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Vocabulary ii   slide marcelle 1 Vocabulary ii slide marcelle 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Vocabulary  Marcelle Esteves  EAL consultant  Letras (Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ)  MA in TEFL (University of Reading, Berkshire, UK)
  • Power of Words  ‘ A word is dead when it is said some say, I say it begins to live that day’ Emily Dickson Intro
  • Learning Objectives  PALL The structure and organisation of texts, including vocabulary choice and presentational features at text level.  Writers’ purposes and viewpoints, and the overall effect of the text on the reader.  Degrees of Formality  Language and Culture  Vocabulary and Media
  • Dylan Williams 2012 Institute of Education, UK. Quality Teaching  Questioning(Using words to involve everyone)  Task:  1- What was the framework for the feeback you hear on the f  How effective was it? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDNrjtaWdGk Dylan William Worksheet
  • Purposes in communication
  • Persuasion  Language of Advertisement PERSUASIVE WRITING e.g. leaflet, advertisement, argument •Opening statement - state claim, eye catching phrase/Slogan •Set out argument in logical steps or description of what & where •Evidence to support argument – examples/benefits •Present tense •Connectives – so, therefore •Adjectives, adverbs, exaggeration, alliteration, word play
  • The power of words in advertisement  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2l_WzEdUd0o 1- Have you heard of any variations of the reason why they have Decided to personalise the cans? 2- How effective was it in Brazil? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1Lkyb6SU5U 1- What was the original idea? 2- How has it impacted on the sales of the products? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaJjPRwExO8 1- What was the approach used by this Greenpeace advert? 2- How effective was it?
  • Anti-smoking Campaign 1- What are the persuasive devices used here? 2- What is the audience? 3- Comment on the use of image and how intertwined it is with the text.
  • Anti-smoking  1- What is the target audience for this commercial?  2- Comment on the language used to address the audience.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAirUswrNFo
  • ower of three motive language hetorical questions ay again ndermine opposing views necdote irect address xaggeration Including lists of three items/reasons in your writing. Questions to get your audience thinking – they don’t require an answer. Involve your audience by speaking to them directly using personal pronouns and shared experiences. Including little stories to illustrate a point. Destroy/criticise the opposing argument. Words, phrases and imagery that arouse an emotional response. Being over-the- top to get a point across. Repeating the same word, phrase or idea more than once for emphasis.
  • Persuasive Devices  Refer to your worksheet when answering the following questions:  1- Think of a powerful television commercial. What features does it display? How effective were they?  2- Choose one picture and design a persuasive catch- phrase/slogan/brand-name to attract its audience.
  • Powerful Words  Persuasive speeches I’m only a child. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ja3ugxh0T3Y Martin Luther King delivered on August 28, 1963 Can you name any others?
  • Vocabulary in media Headlines Word play http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XVQ1ULfQawk worksheet  Alliteration Wonderful World Dream Destination  Rhetorical questions  How-to formula Newspaper articles  1- What is the purpose?  2- What questions should it address?  3-How can you make it reliable?  4- Is it possible for a piece of writing not to be biased?
  • People and Proverbs  Nothing defines a culture as distinctly as its language, and the element of language that best encapsulates a society's values and beliefs is its proverbs. Task: 1-Refer to proverbios worksheet and find a match in both languages. 2-What does it tell us about both cultures? http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/proverbs.html
  • Quick Brain Gym  Lost in Translation Manda-chuva bigwig ? Puxa-saco Apple polisher Teachers used to get apples as gifts. To go bananas Monkeys go crazy for them. bankrupt Italian sharks? Bark up at the wrong tree Racoons. Voltei a estaca zero Game? fracassado Horse races Um de cada vez ?
  • Also-run Origin: Horse race results on American papers. The top three results and an annex also-run… Meaning: unimportant; people who did not succeed in life.
  • Alive and kicking  Country music is still alive and kicking in Brazil.  Origin  Fresh fish in the UK?  Babies in womb?
  • bankrupt  He went bankrupt after only two years in his own business.  She will be bankrupt soon if she does not get a job.  Origin
  • SOS English  AC  BC  WWII  ASAP  RSVP  LOL  AFK  ATM  BYO  DIY  FYI http://www.forbes.com/sites/crime/2012/06/23/is-fifty-shades-of-grey-dangerous
  • Idioms Christian Grey holds forth on the subject of success in business (an extract of the blog 50 annoying things about shades of grey) “Business is all about people, Miss Steele, and I’m very good at judging people. I know how they tick, what makes them flourish, what doesn’t, what inspires them, and how to incentivise them.”  a. Nobody talks like this in real life.  b. Especially since the idiom you are actually looking for is “what makes them tick”.
  • A lingua na boca do povo ‘ I say , have you heard? Richard Smith’s leaving. You could apply for his job at London office. Funnily enough, you’re the third person that said that today. Actually, I did know about it, but I wasn’t planning to apply.’ Extract from Oxford Idioms: Dictionary for learners of English.
  • Can you add some to fill in the bubbles?  You haven’t got a clue. 1- ..you do not know the answer to something 2- …you understand what somebody is telling you. 3- …you are surprised. I get the message. Well I never!
  • Anda logo! 4-…you want somebody to keep calm. 5-…you want somebody to hurry up 6- …you do not believe what somebody has told you.
