• Semiotics, Language and Culture
• Developing vocabulary acquisition skills and strategies
• Using inference and deductio...
ABC news about Grantham
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rFVjzVr9i8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl3d-5KU_K0&feature=relm...
Semiotics
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6zTvrGirfg&feature=related
Britishsms and Britishation of
American English
• Refer to the BBC text worksheet to answer the
questions:
• 1- Write down...
Useful Sites
• BBC Podcast: The English we speak
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/tae/all
• BBC One-minute news
• ht...
How Haruli Murakami ‘ 1Q84’ was
translated into English
• Refer to your worksheet and reflect on the questions:
1-Accordin...
Memorias de um sargento de milicias
• Ahead of time
• Transition
• Dramatic Irony
• Ilha da Conceicao
• Intertextuality
• ...
• Couple: Portugues e Espanhola
• Pataca
• Magia Negra
• Names without surnames
• ‘ Filho de um beliscao e uma pisadela’
•...
Keneth, Hale
• ‘ When you lose a language, you lose a
culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art.’
He sought to rescue la...
True or False?
The ability to communicate is essential to deep
learning.
• Languages have patterns, structures and systems...
Reflection
• Is language learning universal?
• Is there only one way to learn a language?
• Is language acquisition univer...
Interviews
I have interviewed 5 language teaching native
speakers and have asked them to:
1- Briefly describe where they c...
While listening
• 1- Make notes of similarities and differences
in pronunciation.
• 2- Keep track of the new words/express...
Our Day Out
By Willy Russell,1977.
‘Carol rushes along the street wearing school uniform
which doubles as a street outfit ...
Wales
• The country of Wales is part
of Great Britain, but a
region with its own
language, Welsh.
• The accent of the Wels...
North American
English
USA
• Very distinct from the
English spoken in the UK
• Discrepancies go beyond
the accents (of whi...
Southern Hemisphere
English
Australia
• Can be divided into three
general categories: Broad
(stronger accent, generally
fo...
Understanding Culture
Politically Correct
• 1- How does this vary from
region to region in Brazil?
• 2- How does that affe...
Being PC
The politically correct use of English
• In order to minimize social and institutional
offense in regards to race...
WORDS COMMONLY
IDENTIFIED AS BEING
OFFENSIVE
• Class
– bum
• Racial
– nigger
– Paki
• Gender
– Use of ‘his’
• Sexual orien...
Check these
• http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_16_02_8
• http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum
Watch the
following video
How many
times do
the players
in white
pass the
basketball?
Preliminary
Language Learning
X
Learning Acquisition
• ACQUISITION OF A LANGUAGE
• Learning a Target Language
Note Taking
‘PICK UP A
LANGUAGE’
‘INCIDENTAL
LEARNING’
Studying i...
Jonhson, K. (2001) An Introduction to Foreign Language
Learning and Teaching . Harlow : Longman
Attempt to bridge the gap ...
• Body movement
• Choreography
• Emotions
• Expression
• Coordination
• Rhythm
Acquiring vocabulary is like performing
a v...
Words presented with pictures
e.g. Optical illusion
• What's an Analogy?
by Ann Reckner
An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized tests. It is m...
• Because
• Business
• Drop
• Slippers
• Leave
Using graphics to show word meaning
Presented in word families
Root Comes from Means
bio Greek life
cept Latin take
form Latin Form, shape
graph Greek write
s...
 Providing multiple exposures and opportunities to see, hear,
write and use new words
There are also different ways to
learn words
Examples
Supporting Developing Word Knowledge
• Repeat in various contexts
• Describe words
• Support with visuals
• Connect to you...
IntroductionLet's face it - English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham
in hamburger; neither apple ...
Doesn't it seem crazy that you can make amends
but not one amend? If you have a bunch of odds
and ends and get rid of all ...
• In what language do people recite at a play
and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send
cargo by ship? Have noses that...
How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy
are opposites?
You have to marvel at t...
• English was invented by people, not
computers, and it reflects the creativity of the
human race, which, of course, is no...
• Make amends
• usage notes: after to/by/with
• e.g. I hope that by winning this game I will make amends to
my fans for lo...
• Odds and ends(pl)
• Run an errand /run errands
Note: When logging vocabulary one should add some examples to turn input
...
• Smelly feet / flat foot/ ingrown nail/ athlete’s
feet/ bunion
• Running nose/ Have the flu / cold/ congested/
feel sick,...
‘ Memory can be thought of as a kind of conveyor belt, which when in
operation receives a constant stream of information, ...
• How many words do we know?
• How many do we need to know in order to be
fluent?
• How many do native speakers know at th...
How many words do we know?
• Average first grader – 6,000 words
• Average high school senior – 45,000 words
• The Math:
– ...
• I will learn..... words a day.
• 5?
At the end of the year it will be
365X5=1825
Setting a smart target
What does it mean to KNOW a word?
• A preliminary definition
– Read/decode a word
– Understand its meaning and use
– Use i...
• There are many other strategies used to learn a vocabulary
and the following links may give you food for thought.
• http...
EAL teaching strategies - supporting pupils for whom English is an
additional language
EAL strategies and resources to mak...
Useful sources
http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/differentiation-strategy.html
• http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.c...
