Grammar ii   adverbs and adjectives
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Grammar ii   adverbs and adjectives Grammar ii adverbs and adjectives Presentation Transcript

  • Grammar II – Day 2 Adverbs and Adjectives
  • Day 2 • Position of adverbs: adverb + adjective; adverb + verb; front, mid or end position • Adverb collocation • Adverbs with two forms • Just and its several meanings • Intensifying adverbs and verbs • Quite + adjectives • Participles in adverb clauses • Subordinate adverbial clauses Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Day 2 • Adjective order • Limit adjectives • Gradable adjectives • Intensifying adjectives • Participles as adjectives • Participles as reduced relative clauses • Subordinate adjectival clauses Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • There are several types of adverb • Manner: quickly, gently, sincerely • Place: here, outside, upstairs • Point in time: yesterday, tonight • Indefinite time: already, still, yet • Frequency: always, never, seldom • Comment: clearly, obviously, naturally • Linking: however, so, although • Degree/intensifier: very, nearly, really
  • Same adverb, different type • Some can be both comment and manner – I can see the yacht clearly – Clearly, you need to cut down on the junk food
  • Sensibly • He (A) discussed the design with her (B). A – It was wise B – In a sensible way
  • Honestly (B)I don't think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly) A – In a honest way B – I'm telling the truth
  • Obviously • He (B) realized she wasn't (A) well. A- Of course she wasn't B- Of course he did
  • Kindly The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A). A – In a kind way B – it was kind of them
  • Adverb position • Immediately before the adjective or past participle being qualified – We were deeply disappointed with his performance • Usually after the predicate (verb + object) being qualified – I love the classic composers very much
  • Adverb position • There are 3 main positions in the English sentence: front, mid and end – Today, we're studying adverbs – We sincerely hope you can make it to the ball – She speaks five languages fluently
  • Adverb position • The position changes in accordance with the type of adverb • Front position: Point in time, Comment, Linking – Tomorrow we're going to Paris – Obviously, I got it wrong – It was raining, so we went back home
  • Adverb position • Mid-position: Manner, Indefinite time, Frequency, Comment – She quickly tidied her room and ran to catch the bus – Sorry, but I still don't understand – I seldom drink tea in the morning – I apparently got it wrong
  • Adverb position • End position: Manner, Place, Point in time – She tidied up quickly – They're playing outside – We'll be leaving in the morning
  • Adverbs to express completion • They come in mid-position – I have completely forgot about the party – We have almost completed the course
  • Adverb order • With more than one adverbial in the end position, we use the manner, place, time order: – We watched the sun rise slowly and majestically above the horizon. – I waited for you at home yesterday. Why didn't you call?
  • Exercise 1: correct or incorrect? • I've already seen the film - CORRECT • You very nearly killed me! What were you thinking? – (spoken example, very colloquial, for the purpose of emphasis) • I'll naturally pay you back as soon as I get paid – INCORRECT (NATURALLY, I’LL PAY YOU BACK...) • We just sat around at home lazily watching the day go by. - CORRECT • The team last night played superbly well. – INCORRECT (LAST NIGHT, THE TEAM PLAYED... Or ... THE TEAM PLAYED SUPERBLY WELL LAST NIGHT) • I got a nearly full score on the test. INCORRECT (I NEARLY GOT...
  • Adverb collocation • There seems to be a semantic link between adverbs and certain verbs and adjectives, e.g. deeply is normally used to express intense feelings: – Deeply regret – Deeply embarrassing – Deeply hurt
  • Exercise 2: what's the adverb + adjective/verb combination in each sentence? • If we admit something, we feel free to do so. FREELY ADMIT • When we recommend something or someone, we make high recommendations HIGHLY RECOMMEND • Any sort of damage is usually severe in terms of impact. SEVERLY DAMAGE • If you're in a hurry to get to the office, you can take a brisk walk instead of trying the subway. BRISKLY WALK(ING)
  • Exercise 2: what's the adverb + adjective combination in each sentence? • Missing someone is always a sad affair. SADLY MISS/SORELY MISS • Anxiety and despair go hand in hand; so the need to be desperate is more than natural. DESPERATELY NEED/ SORELY NEED • When giving an opinion about a controversial issue, there is no way we can not have strong feelings about it STRONGLY FEEL • Partial insurance is no insurance whatsoever; accept nothing but full coverage FULLY INSURANCE
  • Exercise 3: Match a verb on the left with an adverb on the right • Scream (Hysterically) • Gaze (Longingly, Passionately) • Love (Passionately) • Break something (Deliberately) • Work (Conscientiously) • Apologize (Profusely) • Passionately • Profusely • Longingly • Hysterically • Conscientiously • Deliberately
  • Adverbs with two forms • One with the –ly suffix, one without. The meanings are not directly related – We work hard – We hardly recognized her with the new hairdo.
