. Some hobbyists begin
by donating a piece of work to a (5) ... sale
just to see how quickly and (6) ... it sells.
Local shops can be the next outlet for items,
often the step taken by those making things like
hand-made greetings cards for instance. And for
truly ambitious, websites like eBay enable the
hobbiest to reach a (7 ) ... audience.
As with any business idea, an honest (8) ... should be
undertaken regarding the demand for the work and the
price the customer is prepared to pay in (9) ... .
However, do not forget the degree of personal (10) ...
'Key' Word Transformations
For questions 1-8, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word
given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given.
1. Apparently, the restaurant in town has been bought out by someone else.
I hear the restaurant in town .........................................
2. Sarah cried her eyes out immediately she was told she'd failed her driving test.
Sarah ........................................ soon as she heard she'd failed her driving test.
3. The Government recently said our problems are the fault of the worldwide economic
The Government have ........................................ the worldwide economic slowdown
for our problems.
4. You led me to believe the job was mine if I wanted it.
I ........................................ that the job was mine if I wanted it.
5. He would never have guessed that at the age of 17 he would be
playing for his country.
........................................ that at the age of 17 he would be
playing for his country.
6. Feel free to telephone if you have any further problems.
Do not ........................................ if you have any further
7. When you do decide what you want to do please let us know.
When ........................................ what you want to do please let
8. Do you mind if I come over to see you later?
Do you ........................................ coming over to see you later?
• Is under new management/ broke down in tears as
placed the blame on/was left with the
impression/was given the impression/ had the
impression/was under the impression/ little dis he
know/ little did he realised/ hesitate to call us/
hesitate to give us a call/ hesitate to call/ have made
up your mind/ you’ve made up your mind/ have any
objections to me.
For questions 1-5, think of one word only which can be used
appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example:
Could you do me a ........and hold the door open while I bring in
All those in ........ of the proposal please raise your hand.
After being out of fashion for years the painter is now in ........
with the critics.
John has just taken up the ........ of Marketing Manager at a local
He put me in a really difficult ........ asking for money when he
knows I'm not very well off.
The yoga teacher told everyone to remain in a standing ........ for
Apparently, the police are going to ........ the man with assault
following that fight the other week.
I couldn't get the car to start this morning and finally had
to ........ the battery as it had gone flat.
The company have been asked to submit a proposal outlining
how much they will ........ for the consultancy work.
During the tutorial I was asked to give my........ of the portrayal
of the main character in the film.
There was a wonderful ........ from the hotel window, which
looked out over beautiful countryside.
Our son couldn't see the game as his ........ was blocked by the
people in front.
I had a real ........ of achievement when I passed the exams and
got my degree.
I don't see the ........ of going all the way into town when we can
buy the dress locally.
Paul has a great ........ of humour and always has everyone in the
office in fits of laughter.
It wasn't my ........ - the vase just fell off the table.
There was a ........ with the computer and we had to take it back
to the shop to get it repaired.
The manager is always finding ........ with people and
complaining about the quality of their work.
KEY Position, charge, view, sense, fault.
Double negatives: two ‘negative’
words in the same sentence. For
Standard English to apply one of
the negative words must be
I ain’t got no pencils I haven’t got any pencils
I don’t want none of that I don’t want any of that.
These are not written in Standard English, how should they be written?
May I lend your scissors Ben?
May I your scissors Ben?
I should of taken more care with the hammer.
I should taken more care with the hammer.
Copy these into your books and write the
correct version underneath.
1. I’d like one of them cakes.
2. My uncle gave me this book whenever I was born.
3. It was thunder what we heard.
4. Mum learned me to ride a bike.
5. He never!
6. It’s right hot!
Try and think of some of your own. Write the non-standard and
Received Pronunciation (RP),
also called the Queen's (or
King's) English, Oxford English,
or BBC English, is the accent of
Standard English in England.
• Although there is nothing intrinsic about RP
that marks it as superior to any other variety,
sociolinguistic factors have given Received
Pronunciation particular prestige throughout
Spoken Language and Written
• There are many differences between spoken
and written English. In fact, speaking as we
write may be considered stuffy, whereas
writing as we speak may be considered
uneducated. Spoken English and written
English should be considered separately.
Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, 1987.
Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice-Hall
• Mentioned at translators’ conference
• Guia prático de tradução inglesa“, de Agenor Soares dos Santos
• “VocabuLando“, de Isa Mara Lando
• School resources
• The Guardian
• Teach it
• Learning Premium
• Linguist John Higgins has prepared a comprehensive list of homographs in various
categories, including those where the meanings are related but the part of speech
and pronunciation change.
• For practising them:
• There are many other strategies used to learn a vocabulary and the following links
may give you food for thought.
How Haruli Murakami ‘ 1Q84’ was
translated into English
• Refer to your worksheet and reflect on the questions:
1-According to this article, Gabriel Garcia Marquez allegedly tod Gregory
Rabassa that his English translation of One Hundred Years of Solitude was
better than the Spanish original.
When translating, should one avoid this? What strategies were used for the
purpose of this text? How effective were they?
2- Too many hands spoil the broth? Or Many hands, light work?
• Gapped Sentences
For questions 1-6, think of one word only which can
be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is
• Some of the tourists are hoping to get compensation
for the poor state of the hotel, and I think they have a
very ........ case.
There's no point in trying to wade across the river, the
current is far too ........ .
If you're asking me which of the candidates should get
the job, I'm afraid i don't have any ........ views either
It is very difficult to fully ........ certain pieces of
jazz music until you've heard them a good few
Although I'm always ready to lend a hand,
Marta never really seems to ........ the things I
do for her.
James is able to ........ an enormous amount of
factual information in his head.
Although the old house has been completely
renovated, care has been taken to ........ as many
of the original features as possible.
When you're buying outdoor adventure clothing,
the thing to look for is material that does
not ........ a lot of moisture
With less than a minute of the football match to
go, Phil managed to ........ the ball into the back of
I think the best course of action would be to
jump into the car and ........ for Bristol as soon as
Louise has been asked to ........ an investigation
into what went wrong on the night of the
Initially, few companies saw any potential in
computers designed for the ........ rather than the
Although extremely independent, and well able
to look after themselves, cats are generally
classified as ........ animals.
Over the years the proportion of foreign stories
in this newspaper has declined as people have
become more engrossed in ........ issues.
The chess champion held off a serious ........ from
his younger opponent in the last match of the
The chairman of the meeting seemed to regard
questions from the audience as some kind
of ........ to his authority.
You'll find some aspects of the job a real ........,
but we're confident that you can cope.
Melanie practised her lines each day after school,
getting increasingly nervous as the date of her
audition ........ even closer.
Although Tim had been in the lead for most of
the race, as they reached the final bend,
Graham ........ level and threatened to overtake
On an impulse, Laurie ........ all the money out of
his bank account and went to London, intending
to spend every last penny of it.