Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
Day I – Prepositions and Conjunctions
Day 1
• The evolution of the English preposition (a diachronic approach)
• Types of prepositions
• Prepositions – traditio...
Day 1
• Definitions of the conjunction
• Types of conjunctions
• A syntactic analysis of the conjunction
• Conjunction as ...
Container, Flat surface or Point?
• a room
• the beach
• a plate
• a bowl
• a platter or a tray
• a roof
• a river
• a she...
Container, Flat Surface or Point?
• Christmas
• Weekend
• Easter
• The winter, spring, summer, fall
• Sunday
• Carnival
• ...
Exercise 1- guess the preposition
• You can buy batteries AT/IN the corner shop.
• David is studying AT/IN university.
• W...
Exercise 1- guess the preposition
• Mike worked AT/IN/FOR the airport for six
years.
• Go back TO bed! You should be aslee...
Exercise 1- guess the preposition
• Jack was leaning ON/AGAINST the wall.
• I was UNDER the impression that you liked it.
...
The preposition – a definition - 1
Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
The preposition – a definition - 2
Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
Simple prepositions
• in, on, at, above, below, over, under, around,
through, before, after, to, from, about, by,
with, wi...
Example phrases
• in the house
• on the desk
• at school
• above average
• below 100
• over the fireplace
• under the tabl...
Example phrases
• between you and me
• among us
• don't keep it all inside
• think outside the box
• behind blue eyes
• be...
Some simple prepositions raise a few doubts as
to usage
• Above X Over
• Below X Under
• Underneath X Beneath
• Between x ...
Above x Below: a vertical reference
Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
Over X Under: a level reference
Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
Under, underneath, beneath
• Beneath and underneath can occupy final position in
a sentence:
– Who knows what lies beneath...
Between X Among: two or more referents
• There is no difference between one and the other
• It would seem we have a traito...
Next to X Close to X Near
• Next to means the same as "at the side of", close to
and near imply an indefinite proximity:
–...
In X Inside
• Inside can be used in final position of a sentence
with the noun phrase omitted:
– That's a big box. I wonde...
Near X Nearby
• Near is only used as a preposition or advebr e.g. Is
there a post office near here?
• Nearby is an adverb,...
To x For
– For: purpose, intention, favor, direction (with
certain verbs): Could you send this invite out to
everyone for ...
At X To
– At: final point of movement, aggression: Don't
raise your voice at me young man!
– To: direction, destination, c...
Simple prepositions – formation
• Prepositions formed by prefixing a-: aboard, above,
about (from Old English abutan), acr...
Simple prepositions – formation
• Prepositions formed by prefixing Old English be-:
before (replacing the older afore and ...
Simple prepositions – formation
• Prepositions formed by compounding two
prepositions, or a preposition and an adverb: int...
Simple prepositions – formation
• Participles that became prepositions: bating, barring,
concurring, during, excepting, no...
Simple prepositions – formation
• Imperative verbs used as prepositions: save, except
– The trip went smoothly, save the a...
Complex prepositions
• In the interest of
• In the interest
• In need of
• In lieu of
• In quest of
• In place of
• In res...
Complex prepositions
• By courtesy of
• By dint of
• By means of
• By permission of
• By reason of
• By virtue of
• In con...
Exercise 2: what's the preposition?
• UNDER/GIVEN the
circumstances
• BELOW/ABOVE/ON
average
• UNDER the impression
that
•...
A historical approach to prepositions
• Simple prepositions have originated from complex
ones by means of grammaticalizati...
A historical approach to prepositions
• Lexicalized prepositions can be considered an open
class comprised of complex prep...
A historical approach to prepositions
• More grammaticalized prepositions have an
unknown or unclear lexcial origin. Their...
A historical approach to prepositions
• Conversely, the majority of grammaticalized
prepositions are simple (one-word) for...
Why treat them as semantic units?
• Direct equivalence, e.g.
I'm in!
• Transferred meanings
e.g. Are we on for
tonight?
• ...
Grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965)
Affixes gain full-fledged status
Syntactic litmus test: the more prepositional, th...
Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions
• Precise meaning (from more lexical to more
grammatical): in contradiction t...
Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions
• Lexicalized forms are more transparent in meaning
• Grammaticalized preposi...
Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions
• Lexicalized units, however, can be separated:
– This holds true till today,...
Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions
• The lexicalization of prepostions depend on
frequency of usage
• Current gr...
The problem of preposition analysis
• Prepositions in many languages, including English,
are a hybrid category: they can b...
The problem of preposition analysis
• Jackendoff (1973) classifies the preposition as
a major lexical category along with ...
Key features of the preposition as a hybrid
category
• Most express semantic relations, others assign
Case (dative, locati...
Non-lexical (grammaticalized) prepositions
• They assign Case (as in the sentence on the
previous slide: Parts of the car ...
Non-lexical and Lexical
• Prepositions function as heads (núcleos) of
noun or prepositional phrases, e.g. in time for
some...
Semantically rich (Lexical) prepositions
• According to studies with young learners
(Friederici, 1983) lexicalized preposi...
Exercise 3: prepositions and meaning
A) ending B) reducing C) improving D) solving
• I'm taking evening classes to brush u...
Exercise 3: prepositions and meaning
A) ending B) reducing C) improving D) solving
• I was just about to finish the deal w...
Prepositions in idioms
• Many idiomatic expressions in English are
classified by the head of the noun phrase –
the preposi...
Prepositions cover a wide semantic scope and
carry out several syntactic functions
• In
• Of
• To
• For
• On
• About
Complex prepositions
• Adverb/Preposition + Preposition: along with, as for,
away from, out of, up to
• Verb/Adjective/Con...
Expressing relations of space
• Above – across – against – along – around – at –
behind – below – beneath – beside – betwe...
Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua
Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias -
Gramática II
Expressing relationships of time
• After – at – before – between – by – during – from –
in – on – past – since – throughou...
By X Until
By
• The last moment in which
something has to be done.
• An ultimatum
• At or prior to a given time.
• The dea...
Any difference?
• You have to get to school by 8:00 a.m.
• You have until 8:00 a.m. to get to school.
(until = no later th...