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Second
Language Acquisition
Perspectives of critical/sensitive periods, maturational
effects...
Zebra crossing 
 
Marmite
Vegemite
 
Off you go
 
Cheers
 
Top of the morning
 
Mind your own business
 
Spot on!
Private ...
• Zebra crossing
Association
Marmite(UK) and Vegemite(Aust)
• Let’s go X off you go
• Shall we/ you will have ten min to complete
this task...
Analogies
• Cheers
• Ta
• Thank you
• Tara
• Morning
• Top of the morning
• G’day
• Howdy
• Mind you ...
• Mind your own business (-)
• Mind the gap
• Public school / Private school
Comprehensive
Grammar
Boarding
Church
Community
Cultural Understanding
Spot on!
Way to go
Couldn’t do better myself
Keep at it!
Complimenting a student
• Receptive knowledge - decoding
• Conceptual knowledge- applying
• Phonological knowledge- pronouncing
• Grammatical know...
Studying the word moose
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejlCv9pAiHY
How giant amplifiers can help Mr Moose hear for miles
By DAVID DERBYSHIRE
They are a sign of maturity, impress the ladies ...
• 1-What are the words you have come across
in context that you understood without using
a dictionary or consulting someon...
• Associating it with picture
• Learning other words related to original search
• Learning something interesting about the...
1- Jeopardy, objection, overruled, court, parole,
death sentence, jailhouse, appeal.
Answer:
2- Flood, flash flood, torren...
Task
• Write down as many words as you can think
of
related to the ones bellow:
1- To walk
2- To say
3- Tired
Use the Word
• The drunks swayed as they sang the song.
• The mother rocked the baby in her arms.
• Diamonds dangled on he...
Think of sentences using the words:
• To shiver:
• To flicker:
• To stir
• To wiggle
• Grouping them into themes
A very interesting text to be read is the chapter 4 of this Bolivian post-
grad student paper ...
Standard
English
Double negatives: two ‘negative’
words in the same sentence. For
Standard English to apply one of
the negative words must ...
Standard English
These are not written in Standard English, how should they be written?
May I lend your scissors Ben?
May ...
Copy these into your books and write the
correct version underneath.
1. I’d like one of them cakes.
2. My uncle gave me th...
Received Pronunciation (RP),
also called the Queen's (or
King's) English, Oxford English,
or BBC English, is the accent of...
• Although there is nothing intrinsic about RP
that marks it as superior to any other variety,
sociolinguistic factors hav...
Spoken Language and Written
Language
• There are many differences between spoken
and written English. In fact, speaking as...
DAY AT WORK
In the morning I 1-_______ a meeting between management and 2-_____
representatives. The discussion was very 3...
• DAY AT WORK
• In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union
representatives. The discussion was very ...
hom·o·phone
• a word pronounced the same as another but
differing in meaning a
e.g. heir and air.
http://dictionary.refere...
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the
same as another word but differs in meaning.
e.g. Tip up the jug and _______ ...
Write down the pair of homophones for the
exercise below:
1- e.g.She was stung by a __bee____. ( be, bee)
2-Paper and enve...
• http://www.cooper.com/alan/homonym.html
How do you make a sausage roll? Push it!
Why are movie stars so cool? Because th...
• Homographs are words with different
pronunciation, meanings and origins but the
same spelling
• e.g.
• bow – type of kno...
It seems to be appropriate to apply some of the
strategies we have visited today while exercising
our memories .
The exerc...
Metaphor: figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made
between two unlike things that actually have something ...
• 1. ___ The girl never tells the
truth.
• 2. ___ Please water that plant.
• 3. ___ Those two children
don't like each oth...
• 1. ___ The girl never tells the
truth.
• 2. ___ Please water that plant.
• 3. ___ Those two children
don't like each oth...
• 9. a Did you scrub the floor?
• 10. V Put on some warm gloves.
• 11. P This cake is soft and fluffy.
• 12. D I want to d...
• http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/cae/students/tests/ocltst2.htm
• Phobias
• The (0) ... of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many
people (1) ... in everyday sit...
1-) a) face b) confront c) meet d) join
2- ) a) choose b) distinguish c) select d) pick
3-) a) very b)absolutely c) quite ...
Sound Advice for Language Learners
A recent (0) issue of a language learning magazine has consulted a
number of experts in...
1) a)domain b) branch c) field d) area
e.g.
Gap 2
wondering
• Thinking
• looking
• considering
Gap 3
• assess
• review
• balance
• survey
Gap 4
• change
• cost
• price
• evaluation
Gap 5
• recognised
• understood
• valued
• regarded
Gap 6
• sights
• ends
• objects
• goals
Gap 7
• by
• about
• into
• in
GAP 8
• Nose
• Push
• Run
• Shop
GAP 9
• rapid
• crash
• quick
• fast
GAP 10
• achieving
• doing
• gaining
• making
GAP 11
• on
• forward
• from
• onward
GAP 12
• up
• on
• through
• out
KEY
• field/considering/assess/majorcost/recognise
d/goals/by/shop/crash/rapid/making/on
Word Formation
Word Formation
Read the text and then write the correct form of the word on
the right. There is an example ...
can be expensive and the idea of (3) ... offering items
OCCASION
up for sale can at the very least help pay for the
hobby....
just to see how quickly and (6) ... it sells.
