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Vocabulary i

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  • Material adapted from that prepared by Marcelle Esteves
  • For more on the model and the concept of world Englishes go to the link: http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_05_jr.php
  • Video from youtube: English Problems
  • Mitigating circumstances
  • These words would combine to make what would be called weak or high-frequency collocations
  • I haven’t got the foggiest draws reference to the famous London fog; Hold your horses is an expression that originated in the American Gold Rush.
  • By all means – Certamente; Green with envy – Roxo de inveja; You can’t have your cake and eat it – Não se pode ter tudo na vida.
  • Slug your guts out – Dar duro no trabalho; Get the sack – Ser demitido; Cook the books – Adulterar os livros de contabilidade; Green about the gills – Estar chocho; In the pink – Estar corado; Feel like a million dollars – Sentir bem disposto
  • In/out of fashion – Na moda/Fora de moda; At long last – Até que enfim, finalmente; On the fly – De forma espontânea, no improviso; Get one’s own back – Se vingar; Lose heart – Se desanimar; Take the cake – Ser o cúmulo do absurdo
  • On top of that – Para piorar as coisas, como se não bastasse; Can we leave it at that? – Vamos parar com essa conversa?; At the end of the day – No fim das contas
  • Have a lot on your plate – Estar cheio de trabalhos a fazer; Have fingers in many pies – Estar envolvido em muitos projetos ao mesmo tempo; Wear many hats – Exercer diveras funções ao mesmo tempo
  • Idioms related to losing your cool or getting angry. Have a cow/have monkeys/have a fit – Ter um piripaque, um chilique
  • Ganhar dinheiro da noite para o dia; O mundo é seu; Gastar as economias; Pele e osso; Pegar o touro à unha
  • Fazer uma lambança; Nem por todo o dinheiro do mundo; Fulminar com os olhos; Claro como a água; Mudar as regras do jogo
  • Walk into a job = get a job based on contacts or pulling strings; get a job = obtain employment on your own merit
  • Jump to a conclusion = make a precipitated conclusion; come to a conclusion = make a well-thought-out conclusion
  • Heavy = having a lot of weight; complex in understanding. Weighty = having a lot of weight
  • The expression “fat chance” means the same as “slim chance”
  • These are common newspaper headlines
  • This happens in every language apparently
  • Odds and ends = errands
  • Odds and ends = errands
  • Odds and ends = errands
  • Homographs, homophones, homonyms
  • Competing, competing, competitive, competitive, competitive, competitive, competing, competing

Transcript

  • 1. Vocabulary I
  • 2. Learning Objectives: Developing vocabulary acquisition skills and strategies Using inference and deduction to explore layers of meaning of a word Making relevant notes when researching different sources, comparing and contrasting information. Using vocabulary precisely and imaginatively to clarify and extend meaning Using a variety of resources to study use and usage of a word  Improving vocabulary for precision and impact
  • 3. Where to start?
  • 4. The spread of English according to Kachru (1985) Norm- providing Norm- developing Norm- dependent
  • 5. Vocabulary • Core language • Variety • Dialect • Jargon • Code • Vernacular • Slang • Pidgin • Lingo • Patois
  • 6. Vocabulary • Core language – Language base which may vary according to cultural and geographical differences but comprehensible to speakers from different regions or countries
  • 7. Vocabulary • Variety – A language set that is distinguished from other sets of the same language by features of phonology, grammar and vocabulary and by its use by a group of speakers who are usually set off from others geographically.