Expressing other relations
• About – against – at – besides – by – but – despite –
except – for - from - in – like – of – ...
Preposition, Adverb or Particle?
• The preposition occupies only a pre-object
position, as opposed to the adverb or the
pa...
Preposition, Adverb or Particle?
• Prepositions separate pronoun objects from
the verb:
• He ate it up (particle)
• I'm pe...
Preposition, Adverb or Particle?
• Adverbials can come between verb and PP
(prepositional phrase):
– I'll pick out the sho...
Preposition, Adverb or Particle?
• Only prepositions can be fronted :
– She filled up the pail. (particle )
– I picked up ...
Exercise 4: adverb or preposition?
• Have you ever seen a live college basketball game
before? Adverb
• A sign outside (Pr...
Exercise 4: adverb or preposition?
• At half time, one team was ahead by (Preposition) eight
points.
• A player threw the ...
Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs –
Correct or incorrect?
• Thieves broke in and got away with over 10 million i...
Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs
• He got caught in the rain and came (DOWN) with a
cold down.
• He's not very ...
Dependent prepositions
• Like in many languages, the use of a given
preposition is determined by other word classes,
namel...
Dependent prepositions
• From one language to another, there is no guarantee
of direct equivalence, which calls for more a...
Exercise 4: Adjective + preposition
• My granddad is very dependent ON my parents.
• The film is based ON a novel by Virgi...
Exercise 4: Adjective + preposition
• The employees kept quiet ABOUT/ON the case of
creative accounting that was unearthed...
Exercise 5: Forming three-word phrasals
• I think we've just run out OF coffee. We will have to
get some in the morning.
•...
Exercise 5: Forming three-word phrasals
• The Chief of Staff has been coming in FOR a shower
of criticism for the way he h...
Verb + preposition
• The state-funded health service accounts FOR 85% of
public spending.
• In times of trouble, you can a...
Many adjectives and verbs take multiple
prepositions, altering the meaning in the process
• Abide "with us for a while," "by the rules" (or "I
can't abide him").
• ABIDE WITH = STAY WITH
• ABIDE BY = ADHERE TO OB...
• Answer "to him for what you've done," "for what
you've done.”
• ANSWER TO = LIABLE TO, REPORT TO, GIVE
SATISFACTION, EXP...
• Caution "about unsafe conditions," "against the rash
proposal.”
• CAUTION ABOUT = PREVENT/TAKE PREVENTIVE
MEASURES
• CAU...
• Compare "with other products that make the same
claims," "apples to oranges.”
• COMPARE WITH STH =
• COMPARE X TO Y =
• Confide "in her about my problems," "to him what I
really think.“
• CONFIDE IN
• CONFIDE TO
• Conversant "about climate change," "in several
languages," "with aspects of technology.”
• Differ "from other species in their diet," "with them
about the cause of the company's failure," or "about
public policy...
• Different "from what he was used to," "than he was
used to." From is the preferred usage, but than
substitutes for "from...
• Dissent "against the status quo," "from the majority
opinion." (To or with are not considered standard
usage.)
• Dissimilar "to her previous sculpture." (From is
considered incorrect.)
• Enamored "of every woman he meets." (With is
considered incorrect.)
• Equivalent "in amounts," "to the earlier result."
(With is not considered standard usage.)
• Excerpt "from their book was reprinted without their
permission." (Of is considered incorrect.)
• Forbid "him from attending," "him to attend." (To is
considered the more correct of the two choices.)
• Identical "to the one she saw yesterday," "with the
one she saw yesterday." (Language purists consider
with more correct...
• Impatient "with him," but "about the delay," "at the
delay," or "with the delay.”
• Independent "of the group, he protested the plan."
(From, as in "Independent from her family," is
considered incorrect.)
• Inquired "of him where he was going" and "after her
whereabouts," but "into their progress" or "about
the vacant apartme...
• Instilled "instilled a few drops of the solution into the
wound," "in him a drive to succeed." (With, as in
"Instilled w...
• Oblivious "of the warning signs," "to the noise"; the
choices are often interchangeable. (About is often
used in associa...
• Vexed "about her behavior," "at her behavior.”
• Mastery "over all other competitors," but "of the
skill.”
• Reconcile "with her boyfriend," but "to the loss of
her boyfriend.”
• Succeed "as a businessperson," but "to the position."
Prepositions in compound adjectives
• We had lunch at a DOWN-market restaurant the other
day. Not surprisingly, the food w...
Prepositions in compound adjectives
• I just received a BACKdated pay award, so this
month's salary is a little larger tha...
Prepositions in idioms
• As mentioned before, several idiomatic expressions
are catalogued based on the head preposition e...
Exercise 6 – Use the words in brackets to make
idioms for the underlined words
• He claimed he hadn't done it intentionall...
Exercise 6 – Use the words in brackets to make
idioms for the underlined words
• Love letters will never be outdated becau...
Exercise 7 – Form idioms with the parts
underlined and the preposition "at"
• The winners are selected without any plan by...
Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts
underlined and the preposition "at"
• The hero was rescued a moment before it was ...
Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts
underlined and the preposition "on"
• (At a restaurant) There are so many desserts...
Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts
underlined and the preposition "on"
• How much does a bus driver earn ON AVERAGE i...
Conjunctions
Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link
ideas in a particular so as to portray contrast,
coordination,...
Coordinators
• Linking of elements of same syntactic status
(nouns, adverbials, adjectives)
Paul and David
cold and wet
ti...
Coordinators
• This also applies to longer units
We can eat now or wait till later
I love tennis but (I) don't play well
E...
Coordinators
• Must appear between the elements
coordinated: Paul plays football and David
plays chess
• Can have the orde...
And x But x Or?
• To join a final thing to the rest of a list.
– When I visited India, I went to Mumbai, Delhi AND
Bangalo...
And x But x Or?
• To join two ideas, opinions or facts which are
different in a sentence.
– I’ve been to Thailand, BUT I h...
And x But x Or?
• To join two adjectives which seem to be opposite in
meaning.
– My hotel room was clean BUT uncomfortable.
And x But x Or?
• To connect different possibilities, or the last thing in
a list of possibilities
– I don’t know why Saye...