PROFIT
Local shops can be the next outlet for items,
often the step taken by...
As with any business idea, an honest (8) ... should be
APPRAISE
undertaken regarding the demand for the work and the
price...
'Key' Word Transformations
For questions 1-8, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first s...
5. He would never have guessed that at the age of 17 he would be
playing for his country.
LITTLE
............................
• Is under new management/ broke down in tears as
placed the blame on/was left with the
impression/was given the impressio...
Gapped Sentences
For questions 1-5, think of one word only which can be used
appropriately in all three sentences. Here is...
Q1
John has just taken up the ........ of Marketing Manager at a local
college.
He put me in a really difficult ........ a...
Q3
During the tutorial I was asked to give my........ of the portrayal
of the main character in the film.
There was a wond...
Q5
It wasn't my ........ - the vase just fell off the table.
There was a ........ with the computer and we had to take it ...
• http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrind
er/2009/dec/01/best-tv-ads-of-the-noughties-
decade
• http://www.youtube.com/...
http://www.sk.com.br/sk-laxll.html
Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Ha...
• http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/curric/files/pages/saisop/V
acationLiteracy/whattodo.htm
• School resources
• http://www.bbc.c...
• Linguist John Higgins has prepared a comprehensive list of homographs in various
categories, including those where the m...
If time allows
FALSE
COGNATES
False Cognates(an English Speaker Learning Portuguese)
‘ Compromisso - looks like compromise, but really means
“comittment...
educado – this Portuguese adjective looks like it means
“educated” but it really means “polite” or “well-
raised”. To desc...
rato – this is the Portuguese word for a rat, but also for
a ”mouse.”
propaganda – in Portuguese, this is the word for
adv...
carona – this took me forever to figure out and I have no idea
why. So, even though this word is the name of a popular
Mex...
More Activities
• Gapped Sentences
Instructions
For questions 1-6, think of one word only which can
be used appropriately ...
• Strong
• Q1
It is very difficult to fully ........ certain pieces of
jazz music until you've heard them a good few
times.
Althoug...
• appreciate
• Q2
James is able to ........ an enormous amount of
factual information in his head.
Although the old house has been comp...
• retain
• Q3
With less than a minute of the football match to
go, Phil managed to ........ the ball into the back of
the net.
I th...
• head
• Q4
Initially, few companies saw any potential in
computers designed for the ........ rather than the
office environment....
• domestic
• Q5
The chess champion held off a serious ........ from
his younger opponent in the last match of the
tournament.
The cha...
challenge
• Q6
Melanie practised her lines each day after school,
getting increasingly nervous as the date of her
audition ........ ...
• drew
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25664

  1. 1. • Semiotics, Language and Culture • Developing vocabulary acquisition skills and strategies • Using inference and deduction to explore layers of meaning of a word • Making relevant notes when researching different sources, comparing and contrasting information. • Exploring Connotation/Denotation • Regionalisms and Accent • Using a variety of resources to study use and usage of a word • Improving vocabulary for precision and impact Learning Objectives:
  2. 2. ABC news about Grantham http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rFVjzVr9i8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl3d-5KU_K0&feature=relmfu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYUpkPTcqPY&feature=related (live footage)
  3. 3. Semiotics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6zTvrGirfg&feature=related
  4. 4. Britishsms and Britishation of American English • Refer to the BBC text worksheet to answer the questions: • 1- Write down a list of Briticisms on a vocabulary log. • 2-What is your opinion about this phenomenon? • 3- What is the best way to keep yourself up-to-date with the new language? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UIXHcOjJpxY (movie snippet) • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 (text) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHX2mvFVQMs&NR=1 (american accent and stereotyping)
  5. 5. Useful Sites • BBC Podcast: The English we speak • http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/tae/all • BBC One-minute news • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/video_and_audio/ • Cbbc news • http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/14730600 • cbbcnews mobile phones girl fall in hole • Webmix • http://www.symbaloo.com/mix/homewebmix1258?searched=true
  6. 6. How Haruli Murakami ‘ 1Q84’ was translated into English • Refer to your worksheet and reflect on the questions: 1-According to this article, Gabriel Garcia Marquez allegedly tod Gregory Rabassa that his English translation of One Hundred Years of Solitude was better than the Spanish original. When translating, should one avoid this? What strategies were used for the purpose of this text? How effective were they? 2- Too many hands spoil the broth? Or Many hands, light work?
  7. 7. Memorias de um sargento de milicias • Ahead of time • Transition • Dramatic Irony • Ilha da Conceicao • Intertextuality • Anti-hero • Dialetica da Malandragem • Morro do Vidigal
  8. 8. • Couple: Portugues e Espanhola • Pataca • Magia Negra • Names without surnames • ‘ Filho de um beliscao e uma pisadela’ • Barbeiro • Parteira • Maria Regalada • Memorias em primeira pessoa, livro em terceira pessoa. • Milicia
  9. 9. Keneth, Hale • ‘ When you lose a language, you lose a culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art.’ He sought to rescue languages that were dying out. He held that meaning were fluid to be captured and readily translated word-for-word from one language to another. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8uUjtiaXqE (Dreaming in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think) Extra Time
  10. 10. True or False? The ability to communicate is essential to deep learning. • Languages have patterns, structures and systems. • Language is a tool to access knowledge. • Language allows humans to share thoughts, feelings and emotions. • Language is part of the development of identity. • Communication is an essential tool for understanding.