  • 8. Vocabulary • Dialect – A different form, condition or phase of a language
  • 9. Vocabulary • Jargon – Vocabulary peculiar to a particular trade, profession or group
  • 10. Vocabulary • Code – A system used for brevity or secrecy of communication, in which arbitrarily chosen words, letters, or symbols are assigned definite meanings
  • 11. Vocabulary • Vernacular – Native or indigenous as opposed to literary or learned language
  • 12. Vocabulary • Slang – Very informal usage in vocabulary and idiom that is characteristically more metaphorical, playful, elliptical, vivid, and ephemeral than ordinary language
  • 13. Vocabulary • Pidgin – An auxiliary language that has come into existence through the attempts by speakers of two different languages to communicate and that is primarily a simplified form of one of the languages, with a reduced vocabulary and grammatical structure and considerable variation in pronunciation
  • 14. Vocabulary • Lingo – The language and speech of a particular group, field or individual
  • 15. Vocabulary • Patois – A regional form of a language, particularly French, differing from the standard, literary forms of the language
  • 16. Watch the next video • Which person seems to have the most difficulty communicating?
  • 17. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • "If language structures make up the skeleton, then the vocabulary provides the vital organs and the flesh". Jeremy Harmer
  • 18. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • Selection, knowledge and techniques • What to teach/learn? What criteria should be used? • High frequency words first – click here to see the video (Oxford 3000) • Organizing words (Brazil gay rights progress highlights deep divisions from the BBC)
  • 19. Did you know that … • Nice is one of the top fifteen words in conversation, but rare in written academic English? • The most common word in English is “I”? • The 5 most common verbs are know, think, get, go and mean? • The most common nouns are people, time and things?
  • 20. Did you know that … • The most common adjective is good? • Yeah is more frequent than yes? • Little is more frequent than small? • Things, years, kids and children are more frequent than their singular forms? • Something is more frequent than anything, everything, and nothing?
  • 21. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • The efficiency of word lists (glossaries for translators) • Word meaning/use/formation/grammar • How autonomous is the autonomous learner? • The Celce-Murcia approach: Conveying meaning, Checking understanding, and Consolidation
  • 22. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • Delexicalized verbs: make, do, get, have, and take. • In addition to an original meaning, they take meaning from their collocates
  • 23. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • The grammar of vocabulary • The vocabulary of grammar and the grammar of speech
  • 24. (Teaching) Vocabulary (Igbaria) • Would you mind x Do you mind – (Requests) Do you mind/Would you mind + gerund e.g. Do you mind/Would you mind helping me for a second? – (Asking for permission) Do you mind/Would you mind + if e.g. Do you mind/Would you mind +if I leave/left early today?
  • 25. Language Learning X Learning Acquisition
  • 26. Note Taking • ACQUISITION OF A LANGUAGE • Learning a Target Language ‘PICK UP A LANGUAGE’ ‘INCIDENTAL LEARNING’ Studying it Intended learning
  • 27. Vocabulary • Active x Passive; Productive x Receptive • Indirect x Direct Acquisition • Gramaticalized lexis or Lexicalized grammar (Lewis, 1993)
  • 28. Boundaries between conceptual meaning • Multiple meaning • Homonymy • Homophyny • Synonymy • Affective meaning • Style, register, dialect • L1 - L2 (false cognates) • Chunks of language • Grammar of vocabulary • Pronunciation
  • 29. ‘Learning involves the search for patterns, regularity and predictability’ Bruner 1960 • Global concept of knowing a lexical item • Effective written storage systems • Seven is the magic number • Memory strategies: mental linkages, images and sounds, reviewing, physical response
  • 30. Vocabulary and Multiple Intelligences • Intelligences in the teacher and in the translator: – Existential, Intra-personal, Visual-Spatial, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Verbal/Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Musical, Naturalist – “Intelligence is the wife, imagination the mistress, and memory the servant”. Victor Hugo
  • 31. Language learning autonomy • Guided discovery • Contextual guesswork • Dictionary use • Knowledge of word formation (morphology) • How new words are formed
  • 32. Motivation in language learning • Intrinsic x Extrinsic • Affective x Logical
  • 33. The Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993) • Learning in chunks X Learning in Context • Basis of communication • Chunks: collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions, and idioms • Having good vocabulary X Being collocationally competent
  • 34. The Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993) • Identifying, organizing and recording chunks • Being able to use a word involves mastering its collocation range and restrictions on that range
  • 35. Collocation range • Why is it we can stay awake and not keep awake? Why do we stay alive and not keep alive? • Why is it possible to say keep afloat and stay afloat?