And x But x Or?
• To mean one thing and also not the other in a
negative sentence
– I haven’t been to Korea OR Thailand.
Correlative conjunctions
• Both . . . and . . .
• Either . . . or . . .
• Neither . . . nor . . .
• Hardly . . . when . . ...
Subordinators
• Linking of unequal syntactic status
I left early because I had an interview early the
next day.
We visited...
Most common subordinators
• Because
• While
• If
• Although
• Before
• Since
• Till
• Unless
• Whereas
• Whether
Ensino de...
Subordinators
• Do not need to occur between the connected
items: Because I had an interview the next
day, I left early.
•...
Common mistakes with subordinating
conjunctions
• Although there are many reasons why young people
start to smoke.
– Howev...
Common mistakes with subordinating
conjunctions
• Whereas some argue that children should be forced
to do more exercise.
–...
Common mistakes with subordinating
conjunctions
• People who enjoy communication by letter are
romantic because they tend ...
Same sentence
• She used to call me "Tiny" although I was as tall
as she was.
• Three more nuclear stations were built
des...
Two sentences or clauses
• Car crashes have become rare; even so, there
should be stricter safety regulations
• Prices hav...
Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition
• Short answers: Should I revise for the test? I
think you should
• Comments: "I tho...
Reduced infinitives
• To give continuity to thoughts expressed,
e.g. "Haven't you done the washing-up?" "No, I'm
just abou...
Reduced infinitives
• My mother can't read. She just never learnt
to. (She just never learnt how)
• I know I should not ha...
Participles/Relative pronouns/Reduced
clauses
• I don't believe a word they say, given they
never tell the truth.
• The wo...
Paticiples as Discourse markers
• Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical
arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, ...
Discourse markers show the
relationships between …
• What is being said and what was said
• What is being said and what is...
Adverbs
• Despite not being well-off, he gives quite
handsomely to charities.
• I admire him as a lecturer, though I find ...
Adverbs as Discourse markers
• Adverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g.
Sadly, the starting time had to be pushed
back...
Adverbs as Discourse markers
• Adverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g.
Sadly, the starting time had to pushed back.
•...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas
Tecnologias - Gramática II
Meanings portrayed
• Introduction: To begin with
• Reference: ...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas
Tecnologias - Gramática II
Meanings portrayed
• Agreement: According to
• Searching the r...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas
Tecnologias - Gramática II
Meanings portrayed
• Addressing: To whom it may concern
• Weak...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas
Tecnologias - Gramática II
Meanings portrayed
• Giving examples: For instance
• Figurativ...
Discourse Markers - what does each mean?
• Basically, the country is spending too much
money.
• You might think I'm crazy ...
Discourse Markers
• Basically, the country is spending too much
money. (That's the most important point)
• You might think...
Some other discourse Markers
• Admittedly = I know this weakens my point
• After all = You have to admit
• As a matter of ...
Some other discourse Markers
• At least = I'm rectifying what I said
• Naturally = This is what I would expect (to
happen)...
Similar in meaning*
• Admittedly = Mind you/Still
• Naturally = Obviously
• All in all = After all
• By the way = As a mat...
Some useful resources
• Cassell's Students' English Grammar
• Ways to Grammar
• Murphy's English Grammar
• Practical Engli...
Bibliography
1.BORDET, Lucile & JAMET, Denis. Are English Prepositions
grammatical or lexical morphemes? Cercles, Occasion...
Grammar ii   prepositions and conjunctions
Grammar ii   prepositions and conjunctions
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Transcript of "Grammar ii prepositions and conjunctions"

  1. 1. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Day I – Prepositions and Conjunctions
  2. 2. Day 1 • The evolution of the English preposition (a diachronic approach) • Types of prepositions • Prepositions – traditional analysis: space and time • Prepositions in set expressions in place, manner and time – possible patterns • Prepositions and meanings – literal, figurative and metaphorical • Prepositions as units of meaning • Prepositions as other parts of speech – verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs • Dependent prepositions • Prepositions in idioms • Prepositions or adverbs? • Prepositions as particles • Prepositions in phrasal verbs • Teaching tips Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  3. 3. Day 1 • Definitions of the conjunction • Types of conjunctions • A syntactic analysis of the conjunction • Conjunction as a connector • Conjunctions in compound sentences • Conjunctions in complex sentences • Conjunctions in subordinate clauses • Expressions that have a conjunction-like nature • Conjunctions as units of meaning • Conjunctions as translatable units • Discourse markers • Linkers – conjunctions and discourse markers • Teaching tips Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  4. 4. Container, Flat surface or Point? • a room • the beach • a plate • a bowl • a platter or a tray • a roof • a river • a shelf • a cabinet • a bank • a company • a tree Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  5. 5. Container, Flat Surface or Point? • Christmas • Weekend • Easter • The winter, spring, summer, fall • Sunday • Carnival • A fortnight • January Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  6. 6. Exercise 1- guess the preposition • You can buy batteries AT/IN the corner shop. • David is studying AT/IN university. • What's on AT the cinema tonight? • Is Sam IN/ON the basketball team? • The library is not ON this side of the street. • We sat IN the living room and watched a great classic movie. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  7. 7. Exercise 1- guess the preposition • Mike worked AT/IN/FOR the airport for six years. • Go back TO bed! You should be asleep. • David is OUT/AWAY. He is not at home. • The burglar climbed OVER the fence and into the garden. • It's not far. We're getting CLOSE to the station. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  8. 8. Exercise 1- guess the preposition • Jack was leaning ON/AGAINST the wall. • I was UNDER the impression that you liked it. • You are liable TO/FOR your son's debts as he is under age. • My mum went TO hospital last week. • Traveling IN your own car is better than going ON foot. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  9. 9. The preposition – a definition - 1 Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  10. 10. The preposition – a definition - 2 Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  11. 11. Simple prepositions • in, on, at, above, below, over, under, around, through, before, after, to, from, about, by, with, without, between, among, inside, outside, beside (next to), near, atop (on top of), underneath Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  12. 12. Example phrases • in the house • on the desk • at school • above average • below 100 • over the fireplace • under the table • around the building • through the door • before lunch • after 10 • go to Colorado • come from Arizona • about a boy • by Marius • with or without you Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  13. 13. Example phrases • between you and me • among us • don't keep it all inside • think outside the box • behind blue eyes • beside the table • near the library • sitting atop the world • underneath that harsh interior Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  14. 14. Some simple prepositions raise a few doubts as to usage • Above X Over • Below X Under • Underneath X Beneath • Between x Among • Next to X Close to X Near • To X For • At X To • In X Inside • Near X Nearby • By X Until Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  15. 15. Above x Below: a vertical reference Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  16. 