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Grammar iii   slide 1 Grammar iii slide 1 Presentation Transcript

  • The English Noun Key issues: • Countability • Use of articles the and a(n) • Possessive genitive (‘s form) • Replacing the noun to avoid repetition • Noun + noun combinations
  • The Noun Phrase A noun phrase (sintagma nominal) consists of a noun (substantivo) combined with any or all of the following: • a determiner (e.g. the, a, this, which?, my, their etc.) • a quantifier (e.g. much, many, a little, few etc.) • an adjective or adjectives • a relative clause (oração adjetiva) • a prepositional phrase (sintagma preposicional)
  • Types of noun • Common nouns – concrete: book, house, girl – abstract: love, danger, personality • Proper nouns John, London, Lojas Americanas, the Boston Red Sox • Animate nouns girl, John, the Boston Red Sox, horse, president • Inanimate nouns book, house, love, danger, London, Lojas Americanas
  • Countability Countability classes in English: 1.Countable: dog > dogs, child > children 2.Uncountable: money, butter, shopping 3.Plural only: clothes, goods 4.Bipartite: scissors, trousers, binoculars
  • Classification of Nouns 1 • Countable nouns: – most concrete nouns referring to countable objects or living things – some abstract nouns indicating a countable event or incidence of something • Uncountable nouns: – most concrete nouns referring to substances – most abstract nouns denoting concepts and qualities – most nouns denoting an activity, including sports
  • Classification of Nouns 2 • Plural only nouns – usually refer to collections of recognizably plural objects. Either no singular, or singular has a different meaning. • Bipartite nouns – tools and items of clothing that consist of two connected parts, typically scissor-like implements, garments with holes for each leg, optical instruments with lenses for each eye
  • Countable nouns • Most have a separate plural form (the few that do not have a plural form that is the same as the singular, e.g. fish, sheep, aircraft) • The singular can be used with the article a(n) and the number one • The plural can be used with numbers from two onwards and with quantifiers that refer to more than one, e.g. many, several, few, a few, a couple of
  • Uncountable nouns • No plural form • Cannot be used with the indefinite article a(n) or the number one • Can be used with quantifiers that refer to part of a whole, e.g. much, little, a little, a bit of, a great/good deal of • Can be used with partitive expressions like: a piece of, a glass of, a slice of etc.
  • Plural-only and Bipartite Nouns • Behave grammatically like plural countable nouns • Plural-only nouns can be used with collective quantifiers, like many, few, a few, but not with numbers, or counting quantifiers, like several or a couple of • Bipartite nouns can be counted using pair of. Can be used directly with collective quantifiers.
  • Countability shifting • Many basically uncountable nouns can be used countably when referring to different varieties of the substance: e.g. precious metals, fossil fuels, tropical hardwoods • Uncountables denoting food and drink can be used countably when referring to portions: e.g. two waters, please Would you like a coffee? • Countables denoting animals, fruits, vegetables etc. are used uncountably when referring to the thing as a food substance: e.g. Have you ever eaten snake? It’s mixture of potato and carrot.
  • Countability with Proper Nouns • Most kinds of proper nouns can be used countably: e.g. There are three Johns in my class. There are two Frankfurts in Germany. • Note special meanings: – countable: The gallery has two Picassos. – uncountable: Would you like to listen to some Beethoven?
  • Why is countability a problem? 1. The same noun can be countable or uncountable, with a different sense (e.g. a look of great surprise vs. a big surprise; The company has a lot of work vs. The gallery has a lot of works) 2. Countability determines the correct usage of the articles the and a(n) 3. There are differences in countability between corresponding words in English and Portuguese
  • Exercise 1 1. The people in my class are very nice. 2. the indigenous peoples of the Amazon 3. We’re hoping to see some play at Wimbledon today. 4. We’re hoping to see a play today. 5. The kids were playing football. 6. The kids were playing with a football. 7. Phil’s car is in the shop. 8. Phil made this table in shop. 9. I advise you to take note of what I say. 10. I advise you to take notes on what I say.