  • 36. Questions in Portuguese: Por que o leite azeda, a carne estraga e o ovo apodrece? Por que se pode dirigir uma empresa, prestar um concurso e marcar uma consulta? Por que se guarda mágoas, faz donativos e cria expectativas?
  • 37. COLLOCATION Noun: the act or result of placing or arranging together ; specifically : a noticeable arrangement or conjoining of linguistic elements (as words) Merriam- Webster Online Dictionary ▸ noun: a grouping of words in a sentence ▸ noun: the act of positioning close together (or side by side) Onelook Dictionary
  • 38. Collocation types • Noun + noun phrase: term of endearment • Adjective + noun: sole survivor • Verb + noun: bear responsibility • Noun + verb: resentment breeds • Adverb + adjective: desperately needed • Verb + preposition: grieve for • Adjective + preposition: obsessed with • Noun + preposition: demand for
  • 39. Give a more suitable word for the one in bold. • There has been a big increase in petrol prices. • The scandal has hurt his professional reputation. • I’m afraid this is only a short visit, I can only stay a couple of hours. • The development could have a bad effect on the local wildlife. • The government has presented its plans for education reforms. • The consultants came up with some good suggestions for improving efficiency.
  • 40. • There has been a dramatic/sharp/significant/ substantial increase in oil prices.
  • 41. • The scandal has damaged/ruined/destroyed/tarnished his professional reputation
  • 42. • I’m afraid this is only a brief/flying visit, I can only stay a couple of hours.
  • 43. • The development could have a(n) adverse/devastating/harmful effect on the local wildlife.
  • 44. • The government has announced/outlined/unveiled its plans for education reforms.
  • 45. • The consultants came up with some constructive/helpful/sensible suggestions for improving efficiency.
  • 46. • In the following slides one of the nouns does not collocate with the adjective.
  • 47. • A strong woman/exam/cheese/cigarette
  • 48. • (A) heavy smoker/rain/metal/problem
  • 49. • (A) fair hair/decision/beer/result
  • 50. • A rich company/dessert/car/text file
  • 51. • A tough decision/steak/drink/woman
  • 52. Some words tend to have very few collocates
  • 53. Mitigating circumstances
  • 54. Auburn hair
  • 55. Inclement weather
  • 56. Collocations vary in frequency
  • 57. How many words can collocate with… • Accent • Smile • Location • Meeting • Agreement • Effort • Living • Chance • Occasion • Thoughts
  • 58. How do we find collocations?
  • 59. The key is keeping your eye out for them
  • 60. Which is not always an easy task
  • 61. • Anyone in their right mind would jump at the chance of landing a job like that.
  • 62. • Tanya seems to have a knack for languages, so it’s no surprise she’s decided to take up Mandarin Chinese.
  • 63. • She has quite an odd accent, which, like everything else about her, is hard to pin down.
  • 64. • Management hopes staff will rise to the occasion and meet the new sales targets.
  • 65. Are they all the same? • Fixed collocation –Fixed expression • Idiomatic expression –Idiom
  • 66. Idioms
  • 67. Before you watch the next video, Have a go at identifying common English idioms and slang based on the word cloud on the next slide
  • 68. What does the video tell us about • The type of language used by native speakers? • The “shelf life” of idiomatic expressions and slang? • For the list of expressions used in the video, click here.
  • 69. Idioms * Expressions or phrases peculiar to a given community of speakers with the same cultural background and previous knowledge of the world.
  • 70. Idioms differ from fixed expressions in that: 1. The former act on a culturally and figuratively semantic plane 2. The latter is limited to a more literal or concrete prism.