16. Over X Under: a level reference Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  17. 17. Under, underneath, beneath • Beneath and underneath can occupy final position in a sentence: – Who knows what lies beneath/underneath? • Beneath, under, and underneath function as the head of a prepositional phrase: – I can't find anything underneath/under/beneath all that mess. • Under can appear in final position when the accompanying noun phrase is omitted, but implied: – I come from the land down under. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  18. 18. Between X Among: two or more referents • There is no difference between one and the other • It would seem we have a traitor among us. • Mastering a language can be the difference between landing a well-paid job, achieving job stability, working in a dead-end job or furthering a career. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  19. 19. Next to X Close to X Near • Next to means the same as "at the side of", close to and near imply an indefinite proximity: – Come sit near /close to me (anywhere in the vicinity of) – Come sit next to me = Come sit beside me • Close to implies a more intimate position than near; near usually refers to buildings or locations – The closer I get to you, the more you make me feel. – The new mall is near the old train station Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  20. 20. In X Inside • Inside can be used in final position of a sentence with the noun phrase omitted: – That's a big box. I wonder what's inside (it). – That's a big box. I wonder what's in it. • In can only be used at the end of the sentence if it precedes a noun phrase , NOT a pronoun: – Are you coming with us to the market? Hop in (the car)! • Inside is usually more specific or emphatic than in: – Get inside the house now! You could get shot! Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  21. 21. Near X Nearby • Near is only used as a preposition or advebr e.g. Is there a post office near here? • Nearby is an adverb, e.g. After the play, we can do some shopping nearby = in the vicinity. • Nearby is also used adjectivally e.g. I'm trying to find a nearby service station.
  22. 22. To x For – For: purpose, intention, favor, direction (with certain verbs): Could you send this invite out to everyone for me? Thanks so much – To: direction, destination, receiver: Could you send this invite out to everyone by the end of the day? Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  23. 23. At X To – At: final point of movement, aggression: Don't raise your voice at me young man! – To: direction, destination, cooperation: Throw the ball to me, will ya? Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  24. 24. Simple prepositions – formation • Prepositions formed by prefixing a-: aboard, above, about (from Old English abutan), across, against (from Old English gean, from the verb gan "to go"), along, amid, amidst, among (from Old English onmang, from the verb gemengan "to mingle"), amongst, around, athwart – amid = amidst = among = amongst (the first two are more formal and more literary) – Athwart = in opposition to, contrary to; from side to side Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  25. 25. Simple prepositions – formation • Prepositions formed by prefixing Old English be-: before (replacing the older afore and tofore), behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, betwixt, beyond – Please find the aforementioned list in the attached file – Betwixt (in an intermediate position, indecisive or middle position): She found herself caught betwixt her loyalty to her friend and the need to do the right thing. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  26. 26. Simple prepositions – formation • Prepositions formed by compounding two prepositions, or a preposition and an adverb: into, throughout, toward, towards, underneath, until, unto, upon, within (also inwith in older works), without (also outwith in older works) – He climbed upon his horse and rode off into the horizon – Upon seeing her (When he saw her) after all these years, he burst into tears – Once upon a time = There once was a time (on the occasion of) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  27. 27. Simple prepositions – formation • Participles that became prepositions: bating, barring, concurring, during, excepting, notwithstanding, regarding, respecting, touching, considering, excluding, failing, following, pending, and saving, concerning, considering, given, granted, pending, including – Given the time it will take to thaw we can run off to the store and get the wine. – Barring the Supply Manager, everyone seems to be in agreement about the campaign . Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  28. 28. Simple prepositions – formation • Imperative verbs used as prepositions: save, except – The trip went smoothly, save the airport delays (but for) • Adjectives used as prepositions, implying a following to: nigh, near, next, opposite – Repent for the end is nigh. • Conjunctions used as prepositions: but • Loanwords used as prepositions: vis-à-vis, anti, versus – Vis-à- vis the current economic storm, cutbacks will have to be made Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  29. 29. Complex prepositions • In the interest of • In the interest • In need of • In lieu of • In quest of • In place of • In respect of • In search of • In settlement of • In spite of • In view of • In accordance with • In aid of • In line with Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  30. 30. Complex prepositions • By courtesy of • By dint of • By means of • By permission of • By reason of • By virtue of • In consideration of • In danger of • In favor of • In front of • As well as • Thanks to • In addition to • Due to • Contrary to • Owing to Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  31. 31. Exercise 2: what's the preposition? • UNDER/GIVEN the circumstances • BELOW/ABOVE/ON average • UNDER the impression that • road UNDER repair • a program ON TV • ON/TO/AT page 4 • BY heart • IN memory • ON leave • WITHOUT fail • TO my surprise Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  32. 32. A historical approach to prepositions • Simple prepositions have originated from complex ones by means of grammaticalization • N.B. morphemes go from a lexical to a more grammatical status over time
  33. 33. A historical approach to prepositions • Lexicalized prepositions can be considered an open class comprised of complex prepositions or prepositional locutions. These can be seen as chunks – New twists and turns in search for Lisa Irwin
  34. 34. A historical approach to prepositions • More grammaticalized prepositions have an unknown or unclear lexcial origin. Their meaning can only be perceived by isolating their elements, e.g. in spite of, in view of
  35. 35. A historical approach to prepositions • Conversely, the majority of grammaticalized prepositions are simple (one-word) forms. e.g. instead of (in stead of), between (by- tweonum)
  36. 36. Why treat them as semantic units? • Direct equivalence, e.g. I'm in! • Transferred meanings e.g. Are we on for tonight? • Possibility of compounding e.g. He was up and about soon after the surgery. • Incorporation of verb meaning e.g. Up from down Under • Idiomatic nature e.g. I'm into you, I'm on the case • Lexicalizing nature e.g. The firefighters had some trouble outing the fire. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  37. 37. Grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965) Affixes gain full-fledged status Syntactic litmus test: the more prepositional, the more grammatical closed class = advanced "grammaticalization" = "desemanticization" Prepositions/adverbs fluctuate from lexical to grammatical and vice versa. Loss of compositional meaning – separate elements, one meaning Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  38. 38. Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions • Precise meaning (from more lexical to more grammatical): in contradiction to >> in spite of >> instead of • Lexicalized forms belong to a single syntactic class whereas grammaticalized ones span over several classes e.g. to (prep.) (adv.); in (prep.) (adj.) (n.)