  11. 11. Reflection • Is language learning universal? • Is there only one way to learn a language? • Is language acquisition universal? • How far does your language represent your culture?
  12. 12. Interviews I have interviewed 5 language teaching native speakers and have asked them to: 1- Briefly describe where they come from. 2- Share some language typically from their place of origin. 3- Read an extract of a play.
  13. 13. While listening • 1- Make notes of similarities and differences in pronunciation. • 2- Keep track of the new words/expressions in your vocabulary log. • 3- Any observations on how easy/difficult to understand what they say.
  14. 14. Our Day Out By Willy Russell,1977. ‘Carol rushes along the street wearing school uniform which doubles as a street outfit and her Sunday best’ Snippet Part I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-YQE1whleo Extract of the Book http://books.google.com.br/books?id=FOblbV3XBI4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=our+day+out+amazon&source=bl&ots=2lVnKtEsQC&sig=5vil3e82iT3IcRULFiiO6UnQ_Zg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=g
  15. 15. Wales • The country of Wales is part of Great Britain, but a region with its own language, Welsh. • The accent of the Welsh is distinct from the rest of Great Britain.
  16. 16. North American English USA • Very distinct from the English spoken in the UK • Discrepancies go beyond the accents (of which the US has great diversity), as far as spelling. Canada • Although the accent can sound similar to those found in the Northern states of the USA, Canadian English has retained far more in common with British English – including spelling – than the US.
  17. 17. Southern Hemisphere English Australia • Can be divided into three general categories: Broad (stronger accent, generally found in rural regions), General (most common, urban majority) and Cultivated (declining – strong similarities to British “BBC” accent) . New Zealand • Similar to Australian accent, although distinct differences can be discerned in the pronunciation of certain vowels.
  18. 18. Understanding Culture Politically Correct • 1- How does this vary from region to region in Brazil? • 2- How does that affect effective communication? • 3- Should it be explicitly taught in an ESL environment? Not so much. • Can you think of 5 words that are pejorative? • Why do they carry the negative connotation?
  19. 19. Being PC The politically correct use of English • In order to minimize social and institutional offense in regards to race, class, gender, racial, sexual orientation, cultural, religious, ideological, disability and age-related contexts, certain vocabulary should be avoided as it may be perceived as being politically incorrect.
  20. 20. WORDS COMMONLY IDENTIFIED AS BEING OFFENSIVE • Class – bum • Racial – nigger – Paki • Gender – Use of ‘his’ • Sexual orientation – queer – poof • Religious – mick • Disability – spastic The purpose of Politically Correct language: 1. It reduces the social acceptability of using offensive terms. 2. It discourages the reflexive use of words that import a negative stereotype, thereby promoting conscious thinking about how to describe others fairly on their merits.
  21. 21. Check these • http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_16_02_8 • http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum
  22. 22. Watch the following video How many times do the players in white pass the basketball?
  23. 23. Preliminary Language Learning X Learning Acquisition
  24. 24. • ACQUISITION OF A LANGUAGE • Learning a Target Language Note Taking ‘PICK UP A LANGUAGE’ ‘INCIDENTAL LEARNING’ Studying it Intended learning
  25. 25. Jonhson, K. (2001) An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching . Harlow : Longman Attempt to bridge the gap between theorists and practitioners. Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ‘ The security of the familiar with the excitement of the new.’ Good readings
  26. 26. • Body movement • Choreography • Emotions • Expression • Coordination • Rhythm Acquiring vocabulary is like performing a very intricate dance.
  27. 27. Words presented with pictures e.g. Optical illusion
  28. 28. • What's an Analogy? by Ann Reckner An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized tests. It is made up of two word pairs, like this: GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: late : _______ • Your goal in solving an analogy is to find a word that correctly completes the second pair. At first glance the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. Both pairs of words have the same kind of relationship. To solve the analogy you need to find that relationship. Read the analogy like this: "Graceful is to clumsy as late is to 'blank.'" • Ask yourself: What is the relationship between graceful and clumsy? They are antonyms—words that have opposite meanings. The second pair of words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of late, and you've solved the analogy. Early is the best answer. Besides antonyms, the word pairs in an analogy could have one of these types of relationships: synonyms, or words that have the same or similar meanings, as in WORK : LABOR • descriptive, in which one word describes the other word, as in BLUE : SKY • part to whole, in which one word is a part or piece of the other, as in ARM : BODY • item to category, in which one word names something that falls into the group named by the other word, as in MILK : BEVERAGE PUPPY : DOG :: kitten : _______ Words presented in analogy
  29. 29. • Because • Business • Drop • Slippers • Leave Using graphics to show word meaning
  30. 30. Presented in word families Root Comes from Means bio Greek life cept Latin take form Latin Form, shape graph Greek write script Latin write spect Latin look phone Greek voice hydr Greek water fect Latin Cause, make Vid,vis Latin see cis Latin cut cent Latin hundred
  31. 31.  Providing multiple exposures and opportunities to see, hear, write and use new words
  32. 32. There are also different ways to learn words
  33. 33. Examples
  34. 34. Supporting Developing Word Knowledge • Repeat in various contexts • Describe words • Support with visuals • Connect to yours or other people’s lives • Extend meaning with anecdotes • Make associations • Give definitions • Compare and contrasts • Question • Chart characteristics • Rephrase sentences • Analyze structure • Provide tactile examples • Give examples of correct and incorrect use
  35. 35. IntroductionLet's face it - English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France. Sweetmeats are candies while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat. We take English for granted. But if we explore its paradoxes, we find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig. ‘Learning involves the search for patterns, regularity and predictability’ Bruner 1960 And why is it that writers write but fingers don't fing, grocers don't groce and hammers don't ham? If the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn't the plural of booth, beeth? One goose, 2 geese. So one moose, 2 meese?