  • 71. I haven't got the foggiest. I have no idea. Just a second. Hold your horses.
  • 72. Idioms can be formed by: * Noun or prepositional phrases by all means; green with envy * Clauses or periods You can't have your cake and eat it.
  • 73. Idioms are usually organized/ arranged …
  • 74. * In word groups related to specific areas Work/Employment - slug your guts out - get the sack - cook the books Health/State of mind - green about the gills - in the pink - feel like a million dollars
  • 75. * By parts of speech Prepositions - in/out of fashion - at long last - on the fly Verbs - get one's own back - lose heart - take the cake
  • 76. * By communicative function - On top of that - Can we leave it at that? - At the end of the day
  • 77. What do the following idioms on the next slides have in common semantically?
  • 78. Have a lot on your plate Have fingers in many pies Wear many hats
  • 79. Have a cow Have monkeys Have a fit
  • 80. Are these expressions usually translatable?
  • 81. Have you ever heard of these? • If you make a lot of money quickly, you make money hand over …………….. • If you can go wherever and whenever you want, the world is your …………………. • If you spend your life savings to throw a big party or celebration, you push the ……………... • If someone is so thin, he/she is nothing more than skin and …………….. • If you face a problem head-on, you take the bull by the …………………..
  • 82. • If you make a lot of money quickly, you make money hand over fist. • If you can go wherever and whenever you want, the world is your oyster/playground. • If you spend your life savings to throw a big party or celebration, you push the boat (out). • If someone is so thin, he/she is nothing more than skin and bones. • If you face a problem head-on, you take the bull by the horns.
  • 83. And these? • If someone makes a mess of something, he/she makes a pig’s ………….. of it. • If you refuse to do something, you won’t do it for all the ……………….. in China. • If you look very angrily at someone without speaking, you look …………………… at them. • If something is quite easy to understand, it’s as plain as ………………… • If you change the rules to make things more difficult for a person, you move the ………………………..
  • 84. • If someone makes a mess of something, he/she makes a pig’s ear of it. • If you refuse to do something, you won’t do it for all the tea in China. • If you look very angrily at someone without speaking, you look daggers at them. • If something is quite easy to understand, it’s as plain as pie. • If you change the rules to make things more difficult for a person, you move the goalposts.
  • 85. Idioms are sometimes also considered metaphorical language
  • 86. Here are some using parts of the body
  • 87. • The scientists of the IPCC highlighted the need to FACE up to the facts and take immediate action. (accept reality)
  • 88. • Never afraid to SHOULDER the blame in defeat, Guardiola is also quick to withdraw from the media glare in victory, preferring instead to let his players take the acclaim. (take responsibility)
  • 89. • Finally, the question on all our minds is who should FOOT the bill? (pay the price)
  • 90. • Mr. de Ruiter, who will be travelling to South Africa this weekend, will HEAD a team of experts in the areas of: the electoral process; law; the media; conflict resolution; security, and logistics. (coordinate)
  • 91. • In recent years, Port Wine producers have been finding new and ingenious ways to sell their wines, keeping the R&D departments on their TOES (not allow a person to rest)
  • 92. • I then learned that I had to construct my characters on paper, I had been so observant for such a long time, and that I actually had a good EYE for filmmaking. (have a natural talent for)
  • 93. • Increasing urbanization must go HAND in HAND with improving public transport. (go together with or come as a result of)
  • 94. • In short, the film is like an invitation to THUMB a ride through the mind of a youthful Che Guevara and of his friend Alberto Granado, riding pillion on one same motorcycle for eight months, having left Buenos Aires in 1952, and on through Chile, Peru and Venezuela. (travel in someone’s vehicle for free)
  • 95. • Otherwise we have a permanent problem here, a permanent pain in the BEHIND* for the whole of Europe. (a nuisance)
  • 96. • Finally, don't forget to be polite, or you may 'put your FOOT in it' and say something embarrassing. (make an untimely comment)
  • 97. • Given the very serious financial crisis in Turkey since the beginning of the year, the government has had to play by EAR (improvise/make do)
  • 98. • Whatever brave FACE we put on it, the outcome of the Barcelona Summit was indeed a disappointment. (have a positive outlook in spite of the facts that prove otherwise)
  • 99. • Whatever their plans for the future, they always have the answer on the tip of their TONGUE: "I want to go to university and study philosophy. (be in one’s immediate memory)
  • 100. • According to Ponciano (1995) Foulkes himself, following his reading at the London Psychoanalytic Society, of the article "On Introjection" was given the cold SHOULDER by Klein's friends, Jones e Rickman, and little by little distanced himself from their theoretical positions. (ignore someone)
  • 101. • It was a scandal, and a scandal that no one has put their FINGER on. (to identify something)
  • 102. Some collocations change in meaning with the switch of a key word
  • 103. • Jill walked into a well-paid job in the City. • Jill got a well-paid job in the City.