  39. 39. Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions • Lexicalized forms are more transparent in meaning • Grammaticalized prepositions are inseparable and non-inflectional units (cannot take plural forms for example): – Into – With the exception of – Up to
  40. 40. Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions • Lexicalized units, however, can be separated: – This holds true till today, except, of course, for the new areas of genetics and nanotechnology. – The local currency may appreciate in absolute terms of one currency and yet depreciate in terms of another.
  41. 41. Lexicalized vs. Grammaticalized prepositions • The lexicalization of prepostions depend on frequency of usage • Current grammaticalized units will eventually suffer lexicalization • Lehman (1991:501) relates that the formation of new prepostions is a common grammaticalization process • Such a process is not easily perceptible, though, to the speaker, not to mention the learner. – The reason? The duration of the process
  42. 42. The problem of preposition analysis • Prepositions in many languages, including English, are a hybrid category: they can be semantically rich (lexical) on one end and syntactic (functional) on the other • Most studies involving the preposition adopt a unified approach when its hybridic nature makes this unfeasible
  43. 43. The problem of preposition analysis • Jackendoff (1973) classifies the preposition as a major lexical category along with Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives (although proven to be a closed class with limited membership) – The group has 50-60 members – The group has a slow add-rate
  44. 44. Key features of the preposition as a hybrid category • Most express semantic relations, others assign Case (dative, locative, etc.) NB. The latter function no longer applies to the English preposition. Compare: – Meet me in the bank (as opposed to "at the bank") – Parts of the car have to be repaired
  45. 45. Non-lexical (grammaticalized) prepositions • They assign Case (as in the sentence on the previous slide: Parts of the car have to be repaired) • They appear in fixed expressions (idioms included) the meaning of which is transmitted as a single unit or chunk e.g. Roger's been on a break for a month now
  46. 46. Non-lexical and Lexical • Prepositions function as heads (núcleos) of noun or prepositional phrases, e.g. in time for something, at the heart of the story, till the end of time
  47. 47. Semantically rich (Lexical) prepositions • According to studies with young learners (Friederici, 1983) lexicalized prepositions are more easily acquired simply due to their high semantic content
  48. 48. Exercise 3: prepositions and meaning A) ending B) reducing C) improving D) solving • I'm taking evening classes to brush up on my Spanish. C • Turn down the music, will you? It's way too loud. B • When I figured out how much I owed my best friend, it really hit me. D • It's taking much longer to do up the house than I expected. A Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  49. 49. Exercise 3: prepositions and meaning A) ending B) reducing C) improving D) solving • I was just about to finish the deal with the delegates on the phone when the call was cut off. A • My dad's got a job now, so now things are probably going to pick up again. C • The USA has broken off relations with Cuba since the Bay of Pigs incident. A • We need to sort out this problem soon D Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  50. 50. Prepositions in idioms • Many idiomatic expressions in English are classified by the head of the noun phrase – the preposition
  51. 51. Prepositions cover a wide semantic scope and carry out several syntactic functions • In • Of • To • For • On • About
  52. 52. Complex prepositions • Adverb/Preposition + Preposition: along with, as for, away from, out of, up to • Verb/Adjective/Conjunction + Preposition: owing to, due to, because of • Preposition + Noun + Preposition: by means of, in comparison with, in front of
  53. 53. Expressing relations of space • Above – across – against – along – around – at – behind – below – beneath – beside – between – beyond- by – down – from – in – in front of – inside – into – near – next to – off –on – onto – opposite – out of – outside – over – past – round – through – to – towards – under – underneath – up Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  54. 54. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  55. 55. Expressing relationships of time • After – at – before – between – by – during – from – in – on – past – since – throughout – to – towards – until (till) – within Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  56. 56. By X Until By • The last moment in which something has to be done. • An ultimatum • At or prior to a given time. • The deadline itself. Until • The total amount of time to accomplish something. • A grace period • Prior to a time that follows • Lead-up to the deadline
  57. 57. Any difference? • You have to get to school by 8:00 a.m. • You have until 8:00 a.m. to get to school. (until = no later than) • I am to finish a task by sundown. • I can finish a task until sundown.