  36. 36. Doesn't it seem crazy that you can make amends but not one amend? If you have a bunch of odds and ends and get rid of all but one of them, what do you call it? if teachers taught, why didn't preachers praught? If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat? ...
  37. 37. • In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that smell?
  38. 38. How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites? You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out and in which, an alarm goes off by going on.
  39. 39. • English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the creativity of the human race, which, of course, is not a race at all. • That is why, when the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible.
  40. 40. • Make amends • usage notes: after to/by/with • e.g. I hope that by winning this game I will make amends to my fans for losing such an easy match yesterday. • at the end of a sentence: I embarressed my friends and want to make amends. Note taking
  41. 41. • Odds and ends(pl) • Run an errand /run errands Note: When logging vocabulary one should add some examples to turn input comprehensible/ meaningful.
  42. 42. • Smelly feet / flat foot/ ingrown nail/ athlete’s feet/ bunion • Running nose/ Have the flu / cold/ congested/ feel sick, be sick/ ill More notes
  43. 43. ‘ Memory can be thought of as a kind of conveyor belt, which when in operation receives a constant stream of information, which it processes as follows:’
  44. 44. • How many words do we know? • How many do we need to know in order to be fluent? • How many do native speakers know at the age of 3, when they start speaking? • How many can we learn ? Numbers
  45. 45. How many words do we know? • Average first grader – 6,000 words • Average high school senior – 45,000 words • The Math: – 39,000 words over 12 years – About 3,000 words a year or 10 words a day • The range: – 1,000 words a year for low achieving children – 5,000 words a year for high achieving children
  46. 46. • I will learn..... words a day. • 5? At the end of the year it will be 365X5=1825 Setting a smart target
  47. 47. What does it mean to KNOW a word? • A preliminary definition – Read/decode a word – Understand its meaning and use – Use it in oral response – Use it in written work • Levels of word knowledge – Unknown – Acquainted – Established
  48. 48. • There are many other strategies used to learn a vocabulary and the following links may give you food for thought. • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acq • http://203.72.145.166/TESOL/TQD_2008/VOL_25_4.PDF#page=9 • http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strat • http://coachdes.wordpress.com/2005/10/24/english-use-and-us •
  49. 49. EAL teaching strategies - supporting pupils for whom English is an additional language EAL strategies and resources to make planning and teaching easier and help your pupils achieve the four Ps; - make accelerated progress - fulfil their potential - be happy motivated and proactive learners - be proud of their identity and language skills
  50. 50. Useful sources http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/differentiation-strategy.html • http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/assessment.html • http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/resources.html • http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/games.html • http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/assessment.html • http://www.eal-teaching-strategies.com/resources.html • http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/mecs/eal/newarrivals/index.shtml
  51. 51. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Second Language Acquisition Perspectives of critical/sensitive periods, maturational effects, individual differences, neural regions involved, and processing characteristics. The research methods used include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and event related potentials (ERP). Core questions including: which brain areas are reliably activated in second language processing? Are they the same or different from those activated in first language acquisition and use? And what are the behavioural consequences of individual differences among brains?