  • Other adverbs with two forms • Easy – easily • Late – lately • Sure – surely • Wrong- wrongly • Most – mostly • Wide - widely
  • Adverbs with two forms • The first in the pair doubles as an adjective and adverb – That was an easy test! – Hey take it easy! – You could have easily taken him down – Is he just going to walk free? – Don't forget to redeem your free gift – He talked freely about his illegal activities in public.
  • Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • The need for a stiff penalty for late deliveries will be highly unlikely. • It’s virtually improbable that we will need to apply a stiff penalty for late deliveries. • The necessity for a stiff penalty for late deliveries will be highly unlikely.
  • Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • I distinctly remember their saying that it would not be a problem to meet the deadline. • I clearly remember them saying that it would be fine to meet the deadline. • I clearly remember when they said (that) it would not be a problem to meet the deadline.
  • Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • I sincerely hope the company honors its impeccable reputation. • Honestly, I hope the company honors/upholds its unmistakable/untainted/flawless/spotless reputation.
  • Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • We eagerly await the outcome of next week's board meeting. • We anxiously await/are looking forward to the outcome of next week's board meeting. • We can barely/hardly wait for the outcome of next week's board meeting.
  • Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • That no one can accurately predict market trends is understandable, but I felt the need for more meticulous planning. • It’s understandable/reasonable/justifiable/comprehensible that no one can precisely predict market trend, but I felt the need for more detailed planning, (however/though).
  • Attitude adverbs and adverbials 3 umbrella categories
  • Certainty/Expectation • Astonishingly • Disturbingly • Inevitably • Naturally • Predictably • Not surprisingly • Obviously • Without a doubt • As might be expected • Clearly • Of course • Undoubtedly
  • Evaluation/Importance • Apparently • Disturbingly • Unfortunately • Fortunately • Interestingly • Quite rightly • (Even) More importantly • Significantly
  • Generalization • As a general rule • By and large • Typically • Generally speaking • On the whole
  • Exercise 5: Rephrase with an adverb • NOT SURPRISINGLY, Crime rates have risen in line with unemployment figures. That doesn't surprise me. • FORTUNATELY, there is a very satisfactory solution to the problem.That's a good thing. • Technology will cause more problems than it solves, APPARENTLY (so people say). • Older people don't adapt so easily to new technology, AS A RULE – (at least that's a general rule). • INTERESTINGLY/STRANGELY, children often pick up new skills for themselves. That really interests me.
  • Just • The adverb just has several meanings: – This house is just right for us. (Exactly) – But he's just a boy! (Only) – I've just tried phoning you. (A short time before) – I'm just getting dressed. (Right now) – I just want you to leave right now. I'd just like an egg for breakfast, please. (Simply, only) – You're just as bad as my father. He can't see a football match on TV. (Equally, no less)
  • Just • As it has several meanings, it can occupy the three main adverb positions in a sentence : – Just looking at him and you can tell who he looks like. – Do you think you could just do what I tell you? – In the end we managed to get there before they closed the doors – just. (Spoken English)
  • Exercise 6: Add just to the sentences • Italian's JUST as difficult as Spanish. • JUST Leave me alone, will you? • That picture looks JUST right on the wall. • It's starting to rain. Do you JUST happen to have an umbrella? • We've got JUST enough time to get to the airport • I've JUST seen a terrible accident. • Stop talking and JUST eat up! • He wasn't badly hurt. It was JUST a small bruise.