  58. 58. Expressing other relations • About – against – at – besides – by – but – despite – except – for - from - in – like – of – on - out of – than – to – unlike – with – without - – but = except – But for me, you would all have been killed = If it hadn't been for me, Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  59. 59. Preposition, Adverb or Particle? • The preposition occupies only a pre-object position, as opposed to the adverb or the particle: – Fill up the pail OR Fill the pail up (particle) – Pick up my box OR Pick my box up (adverb) – Walk up the hill (preposition) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  60. 60. Preposition, Adverb or Particle? • Prepositions separate pronoun objects from the verb: • He ate it up (particle) • I'm peeling it off (adverb) • I stepped over it (preposition) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  61. 61. Preposition, Adverb or Particle? • Adverbials can come between verb and PP (prepositional phrase): – I'll pick out the shoes quickly (particle) – She took off her bandaid quickly (adverb) – She jumped quickly off the chair. (preposition) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  62. 62. Preposition, Adverb or Particle? • Only prepositions can be fronted : – She filled up the pail. (particle ) – I picked up my things. (adverb) – Up the hill they climbed. (preposition) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  63. 63. Exercise 4: adverb or preposition? • Have you ever seen a live college basketball game before? Adverb • A sign outside (Preposition) the arena said my two favorite teams were playing inside (Adverb). • Come along (Adverb); let's get to our seats before (Preposition) the game. • The teams came out (Adverb) to warm up before (Preposition) the game. • Two aggressive players fouled each other throughout. (Adverb) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  64. 64. Exercise 4: adverb or preposition? • At half time, one team was ahead by (Preposition) eight points. • A player threw the ball in from (Adverb/Preposition) the sideline. • We talked around during (Adverb/Preposition) halftime. • After (Preposition) the game, the winners were given the championship trophy inside (Preposition) the locker room. • Despite losing in (Preposition) the playoffs, that team had a winning record for (Preposition) the season. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  65. 65. Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs – Correct or incorrect? • Thieves broke in and got away with over 10 million in jewelry. CORRECT • Burglars broke in the house while they were at the opera. CORRECT • The bus drew (UP) at the traffic lights up. INCORRECT • The committee will draw up a list of demands. CORRECT • I've got so much work I'm really falling behind (WITH it) with. INCORRECT Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  66. 66. Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs • He got caught in the rain and came (DOWN) with a cold down. • He's not very nice to his teachers. He's always sending THEM up them. • She got a loan when she furnished the flat, but she's falling behind with the payments. CORRECT • She really takes AFTER her father after. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  67. 67. Dependent prepositions • Like in many languages, the use of a given preposition is determined by other word classes, namely verbs, adjectives and nouns • The choice of a given preposition is generally semantically driven, although the relationship between the word and its corresponding preposition may not be clear, e.g. worried about Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  68. 68. Dependent prepositions • From one language to another, there is no guarantee of direct equivalence, which calls for more attention on the part of the learner – Get married to »» se casar com – Fall in love with »» se apaixonar por • There are several combinations that seem to come naturally and the learner intuitively tells whether the form is corect or not. This so-called knowledge comes with practice and exposure to the language Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  69. 69. Exercise 4: Adjective + preposition • My granddad is very dependent ON my parents. • The film is based ON a novel by Virginia Woolf. • I know it's rusty and everything, but I'm so attached TO it. • Bill is emotionally detached FROM his parents. He hardly chats with them. • MacDonald's has become synonymous OF an unhealthy diet. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  70. 70. Exercise 4: Adjective + preposition • The employees kept quiet ABOUT/ON the case of creative accounting that was unearthed last week. • You can't say anything to her. She's impervious TO any sort of criticism. • The working hours are incompatible WITH family life. • His unruly behavior at school is indicative OF a deeper psychological problem. • It is the teacher's duty to be concerned ABOUT the weak students. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  71. 71. Exercise 5: Forming three-word phrasals • I think we've just run out OF coffee. We will have to get some in the morning. • Does anybody feel up TO Mick's party tonight? • My boss asked me to stand in FOR him during his week off from the office. • Being a father has helped him learn to face up TO his responsibilities. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  72. 72. Exercise 5: Forming three-word phrasals • The Chief of Staff has been coming in FOR a shower of criticism for the way he has tried to make little of the accusations against him of fraud and embezzlement. • I don't really go in FOR team sports; give me a tennis racket or a pair of trainers any day! • The troops plan to pull out OF/FROM the occupied territories for economic reasons. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  73. 73. Verb + preposition • The state-funded health service accounts FOR 85% of public spending. • In times of trouble, you can always turn TO a friend. • His conviction for reckless driving counted AGAINST him when he tried to renew his car insurance. • Sometimes it seems almost impossible to keep up WITH the latest news. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  74. 74. Many adjectives and verbs take multiple prepositions, altering the meaning in the process
  75. 75. • Abide "with us for a while," "by the rules" (or "I can't abide him"). • ABIDE WITH = STAY WITH • ABIDE BY = ADHERE TO OBEY • ABIDE = TOLERATE
  76. 76. • Answer "to him for what you've done," "for what you've done.” • ANSWER TO = LIABLE TO, REPORT TO, GIVE SATISFACTION, EXPLAIN • ANSWER FOR (A CRIME) = PAY FOR (A CRIME)
  77. 77. • Caution "about unsafe conditions," "against the rash proposal.” • CAUTION ABOUT = PREVENT/TAKE PREVENTIVE MEASURES • CAUTION AGAINST = SHOW DISAPPROVAL OF STH
  78. 78. • Compare "with other products that make the same claims," "apples to oranges.” • COMPARE WITH STH = • COMPARE X TO Y =
  79. 79. • Confide "in her about my problems," "to him what I really think.“ • CONFIDE IN • CONFIDE TO
  80. 80. • Conversant "about climate change," "in several languages," "with aspects of technology.”
  81. 81. • Differ "from other species in their diet," "with them about the cause of the company's failure," or "about public policy," "on public policy," or "over public policy.”
  82. 82. • Different "from what he was used to," "than he was used to." From is the preferred usage, but than substitutes for "from what." ("Different to" is a Briticism.)
  83. 83. • Dissent "against the status quo," "from the majority opinion." (To or with are not considered standard usage.)
  84. 84. • Dissimilar "to her previous sculpture." (From is considered incorrect.)
  85. 85. • Enamored "of every woman he meets." (With is considered incorrect.)
  86. 86. • Equivalent "in amounts," "to the earlier result." (With is not considered standard usage.)
  87. 87. • Excerpt "from their book was reprinted without their permission." (Of is considered incorrect.)
  88. 88. • Forbid "him from attending," "him to attend." (To is considered the more correct of the two choices.)
  89. 89. • Identical "to the one she saw yesterday," "with the one she saw yesterday." (Language purists consider with more correct, but use of to is significantly more common.)
  90. 90. • Impatient "with him," but "about the delay," "at the delay," or "with the delay.”
  91. 91. • Independent "of the group, he protested the plan." (From, as in "Independent from her family," is considered incorrect.)
  92. 92. • Inquired "of him where he was going" and "after her whereabouts," but "into their progress" or "about the vacant apartment.”
  93. 93. • Instilled "instilled a few drops of the solution into the wound," "in him a drive to succeed." (With, as in "Instilled with a drive to succeed," is considered incorrect.)
  94. 94. • Oblivious "of the warning signs," "to the noise"; the choices are often interchangeable. (About is often used in association with oblivious, but it's not considered standard usage.)