  • Exercise 2 Look at the following words. Make up two sentences for each word, one using the word in its countable sense, the other using the word in its uncountable sense: competition, glass, grammar, iron, jam, lace, paper, property, room, sight, speech, time, word
  • Countability comparison Type English Portuguese Countable noun house - houses countable noun: casa - casas Uncountable noun milk trouble work uncountable noun: leite plural noun: problemas count/uncount noun: trabalho Plural-only noun clothes goods arms Count noun, singular or plural: roupa(s). mercadoria(s), armamento(s) Bipartite nouns trousers scissors Singular count noun: calça, tesoura
  • Countability mismatches English uncountable singular Portuguese countable plural advice conselhos applause aplausos business NB: a business (countable) negócios uma empresa cutlery /silverware talheres data dados equipment equipamentos evidence evidências furniture móveis information informações news notícias real estate imóveis software softwares
  • Exercise 3 1. Ela me deu dois bons conselhos. 2. Um aplauso para o vencedor! 3. Acho que fizemos um bom negócio. 4. Pega um talher na gaveta. 5. Estes dados são muito interessantes. 6. É um equipamento que mede a radiação no ar. 7. Existem evidências que os incriminem? 8. Acho que um móvel antigo ia ficar melhor naquele canto da sala. 9. Preciso de uma informação. 10. Tenho duas notícias: uma boa e uma ruim. 11. O senhor possui algum imóvel? 12. Existe um software específico para isso?
  • Exercise 4 1. Estou com vários trabalhos pendentes. 2. Os trabalhos do novo projeto começarão no ano que vem. 3. Restaurar o quadro é um trabalho minucioso. 4. A que horas você sai do trabalho? 5. Tocaram uma música de Mozart. 6. A música brasileira é muito conhecida no exterior. 7. Adoro essa música! Vamos dançar! 8. Vou fazer uma comida para nós. 9. No almoço comi uma carne e um arroz branco. 10. Você já gastou todo o dinheiro?
  • Bipartite Nouns 1 Esta tesoura é ... > These scissors are ... uma tesoura > some scissors/a pair of scissors/one pair of scissors duas tesouras > two pairs of scissors muitas tesouras > a lot of (pairs of) scissors várias tesouras > several pairs of scissors
  • Bipartite Nouns 2 • Clothing: trousers, pants, tights, shorts, trunks, underpants, knickers, panties, boxers etc. • Tools: scissors, pliers, tongs, tweezers, nail clippers, shears, secateurs, scales (Brit) • Eyewear: glasses, goggles, binoculars
  • Exercise 5 1. Aquela calça é pequena em mim. 2. Preciso comprar um novo alicate de unha. 3. Levei três bermudas na mala. 4. Achei uma cueca sua na máquina de lavar roupa. 5. Tem duas pinças no armário do banheiro. 6. Esse binóculo é muito bom. 7. Gostou do meu óculos novo? 8. Preciso de um sapato preto para o casamento. 9. Quantas meias você comprou? 10. Não se pode entrar no local de chinelo.
  • Countability and the Indefinite Article 1 • Singular COUNTABLE nouns must be preceded by a determiner. Default determiner is a(n): Ela é atriz. She’s an actress. A casa virou museu. The house has become a museum. Saí sem guarda-chuva. I came out without an umbrella. O hotel tem piscina. The hotel has a pool. Você já comprou passagem? Have you bought a ticket yet? É mais fácil comer miojo com garfo. It’s easier to eat noodles with a fork. Ele trabalha como garçom. He works as a waiter. Ela me chamou de idiota. She called me an idiot. Eles moram no Leblon, bairro nobre do Rio. They live in Leblon, an upscale neighborhood of Rio.
  • Countability and the Indefinite Article 2 • UNCOUNTABLE nouns cannot normally be used with the indefinite article: Fazia um tempo maravilhoso. It was wonderful weather. Que trânsito infernal! What awful traffic! O cachorro começou a apresentar um comportamento estranho. The dog started to exhibit strange behaviour. Ela tem uma paciência incrível. She has incredible patience.