  • 104. • I think you jumped to the wrong conclusion. • I think you came to the wrong conclusion.
  • 105. • His works are compiled in a series of heavy tomes. • His works are compiled in a series of weighty tomes.
  • 106. Then there are exceptions to the rule • Fat chance we've got of winning the sweepstakes. • We've got a slim chance of winning the sweepstakes.
  • 107. What do these sentences have in common? • ATHLETE RUNS INTO TROUBLE • DIET PILLS HAVE FAT CHANCE OF SUCCESS • NEW DIRECTOR KEEPS ROYAL BALLET ON ITS TOES • SHOEWORLD CO. TO FOOT THE BILL • NEW LAW MAKES RABBIT OWNERS HOPPING MAD
  • 108. The use of puns in headlines Varies in sarcasm and malice in accordance with the paper’s reputation and target readership
  • 109. Some of the key features of newspaper English Here are some examples
  • 110. Taking on new meaning • 'Nearly two weeks ago, an estimated 3,000 people assembled at Battery Park with the intention of occupying Wall Street. They were an eclectic group … But nearly everyone was angry at what they saw as a culture of out-of- control greed. – ’ TIME 29TH SEPTEMBER 2011
  • 111. Taking on new meaning • 'National View: Why we should support the occupation of Wall Street … October 2011 will mark a time in U.S. history when the people of the United States, facing great economic peril, rose up to demand economic justice – SOUTHCOAST TODAY 27TH OCTOBER 2011
  • 112. Blending words • 'Glu has been quicker to transition its business model from pay-to-play to a so-called 'freemium' business model – where games are downloaded free, but can be monetized via advertising or charging gamers for additional features.' – REUTERS 6TH JUNE 2011
  • 113. Brands becoming words • Sheffield United skipper Nick Montgomery is ready to give the full monty after six weeks out due to injury. (full monty = all effort, the whole thing or set) • 'Our Edinburgh show was very marmite with critics – either four/five stars, or – a couple of times – one star!‘ (marmite = unsuccessful) THE NEW CURRENT 13TH MARCH 2011
  • 114. More examples of brands • The British use it to clean their carpets. • A cheap writing instrument • It’s synonymous with to check or do research • This develops almost instantly after photo is taken • Used to tie or mend a seal that was torn • A moving staircase
  • 115. More examples of brands • Hoover • Biro • Google • Polaroid • Sellotape • Escalator
  • 116. Acronyms as words • WYSIWYG – what you see is what you get • PHAT – pretty hot and tasty • DILLIGAF – does it look like I give a ****? • NAFF – not available for fun – I’m sick and tired of this crap. Stop naffing about and come clean with us!
  • 117. Makes no sense • Egg in eggplant? • Ham in hamburger? • Apple in pineapple? • English muffins from England? • French fries from France? • Panama hats from Panama • Meat in sweetmeat? • Bread in sweetbread?