  95. 95. • Vexed "about her behavior," "at her behavior.”
  96. 96. • Mastery "over all other competitors," but "of the skill.”
  97. 97. • Reconcile "with her boyfriend," but "to the loss of her boyfriend.”
  98. 98. • Succeed "as a businessperson," but "to the position."
  99. 99. Prepositions in compound adjectives • We had lunch at a DOWN-market restaurant the other day. Not surprisingly, the food was horrendous. • Renowned linguist, Noam Chomsky is now a very OUTspoken critic of the government's foreign policies. • The army has been accused of using OVERwhelming force to quell the protests. • After the corruption scandal that rocked the market, the company now faces a (n) UPhill struggle to avoid further losses. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  100. 100. Prepositions in compound adjectives • I just received a BACKdated pay award, so this month's salary is a little larger than usual. • Could you provide some BACKground information on the company? • Stop behaving like a (n) OVERgrown boy, act your age! • She had the nerve to accuse me of stealing her purse. The very thought is DOWNright outrageous! Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  101. 101. Prepositions in idioms • As mentioned before, several idiomatic expressions are catalogued based on the head preposition e.g. at, in , on • It would be best to learn them as chunks, although the semantic content may/may not be evident to or felt by the user Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  102. 102. Exercise 6 – Use the words in brackets to make idioms for the underlined words • He claimed he hadn't done it intentionally. (ON purpose) OUT OF SPITE • We admire her because of her intelligence. (ON ACCOUNT OF) • I don't want you to sympathize with me. (sorry) • If you're not sure about what to write, it's best to make notes beforehand. (doubt) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  103. 103. Exercise 6 – Use the words in brackets to make idioms for the underlined words • Love letters will never be outdated because people will always feel enamored. (OUT OF fashion, fall IN LOVE) • I know the person from appearance but not from what he/she's called. (BY sight, BY name) • She's working much too hard causing harm to her health. (AT THE expense OF) • I wonder if you know what's on at the cinema, perhaps? (BY/ANY chance) Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  104. 104. Exercise 7 – Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "at" • The winners are selected without any plan by a computer. AT RANDOM. • It was a wonderful show – anyway I enjoyed it. AT LEAST • It was a difficult problem and I was uncertain what to do. AT A LOSS • I'm sure that our friends will arrive very soon – anyway I hope so. AT ANY MOMENT/MINUTE, AT LEAST • If you need to stay overnight, please book a hotel room and we will pay. AT OUR EXPENSE Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  105. 105. Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "at" • The hero was rescued a moment before it was too late. AT THE LAST MINUTE • The show closed because it was running without making a profit. A T A LOSS • We were talking about different things but didn't realize it. AT CROSSROADS • It's impossible to get tickets for such a popular show without previous warning- you need to book no less than six months in advance. AT THE SPUR OF THE MOMENT, AT LEAST Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  106. 106. Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "on" • (At a restaurant) There are so many desserts ON THE MENU but I won't have anything because I'm ON A DIET. • I would like to thank you ON BEHALF OF the entire sector and the board. • He promised to help me ON THE CONDITION THAT I returned the favor some other time. • It was a long drive so we stopped ON THE WAY to have a meal. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  107. 107. Exercise 8 – Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "on" • How much does a bus driver earn ON AVERAGE in your country? • Did you see the news ON TV last night? • Trains leave every hour ON THE HOUR. • It takes much longer to get there ON FOOT than by bus. • No, I don't dislike Chaplin at all; ON THE CONTRARY; I admire him greatly. Tradução de Inglês/Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  108. 108. Conjunctions Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link ideas in a particular so as to portray contrast, coordination, explanation, concession etc. Elements that link ideas beyond the scope of the noun or prepositional phrase, i.e. sentence, paragraph and whole text Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  109. 109. Coordinators • Linking of elements of same syntactic status (nouns, adverbials, adjectives) Paul and David cold and wet tired but happy slowly but surely tea or coffee hot or cold Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  110. 110. Coordinators • This also applies to longer units We can eat now or wait till later I love tennis but (I) don't play well Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  111. 111. Coordinators • Must appear between the elements coordinated: Paul plays football and David plays chess • Can have the order of the coordinated elements reversed, without changing meaning: David plays chess and Paul plays football Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  112. 112. And x But x Or? • To join a final thing to the rest of a list. – When I visited India, I went to Mumbai, Delhi AND Bangalore.
  113. 113. And x But x Or? • To join two ideas, opinions or facts which are different in a sentence. – I’ve been to Thailand, BUT I haven’t been to the Philippines.
  114. 114. And x But x Or? • To join two adjectives which seem to be opposite in meaning. – My hotel room was clean BUT uncomfortable.
  115. 115. And x But x Or? • To connect different possibilities, or the last thing in a list of possibilities – I don’t know why Sayed hasn´t come to class; he may be ill, OR he may be too busy.
  116. 116. And x But x Or? • To mean one thing and also not the other in a negative sentence – I haven’t been to Korea OR Thailand.
  117. 117. Correlative conjunctions • Both . . . and . . . • Either . . . or . . . • Neither . . . nor . . . • Hardly . . . when . . . • If . . . then . . . • No sooner . . . than . . . • Not only . . . but also • Rather . . . than • Scarcely . . . when • What with . . . and • Whether . . . or
  118. 118. Subordinators • Linking of unequal syntactic status I left early because I had an interview early the next day. We visited Madame Tussaud while we were in London Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  119. 119. Most common subordinators • Because • While • If • Although • Before • Since • Till • Unless • Whereas • Whether Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  120. 120. Subordinators • Do not need to occur between the connected items: Because I had an interview the next day, I left early. • When there is a change of order in the connected items, there is either a change in meaning or a dubious sentence: I had an interview the next day, because I left early. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  121. 121. Common mistakes with subordinating conjunctions • Although there are many reasons why young people start to smoke. – However, there are many reasons why young people start to smoke.
  122. 122. Common mistakes with subordinating conjunctions • Whereas some argue that children should be forced to do more exercise. – However/On the other hand/By contrast, some argue that children should be forced to do more exercise.