  52. 52. Zebra crossing    Marmite Vegemite   Off you go   Cheers   Top of the morning   Mind your own business   Spot on! Private school Public school My journal
  53. 53. • Zebra crossing Association
  54. 54. Marmite(UK) and Vegemite(Aust)
  55. 55. • Let’s go X off you go • Shall we/ you will have ten min to complete this task... Analogies
  56. 56. • Cheers • Ta • Thank you • Tara
  57. 57. • Morning • Top of the morning • G’day • Howdy
  58. 58. • Mind you ... • Mind your own business (-) • Mind the gap
  59. 59. • Public school / Private school Comprehensive Grammar Boarding Church Community Cultural Understanding
  60. 60. Spot on! Way to go Couldn’t do better myself Keep at it! Complimenting a student
  61. 61. • Receptive knowledge - decoding • Conceptual knowledge- applying • Phonological knowledge- pronouncing • Grammatical knowledge- usage • Co notational Knowledge- + or - • Metalinguistic Knowledge -literal and implied meaning • Memory- RETRIEVING Cameron, L. 2001 Learning a word
  62. 62. Studying the word moose http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejlCv9pAiHY
  63. 63. How giant amplifiers can help Mr Moose hear for miles By DAVID DERBYSHIRE They are a sign of maturity, impress the ladies and come in handy for giving rivals a nasty poke in the ribs. But moose antlers have another crucial function - as giant amplifiers. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-541028/How-giant-amplifiers-help-Mr-Moose-hear-miles.html#ixzz1QOyHJLu2 Text I
  64. 64. • 1-What are the words you have come across in context that you understood without using a dictionary or consulting someone? • 2-What are the words related to the original search ‘moose’ ? • 3- Did you know that one of the functions of antlers was to serve as amplifiers? Learning through Language
  65. 65. • Associating it with picture • Learning other words related to original search • Learning something interesting about the word • Experiencing the word in different contexts • Repetition • Using the words Maximizing learning opportunities Recap
  66. 66. 1- Jeopardy, objection, overruled, court, parole, death sentence, jailhouse, appeal. Answer: 2- Flood, flash flood, torrent, downpour, in land tsunami, cats and dogs, flood appeal. Answer: What word generated the following words:
  67. 67. Task • Write down as many words as you can think of related to the ones bellow: 1- To walk 2- To say 3- Tired
  68. 68. Use the Word • The drunks swayed as they sang the song. • The mother rocked the baby in her arms. • Diamonds dangled on her ears. • The kids bounced a ball on the sidewalk. • He nodded his head in agreement.
  69. 69. Think of sentences using the words: • To shiver: • To flicker: • To stir • To wiggle
  70. 70. • Grouping them into themes A very interesting text to be read is the chapter 4 of this Bolivian post- grad student paper on how she has overcome her difficulties in learning vocabulary for a post-grad purpose. http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1192&context=i Among many other things, she mentions that she benefitted from cognate awareness when acquiring new vocabulary. So she can draw upon her L1 experience to try and guess the meaning of a new word as well. She also calls our attention to the false cognates. Try and complete this exercise on false cognates and see how many you know or how many you can guess. Other strategies
  71. 71. Standard English
  72. 72. Double negatives: two ‘negative’ words in the same sentence. For Standard English to apply one of the negative words must be changed. I ain’t got no pencils I haven’t got any pencils I don’t want none of that I don’t want any of that.
  73. 73. Standard English These are not written in Standard English, how should they be written? May I lend your scissors Ben? May I your scissors Ben? I should of taken more care with the hammer. I should taken more care with the hammer. borrow have
  74. 74. Copy these into your books and write the correct version underneath. 1. I’d like one of them cakes. 2. My uncle gave me this book whenever I was born. 3. It was thunder what we heard. 4. Mum learned me to ride a bike. 5. He never! 6. It’s right hot! Try and think of some of your own. Write the non-standard and standard versions.
  75. 75. Received Pronunciation (RP), also called the Queen's (or King's) English, Oxford English, or BBC English, is the accent of Standard English in England.
  76. 76. • Although there is nothing intrinsic about RP that marks it as superior to any other variety, sociolinguistic factors have given Received Pronunciation particular prestige throughout the world.
  77. 77. Spoken Language and Written Language • There are many differences between spoken and written English. In fact, speaking as we write may be considered stuffy, whereas writing as we speak may be considered uneducated. Spoken English and written English should be considered separately.
  78. 78. DAY AT WORK In the morning I 1-_______ a meeting between management and 2-_____ representatives. The discussion was very 3-________, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to 4-_______. The secretary 5-______everything in the notes. 6- ________, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement. Back at the 7-______, a colleague of mine asked me if I had 8-_______ that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company 9________ not to accept workers that have already 10-________. I 11-_______ to be really busy and late for an 12-_______, and left for the13-_______. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office. After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government. Identifying false cognates in context
  79. 79. • DAY AT WORK • In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement. • Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office. • After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government. Key
  80. 80. hom·o·phone • a word pronounced the same as another but differing in meaning a e.g. heir and air. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/homophones Homophones
  81. 81. A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. e.g. Tip up the jug and _______ lots of cream on the strawberries. • paw • poor • Pour http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/paw_ Analyse it.
  82. 82. Write down the pair of homophones for the exercise below: 1- e.g.She was stung by a __bee____. ( be, bee) 2-Paper and envelopes are called _____.(.....) 3-After her illness, she looked very _____.(....) 4- I’d like some ____ of the chocolate cake, please. (.....) Practice
  83. 83. • http://www.cooper.com/alan/homonym.html How do you make a sausage roll? Push it! Why are movie stars so cool? Because they have so many fans. Why did the boy take the pencil to bed? Because he wanted to draw the curtains. Why did the teacher wear sunglasses? Her students were too bright. Homonyms same spelling, same pronunciation
  84. 84. • Homographs are words with different pronunciation, meanings and origins but the same spelling • e.g. • bow – type of knot OR to incline • minute – tiny OR unit of time • row – line OR argument OR propel a boat http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/wordscape/wordlist/homogr Homographs
  85. 85. It seems to be appropriate to apply some of the strategies we have visited today while exercising our memories . The exercises proposed now will provide Language teachers/learners with examples of different types of vocabulary exercises . Practice
  86. 86. Metaphor: figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common.