  • 118. Makes no sense • Quick in quicksand? • Circles in boxing rings? • Guinea pigs from Guinea? • Fing as a verb? • Groce as a verb? • Ham as a verb? • Booth – beeth? • Moose – meese? • House – hice?
  • 119. Makes no sense Can you make an amend? Is there such a thing as an odd and end? Why isn’t the past of preach praught? Do humanitarians eat humans? What do authoritarians eat? Can we recite at a recital? Can we play at a play?
  • 120. Makes no sense Do we ship something by ship? Do we send cargo by car? Do our noses smell? Do feet run? Is a fat chance the same as a slim chance? Can a wise man also be a wise guy?
  • 121. Language note Smelly feet – flat foot- ingrown nail- athlete’s feet- bunion Running/runny nose- flu – cold- congested- sick- ill
  • 122. Makes no sense Can burn up be the same as burn down? Can you fill someone in and fill someone out? What can go off and go on? Can you see the lights when they are out? What about the stars
  • 123. English is a crazy language • http://www.etni.org.il/farside/crazyenglish.ht m • http://english- zone.com/language/english.html
  • 124. Memory as a conveyor belt
  • 125. Learning a word Receptive knowledge - decoding Conceptual knowledge- applying Phonological knowledge- pronouncing Grammatical knowledge- using Connotational Knowledge- deducing Metalinguistic Knowledge – interpreting and inferring Memory- RETRIEVING Cameron, L. 2001
  • 126. Recap Associating it with picture Learning other words related to original search Learning something interesting about the word Experiencing the word in different contexts Repetition Using the words Maximizing learning opportunities
  • 127. Word association 1- Jeopardy, objection, overruled, court, parole, death sentence, jailhouse, appeal. Crime and Punishment
  • 128. Word association 1- flood, flash flood, torrent, downpour, in land tsunami, cats and dogs, flood appeal. Rain
  • 129. Contextual guesswork DAY AT WORK In the morning I _______ a meeting between management and _____ representatives. The discussion was very ________, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to _______. The secretary ______everything in the notes. ________, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement.
  • 130. Key DAY AT WORK In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement.
  • 131. Contextual guesswork Back at the ______, a colleague of mine asked me if I had _______ that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company ________ not to accept workers that have already ________. I _______ to be really busy and late for an _______, and left for the _______. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office.
  • 132. Key Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office.
  • 133. Contextual guesswork After lunch I attended a _______ given by the ________, who is an _______ in tax legislation and has a _____ ______ in political science. He said his government intends to _______ welfare programs and ____citizens, raise funds to improve _______ education and build a public _______, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he _______ this is what the people expect from the government.
  • 134. Key After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government.
  • 135. Homonyms, homophones, and homographs Spelling and sound
  • 136. Which is which? • Same pronuncation, same spelling, different meaning • Same pronunciation, different spelling, different meaning • Different pronunciation, same spelling, different meaning
  • 137. 1. /branchiz/ 2. /drıl/ 3. /beri/ 4. /rou/ 5. /minit/ 6. /sait/ • Classes were interrupted for a fire … • Wait a … I’m on my way! • Squirrels … their nuts for the winter. • We got a seat in the back … • Our company has …. in the Far East. • We need to create a … to sell our products.
  • 138. 1. /branchiz/ 2. /drıl/ 3. /beri/ 4. /rou/ 5. /minit/ 6. /sait/ • Classes were interrupted for a fire drill. • Wait a minute I’m on my way! • Squirrels bury their nuts for the winter. • We got a seat in the back row • Our company has branches in the Far East. • We need to create a site to sell our products.
  • 139. 1. /branchiz/ 2. /drıl/ 3. /beri/ 4. /rau/ 5. /mainyut/ 6. /sait/ • Some living creatures are so … they can only be seen with a microscope • It was a case of love at first … ! • The fruit is part of the … family. • The mahogany tree has robust … • We had another …. about our finances. • Could you … a hole so I can hang this frame?