  123. 123. Common mistakes with subordinating conjunctions • People who enjoy communication by letter are romantic because they tend to write in a very classy way. – People who enjoy communication by letter are romantic; that’s why they tend to write in a very classy way. – People who enjoy communication by letter are romantic. As a result, they tend to write in a very classy way
  124. 124. Same sentence • She used to call me "Tiny" although I was as tall as she was. • Three more nuclear stations were built despite/in spite of widespread opposition • Even though I have a degree in Business Administration, I can't fill out a tax form. • Much as she loved her son, she could not accept his choice of career. • Doctors' salaries have risen considerably whereas/while nurses' pay have dropped. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  125. 125. Two sentences or clauses • Car crashes have become rare; even so, there should be stricter safety regulations • Prices have been rising. It is unlikely, however, that this increase is going to continue for long. • It is a grueling competition. Nevertheless, thousands of runners take part every year. • Urban expansion would be a good thing. On the other hand, it would be sad to lose the countryside atmosphere. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  126. 126. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition • Short answers: Should I revise for the test? I think you should • Comments: "I thought the film was wonderful." "I didn't." • Subsequent responses: "I wish you'd lock the door when you come in." "But I did!" • With more than one auxiliary: "He could have been lying." "Yes, he could/he could have been." Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  127. 127. Reduced infinitives • To give continuity to thoughts expressed, e.g. "Haven't you done the washing-up?" "No, I'm just about to." • To respond politely, e.g. "Are you coming for a walk?" "No, I dont want to." • To comment: She's less moody than she used to be. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  128. 128. Reduced infinitives • My mother can't read. She just never learnt to. (She just never learnt how) • I know I should not have offended you. I didn't mean to. • At first he refused to help, but eventually they got him to.
  129. 129. Participles/Relative pronouns/Reduced clauses • I don't believe a word they say, given they never tell the truth. • The women hurt in the accident are said to still be in critical condition at the emergency ward.
  130. 130. Paticiples as Discourse markers • Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I decided to wait Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  131. 131. Discourse markers show the relationships between … • What is being said and what was said • What is being said and what is going to be said • Speaker's attitude and what he/she is saying • Speaker's attitude and what was said Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  132. 132. Adverbs • Despite not being well-off, he gives quite handsomely to charities. • I admire him as a lecturer, though I find him a difficult person to get along with as a colleague. • He left school without any qualifications. Nevertheless, he is now one of the wealthiest men in the country.
  133. 133. Adverbs as Discourse markers • Adverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g. Sadly, the starting time had to be pushed back. • Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I decided to wait • Discourse markers can be created from adverbs and adverbials, e.g. Quite honestly, you need a better job. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  134. 134. Adverbs as Discourse markers • Adverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g. Sadly, the starting time had to pushed back. • Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I decided to wait • Discourse markers can be created from adverbs and adverbials, e.g. Quite honestly, you need a better job. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  135. 135. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed • Introduction: To begin with • Reference: With reference to • Change of subject: By the way • Reinforcement: As a matter of fact • Emphasis: Mainly • Cause: Since • Result, consequence: That's why • Inference, conclusion: Therefore • Purpose: In order to • Future projection: From now on
  136. 136. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed • Agreement: According to • Searching the recent past: So far • Momentary situations: For now • Simultaneity: In the meantime • Defining circumstances: In the midst of • Generalizing: As a rule • Coincidental events: Whenever • Time relationship: As time goes by
  137. 137. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed • Addressing: To whom it may concern • Weak forms: So far • Exclusion: As for me • Position definers : From the standpoint of • Assurance: Of course • Equivalence: By the same token • Condition: As long as • Contrast: Whereas • Reiterating: In other words
  138. 138. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed • Giving examples: For instance • Figurative: if you will • Alternation: In his turn • Last solution: As a last resort • Addition: Not only... but also • Dismissal: By the same token • Reminder: Whereas • Reiterating: (Otherwise) In other words • Consequence: As a result
  139. 139. Discourse Markers - what does each mean? • Basically, the country is spending too much money. • You might think I'm crazy when I say something like that but actually, I'm not. • Apparently, there are a lot of new openings in the hotel business. • Surely you understand what I mean when I say this?
  140. 140. Discourse Markers • Basically, the country is spending too much money. (That's the most important point) • You might think I'm crazy when I say something like that but actually, I'm not. (I'm contradicting you gently) • Apparently, there are a lot of new openings in the hotel business. (I've heard this, but don't know if it's true) • Surely you understand what I mean when I say this? (I don't know why you don't see things my way)
  141. 141. Some other discourse Markers • Admittedly = I know this weakens my point • After all = You have to admit • As a matter of fact = This might come as a surprise • Mind you/Still = This is something you should consider/I know this may contradict what I said earlier • I mean = What I'm trying to say is • Obviously = The fact cannot be denied
  142. 142. Some other discourse Markers • At least = I'm rectifying what I said • Naturally = This is what I would expect (to happen) • Anyway = Concluding the topic/Moving on to another topic • All in all = I'm considering all the angles in the situation • So to speak = I'm speaking in a figurative manner • By the way = This isn't connected to what I was just talking/The topic reminds me of another one
  143. 143. Similar in meaning* • Admittedly = Mind you/Still • Naturally = Obviously • All in all = After all • By the way = As a matter of fact (* with some restrictions, depending on the context)
  144. 144. Some useful resources • Cassell's Students' English Grammar • Ways to Grammar • Murphy's English Grammar • Practical English Usage • A Student's Grammar of the English Language • The Good Grammar Book Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  145. 145. Bibliography 1.BORDET, Lucile & JAMET, Denis. Are English Prepositions grammatical or lexical morphemes? Cercles, Occasional Papers, p.1- 26. 2010 2.FEIST, Michele I. The changing shape of prepositional meanings. In: CHAN, JACOB & KAPIA. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Boston, 2008 3.GRUBIC, Bob. Those Problematic English Prepositions. Presented at the CFI- Baci Conference, Long Beach, California. November 13, 2004. 4.LITTLEFIELD, Heather. Lexical and Functional Prepositions in Acquisition: Evidence for a hybrid category. Boston University. 2006 5.MARIN, A.M. A Semantic Description of the Preposition. 2010
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