  87. 87. • 1. ___ The girl never tells the truth. • 2. ___ Please water that plant. • 3. ___ Those two children don't like each other. • 4. ___ That girl won't harm anyone. • 5. ___ I have many things to do today. • 6. ___ Be careful of the the broken glass. • 7. ___ The water has frozen. • 8. ___ This material is very soft. Similes
  88. 88. • 1. ___ The girl never tells the truth. • 2. ___ Please water that plant. • 3. ___ Those two children don't like each other. • 4. ___ That girl won't harm anyone. • 5. ___ I have many things to do today. • 6. ___ Be careful of the the broken glass. • 7. ___ The water has frozen. • 8. ___ This material is very soft. • L. She lies like a rug • Y. It's as dry as a bone. • e. They always fight like cats and dogs. • c. She's as gentle as a lamb. • B. I'm as busy as a beaver • b. It's as sharp as a knife. • It's as hard as a rock. • A. It's as smooth as silk. Similes
  89. 89. • 9. a Did you scrub the floor? • 10. V Put on some warm gloves. • 11. P This cake is soft and fluffy. • 12. D I want to do well on my tests. • 13. H This bed sheet is very clean and smells good. • 14. S I can't understand this question. • 15. Z He will get lung cancer if he's not careful. • 16. d My father taught me many things. • 17. G Why is she taking so much time? • 18. f I have heard that story many times before. • 19. I He's such a sloppy eater. • 20. W He doesn't listen to anyone. • 21. O The patient looks very ill. • 22. J He doesn't eat very much. • 23. K She sings with much feeling. • 24. F The man can lift this heavy box. • 25. R We shouldn't waste time worrying. • 26. N Go to the bathroom to clean your hands. • 27. X The boy is very lazy. • 28. Q The pudding tastes delicious. • 29. U She has very poor eyesight. • 30. E Did you step on this? • 31. T She is very excited about getting her driver's license. • 32. C I will go check on the baby. Key
  90. 90. • http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/cae/students/tests/ocltst2.htm
  91. 91. • Phobias • The (0) ... of Phobia Awareness Week is to highlight the difficulties that many people (1) ... in everyday situations. It is important to (2) ... between a fear and a phobia. It's (3) ... usual for all of us to have our own peculiar fears, for example being anxious around snakes or nervous about flying. However, only a very small proportion of us actually have a phobia of these things. When these fears begin to (4) ... you embarrassment or you feel that your life is being disrupted then you would be wise to (5) ... treatment for what could potentially be a phobia. By far the most (6) ... phobia and potentially the most disruptive is agoraphobia. The word derives from Greek and (7) ... means 'fear of the marketplace' but we apply it today to describe a distressing (8) ... in which people (9) ... going outside because of the awful feelings of anxiety that arise. Treatment of phobias usually consists of the patient (10) ... behavioural therapy during which they gradually get used to being near the object or the situation that causes them fear. Drugs may be (11) ... to treat anxiety and many people opt for alternative therapy such as acupuncture or hypnosis to help them come to (12) ... with their fear and conquer it. Task 1
  92. 92. 1-) a) face b) confront c) meet d) join 2- ) a) choose b) distinguish c) select d) pick 3-) a) very b)absolutely c) quite d) truly 4-) a) cause b)make c) create d)give 5-) a)explore b) hunt c) search d) seek 6-) a) standard b) average c) normal d) common 7-) a) precisely b) specifically c) literally d) exactly 8-) a)illness b)condition c) disease d) injury 9-) a) dodge b) avoid c)miss d) slip 10-) a) undergoing b) taking c) experiencing d)doing 11-) a) release b)issued c) cerified d) prescribed 12-) a) acceptance b) terms c) realisation d)comfort Cloze
  93. 93. Sound Advice for Language Learners A recent (0) issue of a language learning magazine has consulted a number of experts in the (1) ........ of second language acquisition. Their advice may prove invaluable for those (2) ........ a language course. One suggestion is that you (3) ........... whether you are likely to be successful at learning a language. Did you enjoy studying languages at school, for example? Do you have enough time to learn a language? The major (4) ........ will be your own time and effort. If proof of your level of proficiency is important you must make sure that the course on offer leads to a (5) ........ qualification. Also, be realistic in your (6) ...... . If you don't set achievable aims you are more likely to give up. Do not be deceived (7) ........... thinking that the most expensive courses are the best. (8) ........... around to get the best possible value for money. You should also bear in mind that the quicker you learn a language the more quickly you forget it. Sandra Miller, a French teacher, tried to teach herself German by enrolling on a (9) .......... course. Already fluent in four languages and with a sound knowledge of teaching methodology her chances of (10) ............ progress were high. Three years (11) ........ she remembers very little. She feels her biggest mistake was not to follow (12) ............ her first experience. "I should have consolidated what I'd learn by continuing to study, even if it were by myself."
  94. 94. 1) a)domain b) branch c) field d) area e.g.