  • 140. 1. /branchiz/ 2. /drıl/ 3. /beri/ 4. /rau/ 5. /mainyut/ 6. /sait/ • Some living creatures are so minute they can only be seen with a microscope • It was a case of love at first sight! • The fruit is part of the berry family. • The mahogany tree has robust branches. • We had another row about our finances. • Could you drill a hole so I can hang this frame?
  • 141. Common collocations in business reports
  • 142. • Announce record profits • A decline in demand • Fierce competition • Meet targets • Go into production • Boost sales and profits • Stimulate growth • Allocate funds • Chair a committee • Narrow/wide profit margins • Set clear objectives • Call in the receivers
  • 143. • Generate business • Unique selling points • Pay dividends • Make business sense • Maintain quality • Promote interests • Satisfy demands • A hike in prices • Hold a meeting • Affect the bottom line • Balance the books • Target market
  • 144. Use the word in brackets to form a collocation to replace the words in bold
  • 145. • The company is pleased to report a strong increase in profits over the quarter. (ANNOUNCE)
  • 146. • The new health and safety committee is to be run by a retired doctor. (CHAIR)
  • 147. • There is increasingly intense rivalry between airline companies. (FIERCE)
  • 148. • The company’s exports to Japan had considerable growth over the last decade. (WIDE)
  • 149. • The sales figures for March show a little decrease on those for February. (DECLINE)
  • 150. • Our sales in the domestic market are certain to have a rise next year. (BOOST)
  • 151. • We feel that this proposal is completely feasible and profitable. (SENSE)
  • 152. • Business leaders hope new government policies will help growth pick up once again. (STIMULATE)
  • 153. In business, the key word is… COMPETITION
  • 154. Common collocating adjectives • Cut-throat competition • Keen competition • Ferocious competition • Stiff competition • Fierce competition • Intense competition • Tough competition • Strong competition • Direct competition • Intensified competition
  • 155. Competing or Competitive? • Products • Bids • Product • Position • Offerings • Pressure • Suppliers • Technologies
  • 156. Observe the following collocations Using “competitive”
  • 157. • He was criticized for being too Eurocentric and failing to pay attention to the competitive threat from South East Asia.
  • 158. • Businesses can sustain their performances over the long term by having some competitive edge/advantage to keep them ahead.
  • 159. • For the money-conscious consumer, alternative retail outlets can offer organic food at more competitive prices.
  • 160. • First Chicago will enhance its competitive position and boost its financial growth through the transaction, which is expected to add to earnings immediately.
  • 161. • Mall stores are under more competitive pressure than at any other time in their 40- year history, with new discounters and superstores increasingly moving in alongside traditional malls.
  • 162. • Decades of management theorizing around the world have produced piles of books, many of which promise to deliver the secrets of success. But there is no consensus on competitive strategy.
  • 163. • CSM can provide an in-depth assessment of automotive suppliers for competitive benchmarking and profiling activities, as well as potential merger and acquisition, and/or strategic alliance purposes.
  • 164. • The recovery potential to be taken into account in the competitive analysis is thus reduced by the impact of these other factors, since they do not involve any direct causal link with the merger.
  • 165. • Samarco may, at its discretion, cancel any competitive bidding without being subject to any type of claim on the part of the bidders.
  • 166. Extra Videos • http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrind er/2009/dec/01/best-tv-ads-of-the-noughties- decade • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GHX2mvFVQMs&NR=1
  • 167. Bibliography BRUNER, J. (1986) Actual Minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. HILL, J. (1999) Collocational competence. English Teaching Professional, 11, p. 3-6 Kachru, B.B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk and H. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (pp. 11-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. JOHNSON, K. (2001) An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching . Harlow : Longman
  • 168. Bibliography LEWIS, M. (1993) The lexical approach, LTP THORNBURY, S. (1998) The lexical approach: a journey without maps. MET, 7 (4), p. 7-13