  • Intensifying adverbs • In most of these combinations, however, there seems to be no specific reason for their collocation
  • Totally Absolutely Quite Agree Totally Disagree Completely Fully Perfectly Understand Seriously Sincerely Believe Completely Strongly Entirely Really Thoroughly Greatly Forget Disapprove Depend Like Enjoy Appreciate
  • Impossible combinations Sincerely agree Quite disagree Totally remember Fully think Completely adore Fully destroy Strongly like
  • Intensifying adverbs • The type of adverb depends on the type of adjective with which it might combine: – With gradable adjectives: very, awfully, rather, extremely, terribly, fairly, really, pretty, quite – With limit adjectives: absolutely, completely, utterly, totally, entirely, pretty, really, simply, quite
  • Weak Limit Extreme 1 Extreme 2 Irritated Angry Furious Livid Significant Important Essential Vital Content Happy Delighted Ecstatic Pretty Beautiful Gorgeous Stunning Sizeable Big Enormous Gigantic
  • Intensifying adverbs • In general, the native speaker does not make the following combinations: – totally essential, entirely determined, completely furious • Combinations that are (no-brainers) always possible: – Very + gradable adjectives e.g. very happy/tired/big – Absolutely + limit adjectives e.g. absolutely enormous/delicious/delighted – Really + gradable and limit adjectives e.g. really angry/surprised/amazed
  • Exercise 7: Complete the following paragraph with an appropriate adverb • I feel I must write to you on the following matter. I DO/TRULY/QUITE/HONESTLY believe that there is far too much sport of all kinds shown on LTC television today. I STRONGLY disapprove of the non-stop coverage, of football, golf, and cricket on all your channels. I DO/SINCERELY admit sport plays a major role in our society, but this is unacceptable. Sundays are already COMPLETELY/FULLY taken up by sport. I CERTAINLY/REALLY/SURELY/DO hope you will listen to those who are not sports fanatics and provide some alternative entertainment.
  • The adverb Quite • The meaning of quite is phonologically determined, i.e. based on stress – With gradable adjectives and stress on quite = Ok, but not as good as I expected: The restaurant was quite good, but I wouldn't go back
  • The adverb Quite – With gradable adjectives and with stress on the adjective = It was better than I expected: The film was quite good. You'll really like it – With a limit adjetive and stress on both words = up to the top (with exaggerated rising intonation): Are you quite sure?
  • Adverbial clauses • He went to party dressed as a monkey. • She sat by the fire reading a book. • Opening his suitcase, he took out a revolver. • Released from its cage, the lion prowled around. • Having finished lunch, we set off.
  • Adverbial clauses • Being a mean person, he never spent more time than he had to. • Weakened by years of bad health, she could hardly sit up in bed. • It rained every day for two weeks, completely ruining our holiday. • Taken regularly, aspirin can reduce the risk of a stroke.
  • Exercise 8: Simultaneity, Consequence, Reason, Condition, Sequence • Living in London, I appreciate the pros and cons of city life. REASON • He cut himself opening a can of sardines. SIMULTANEITY • Having read the minutes of the meeting, I wrote my university final paper. SEQUENCE • Having read the minutes of the meeting, I understood the problems. REASON/CONSEQUENCE
  • Exercise 8: Simultaneity, Consequence, Reason, Condition, Sequence • Cooked in a white wine sauce, rabbit meat can be succulent. CONDITION • Knowing my love of chocolate, she hid it in the top cupboard. REASON • Wrested from his parents' arms as a child, he's always had difficulty establishing relationships. REASON/CONSEQUENCE • Browsing in the neighborhood newsstand, I came across this great book on computing skills. SIMULTANEITY
  • Adjectives - Position • Attributive use: before noun or pronoun • Predicative use: separated from noun or pronoun following linking verbs - be, seem, appear, look: The current economic situation looks grim, to say the least.