  • As saying goes…  Some sayings are so well known that it is not even necessary to finish the whole expression. 1- Two’s company… 2- A rolling stone… 3- What the eye doesn’t see…
  • As saying goes…  Some sayings are so well known that it is not even necessary to finish the whole expression. 1- Two’s company… three’s a crowd. 2- A rolling stone… 3- What the eye doesn’t see…
  • As saying goes…  Some sayings are so well known that it is not even necessary to finish the whole expression. 1- Two’s company…threes a crowd. 2- A rolling stone…gathers no moss. 3- What the eye doesn’t see…
  • As saying goes…  Some sayings are so well known that it is not even necessary to finish the whole expression. 1- Two’s company…threes a crowd. 2- A rolling stone…gathers no moss. 3- What the eye doesn’t see…the heart doesn’t grieve over. What can you say Worksheet
  • Euphemisms and hyperboles  http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/the-risks-of- language-for-health-translators--149721385/607441.html 1- When are we likely to encounter euphemisms? 2- How often do we use hyperboles? 3- How do we best tailor our speech?
  • Connotation and denotation  PEEL the meanings I think, therefore I am. 1- Can metaphors become a cliché? 2- What are the keywords in his speech? 3- Do you agree with the statement that figurative language is difficult to be translated? Explain. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/james_geary_metaphorically_speaking.html
  • From Ali G to the Queen  Degrees of formality The following video is a segment from a British television program in which the interviewer is discussing the topic of Animal Rights with a panel of experts and stakeholders. Watch very carefully and see if you can discern any disparities in the register of speech between any of the participants. Ali G
  • What is register? "Every native speaker is normally in command of several different language styles, sometimes called registers, which are varied according to the topic under discussion, the formality of the occasion, and the medium used (speech, writing, or sign). "Adapting language to suit the topic is a fairly straightforward matter. Many activities have a specialized vocabulary. If you are playing a ball game, you need to know that 'zero' is a duck in cricket, love in tennis, and nil in soccer. If you have a drink with friends in a pub, you need to know greetings such as: Cheers! Here's to your good health! "Other types of variation are less clearcut. The same person might utter any of the following three sentences, depending on the circumstances: I should be grateful if you would make less noise. Please be quiet. Shut up! Here the utterances range from a high or formal style, down to a low or informal one--and the choice of a high or low style is partly a matter of politeness.“ (J. Aitchison, Teach Yourself Linguistics. Hodder, 2003)
  • What,Where and When?Formal Style •more complex, longer sentences •avoidance of contractions and abbreviations •use of passive voice •more 'educated' words, Latin origin, low-frequency vocabulary •avoid the imperative form •noun phrases ‍Informal Style •short words and sentences •contractions and abbreviations •colloquial language,Anglo Saxon words (phrasal verbs) •may use the imperative form •verb phrases Source: Bartlebly.com
  • You can be perfectly fluent in a language and culturally illiterate  1- Write a paragraph reflecting on the statement above.
  • Intercultural Communication Knowledge Our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice -- and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding. The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.” http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/chimamanda_adichie_the _danger_of_a_single_story.html
  • Listen to some extracts  1- What is your first impression about their accents. Attitudes towards language: accents  The following statements are examples of different attitudes towards the way people speak. Think carefully about each statement and decide whether you agree or disagree with the statement.  
  • Discuss: Myth or Fact?  Some accents are pleasant to listen to but others not so much.  You can tell some people are intelligent by the way they talk.  People with posh accents are usually rich and successful.  People who come from rural areas normally have accents which are difficult to understand
  • Literature  Our Day Out A play about deprived children from Liverpool. Written by Willy Russell and first aired on 28 December 1977. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-YQE1whleo
  • Up-dated? Disturbing? Trash?  http://cassandraparkin.wordpress.com/2012/05/29/advent ures-in-trash-fifty-things-that-annoy-me-about-fifty- shades-of-grey/
  • Extra Time  The Birth of a word http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/deb_roy_the_birth_of_a _word.html
  • Case Study  An international school in Brazil decides to change the system to report on students. Parents did not understand that satisfactory was positive. Senior management decided to omit satisfactory as in a school with such high expectations, students should be making more effort in their studies. Subject teachers decided to grade students below average (unsatisfactory) because they were unable to report on their effort, just enough to pass the subject. The third and last change on the report will use the word mediocre. Excellent Excellent Excellent Very Good Very Good Very Good Good Good Good Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Mediocre Unsatisfactory Poor Unsatisfactory Poor Poor
  •  1- What is the meaning implied in mediocre?  2- How are some parents going to react to this reading?  3- What is the impact on the student’s motivation knowing the efforts were mediocre in maths, chemistry…?  4- Is this report going to have a negative or positive impact on the audience?  5- What other words related to SATISFACTORY, MEDIOCRE, can be used instead?
  • How can I best say this in English….?  O pao esta com bolo  O bolo solou  Minha calca descosturou  Seu ziper esta aberto  O cabo da vassoura  O cabo de guerra  O vidro rachou  Tem mofo nessa parede  Minha calca ainda esta amarrotada
  • Shed some light, please. O café derramou o feijao estragou O banheiro esta ocupado O telefone so da ocupado 30 e tanto A pia ta pingando Ta vazando Acabou o café Durmi tarde Acordei tarde
  •  Please share your expertise and develop collaborative learning communities. This is key for 21st century education.
  • Megaphone and the power of words  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwEYYI-AGWs
  • DPS  Show me the heart unfettered by foolish dreams And I'll show you a happy man  - Tennyson  But only in their dreams can men be truly free It was always thus and always thus will be.  - Keating