  • Countability and the Definite Article • Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns WITHOUT an article have a general meaning: Champagne is expensive. Apples are good for you. • Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns WITH a definite article have a specific meaning: The champagne was really expensive, so I didn’t have any. The apples I bought are really sweet.
  • Exercise 6 1. Uma característica da sociedade brasileira é a diversidade. 2. Os preços não param de subir. 3. Ela se tornou freira. 4. Como advogado, não posso comentar. 5. Nem todos os brasileiros gostam de futebol. 6. Todos os alunos gostaram da aula. 7. Vocês têm cachorro? 8. A história britânica é muito interessante. 9. O homem não respeita o meio-ambiente. 10. É uma pena ficar em casa com um tempo tão bonito!
  • Açaí text A fruta é pequenininha, arredondada e muito roxa, quase preta. Lembra uma jabuticaba em tamanho reduzido. Tem um caroço grande, e muito pouca polpa. Para se obter um açaí saudável, o mais importante é a rapidez desde o "debuio" (que é como se diz lá, para o trabalho de tirar os frutos do cacho) até o processamento. Quem diz isso é o Prof. Hervé Rogez, engenheiro químico, cientista e pesquisador da Universidade Federal do Pará, o "Papa" do assunto e fanático tomador de açaí. O açaí é muito rico em antocianina, uma substância antioxidante, que ajuda no combate ao colesterol e aos radicais livres. Você já ouviu que um copo de vinho tinto por dia faz bem ao coração? É devido à antocianina da uva. Não é por acaso que a cor do açaí é semelhante à do vinho tinto, porém o açaí tem 33 vezes mais antocianina que a uva. As antocianinas também são potentes corantes naturais. Além de ser considerado um dos alimentos mais ricos em ferro, o açaí também é rico em fibras, sendo bastante indicado também para pessoas idosas e/ou com mal funcionamento do aparelho digestivo. Por suas características microbiológicas o açaí é considerado uma das mais nutritivas frutas da Amazônia, perdendo apenas para a castanha-do-pará.
  • Possessive form (‘s genitive) Basic rules for formation of ‘s genitive: • Singular nouns: add ‘s John > John’s car my brother > my brother’s car • Plural nouns ending in -s: add ‘ my parents > my parents’ house the Simpsons > the Simpsons’ house • Irregular plural nouns, not ending in –s: add ‘s women > women’s clothes people > people’s lives
  • Use of ‘s genitive • With proper names of people and places: John’s car, President Obama’s advisors, London’s streets, Brazil’s oil reserves • With common nouns denoting animate beings (people and animals): my mother’s name, the dog’s bowl, the students’ questions • With nouns denoting collectives of animate beings, or nouns thought of in this way: the government’s policies, the school’s performance, the world’s finest wines • With certain expressions of time: a week’s vacation, two months’ vacation, today’s paper, tomorrow’s weather, next week’s class, tonight’s show
  • ‘of’ construction
  • Exercise 7 1. Há um ninho de beija-flor na copa da árvore. 2. Santiago é a capital do Chile. 3. Os brinquedos das crianças estavam espalhados pelo chão da sala. 4. Esta música é a Quinta Sinfonia de Beethoven. 5. Temos dois meses de férias. 6. Viajo hoje à noite. Volto daqui a três semanas. 7. A reunião de quarta-feira foi cancelada. 8. Camilla Parker-Bowles é a esposa do Príncipe Charles. 9. O carteiro deixou a encomenda na casa dos Jones, ao lado. 10. Você sabe o nome de todos os alunos?
  • Genitive vs. Adjective 1. London’s taxis - London taxis 2. the family’s home - the family home 3. two months’ vacation – a two-month vacation 4. one hour’s sleep – a one-hour sleep 5. the government’s policies – government policies 6. women’s campaigners – women campaigners 7. the Simpsons’ house – the Simpsons movie 8. children’s books – child labor