  • Predicative adjectives • Afloat • Afraid • Alive • Alone • Asleep
  • Another predicative adjective Clergymen are answerable to a higher authority
  • Difference in meaning • The treasurer was present at the last board meeting • The present treasurer had trouble getting the accounts in order CURRENT • Robin Harris was late • The late Robin Harris was a honorary member of the association DECEASED • Too many people in the world are still poor • What will become of those poor people who have lost their homes due to the landslides? PITIFUL
  • Exercise 9: Translate the sentences • Great men are not always wise. (Grandes homens nem sempre são sábios) • Peter and Paul were faithful in many ways. (Peter e Paul eram/foram leais de várias maneiras) • A good name is priceless. (Um nome limpo não tem preço) • We should be reasonable irrespective of the circumstances (Devemos ser sensatos independentemente/a despeito das circustâncias) • The sword is quick and powerful. (A espada é rápida e poderosa) • The rich man is wealthy beyond imagination. (O homem rico tem posses inimagináveis) • The sky grew dark as the storm approached. (O céu escurecia à medida que a tempestade se aproximava) • His trumpet sounds squeaky. (O trompete dele soa estridente) • This is shoddy. Isn't it poor? (Isso é uma porcaria, não é?) • The hamburger tasted greasy. (O hambúrguer estava gorduroso)
  • Position of Adjectives • Adjectives occupy the last position before the noun phrase: determiners: both, all, half, the, this, these, that, those, my etc. ordinals: last, next, other, first, second quantifiers: few, lot of, little, numerals adjectives
  • OPINION FACTUAL SIZE AGE/TEMPERATURE SHAPE COLOR/PATTERN ORIGIN MATERIAL PURPOSE/TYPE
  • It’s a rose. (sweet-smelling; exquisite; apricot-colored) It’s a exquisite, sweet-smelling, apricot-colored rose
  • She’s wearing trousers. (leather; black, shiny; tight- fitting) She’s wearing shiny, tight-fitting, black, leather trousers
  • I met a student. (young; trendy; art; Venezuelan) I met a trendy, young, Venezuelan, art student
  • We drove out of the city to see some cottages. (thatched; old; beautiful; two-storey) We drove out of the city to see some beautiful, old, thatched, two-storey cottages
  • Exercise 11: Translate the sentences to English • Delicioso pão integral caseiro (Delicious, home-made, whole wheat bread). • Uma simpática idosa escocesa (A friendly old Scottish lady). • Uma linda camisa de seda listrada em vermelho e branco (A beautiful red-and-white-stripped silk shirt). • Um lindo menino gorducho e agitado (A cute, chubby, lively boy). • Uma graciosa sala de estar iluminada e arejada com pé- direito alto (A lovely, bright, breezy, high-ceilinged living room).
  • Exercise 11: Translate the sentences to English • Um inestimável quadro impressionista do século XIX. (A priceless, nineteenth-century, impressionist painting) • Um velho e sujo banquinho metálico de jardim (A dirty old metal garden stool). • Uma linda escrivaninha vitoriana (A beautiful Victorian desk). • Uma encantadora casa de campo caiada. (A charming whitewashed country house) • Uma pequena copa em forma de L.(A small L-shaped dining room)
  • The negative prefix 'un' The use of the negative prefix 'un' plus an adjective occurs with a much higher frequency in English, the phrase not always being simple or practical to translate.
  • China's prime minister, Wen Jiabao, said recently that structural problems are causing unsteady, unbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development. Newsweek, 5/9/09 O primeiro-ministro chinês Wen Jiabao, afirmou recentemente que problemas estruturais vem ocasionando desenvolvimento instável, desequilibrado, descoordenado e insustentável. Newsweek, 5/9/09
  • Semantically, the prefix can cause ambiguity, as it can mean "the opposite of" or "that never was".
  • • An unbuttoned shirt (In Portuguese "uma camisa desabotoada" or "uma camisa nunca abotoada/nova em folha") • Other examples – uncovered, unfastened, undone, undressed etc.
  • I regret to say that of a workmate, but his behavior was absolutely unprofessional. - unprofessional > amador - unprofessional> anti-profissional, anti-ético
  • Whereas her big sister´s room was a stew of unclosed books, unfolded clothes, unmade bed, unemptied ashtrays, Briony's was a shrine to her controlling demon. (Atonement, 2001) Enquanto o quarto da sua irmã era uma mistura de livros abertos, roupas para serem dobradas, uma cama desarrumada, cinzeiros cheios, o de Briony era um templo para sua obsessão por controle. (Atonement, 2001)
  • Defining or Non-defining relative clauses • Which gives essential information? • Which is separated by commas? • In which do we use that? • In which can the relative pronoun be omitted?
  • Examples • Chocolate is something (that) nearly everyone likes • People that smoke normally damage their health • Tortilla, which is made from eggs and potatoes, is a typical Spanish dish • Toby, whose job is difficult, spends his weekends relaxing
  • Exercise 10: Find and correct the errors • My mother who's a doctor works in a maternity hospital • Ligaments join bones in the human body are made of strong tissue • Do you know anyone I can ask about this? • The pharmacist gave me this medicine said it would help • Distance running is a sport that requires no special equipment • Dr. James, that has written several books on the subject, is a dietician
  • Relative pronouns in academic English • It is a rare condition of which little is known • Professor Harris, with whom the team worked, found a cure for the disease
  • Quantifiers in non-defining relative clauses • Questionnaires were sent to 500 people, one third of whom completed them