  95. 95. Gap 2 wondering • Thinking • looking • considering
  96. 96. Gap 3 • assess • review • balance • survey
  97. 97. Gap 4 • change • cost • price • evaluation
  98. 98. Gap 5 • recognised • understood • valued • regarded
  99. 99. Gap 6 • sights • ends • objects • goals
  100. 100. Gap 7 • by • about • into • in
  101. 101. GAP 8 • Nose • Push • Run • Shop
  102. 102. GAP 9 • rapid • crash • quick • fast
  103. 103. GAP 10 • achieving • doing • gaining • making
  104. 104. GAP 11 • on • forward • from • onward
  105. 105. GAP 12 • up • on • through • out
  106. 106. KEY • field/considering/assess/majorcost/recognise d/goals/by/shop/crash/rapid/making/on
  107. 107. Word Formation Word Formation Read the text and then write the correct form of the word on the right. There is an example at the beginning: It is not (0) unusual to make a hobby pay for itself USUAL even if initially you had no (1) ... of turning it INTEND into a business. Depending upon the hobby, the necessary (2) ... EQUIP
  108. 108. can be expensive and the idea of (3) ... offering items OCCASION up for sale can at the very least help pay for the hobby. For those looking to make a profit on their (4) ..., CREATE these days an audience for products can range from the local to the truly global. Some hobbyists begin by donating a piece of work to a (5) ... sale CHARITY
  109. 109. just to see how quickly and (6) ... it sells. PROFIT Local shops can be the next outlet for items, often the step taken by those making things like hand-made greetings cards for instance. And for the truly ambitious, websites like eBay enable the hobbiest to reach a (7 ) ... audience. WORLD
  110. 110. As with any business idea, an honest (8) ... should be APPRAISE undertaken regarding the demand for the work and the price the customer is prepared to pay in (9) ... . REAL However, do not forget the degree of personal (10) ... SATISFY as well. Word Formation
  111. 111. 'Key' Word Transformations For questions 1-8, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given. 1. Apparently, the restaurant in town has been bought out by someone else. UNDER I hear the restaurant in town ......................................... 2. Sarah cried her eyes out immediately she was told she'd failed her driving test. BROKE Sarah ........................................ soon as she heard she'd failed her driving test. 3. The Government recently said our problems are the fault of the worldwide economic slowdown. PLACED The Government have ........................................ the worldwide economic slowdown for our problems. 4. You led me to believe the job was mine if I wanted it. IMPRESSION I ........................................ that the job was mine if I wanted it.
  112. 112. 5. He would never have guessed that at the age of 17 he would be playing for his country. LITTLE ........................................ that at the age of 17 he would be playing for his country. 6. Feel free to telephone if you have any further problems. CALL Do not ........................................ if you have any further problems. 7. When you do decide what you want to do please let us know. MIND When ........................................ what you want to do please let us know. 8. Do you mind if I come over to see you later? OBJECTION Do you ........................................ coming over to see you later?
  113. 113. • Is under new management/ broke down in tears as placed the blame on/was left with the impression/was given the impression/ had the impression/was under the impression/ little dis he know/ little did he realised/ hesitate to call us/ hesitate to give us a call/ hesitate to call/ have made up your mind/ you’ve made up your mind/ have any objections to me. Key
  114. 114. Gapped Sentences For questions 1-5, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example: Could you do me a ........and hold the door open while I bring in the shopping? All those in ........ of the proposal please raise your hand. After being out of fashion for years the painter is now in ........ with the critics. Example: FAVOUR
  115. 115. Q1 John has just taken up the ........ of Marketing Manager at a local college. He put me in a really difficult ........ asking for money when he knows I'm not very well off. The yoga teacher told everyone to remain in a standing ........ for 30 seconds. Q2 Apparently, the police are going to ........ the man with assault following that fight the other week. I couldn't get the car to start this morning and finally had to ........ the battery as it had gone flat. The company have been asked to submit a proposal outlining how much they will ........ for the consultancy work.
  116. 116. Q3 During the tutorial I was asked to give my........ of the portrayal of the main character in the film. There was a wonderful ........ from the hotel window, which looked out over beautiful countryside. Our son couldn't see the game as his ........ was blocked by the people in front. Q4 I had a real ........ of achievement when I passed the exams and got my degree. I don't see the ........ of going all the way into town when we can buy the dress locally. Paul has a great ........ of humour and always has everyone in the office in fits of laughter.
  117. 117. Q5 It wasn't my ........ - the vase just fell off the table. There was a ........ with the computer and we had to take it back to the shop to get it repaired. The manager is always finding ........ with people and complaining about the quality of their work. KEY Position, charge, view, sense, fault.
  118. 118. • http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrind er/2009/dec/01/best-tv-ads-of-the-noughties- decade • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GHX2mvFVQMs&NR=1 Extra Videos
  119. 119. http://www.sk.com.br/sk-laxll.html Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, 1987. Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice-Hall International, 1988. http://www.teachingthinking.net/http://www.teachingthinking.net/thinking/pages/robert_fisher_webres ources.htm http://assets.cambridge.org/052177/3253/sample/0521773253WS.pdf • http://www.scribd.com/doc/5543219/False-Friends-English-and-Portuguese • Mentioned at translators’ conference • http://www.sk.com.br/sk-fals.html • http://usuarios.cultura.com.br/jmrezende/falsoscognatos.htm • Books • Guia prático de tradução inglesa“, de Agenor Soares dos Santos • “VocabuLando“, de Isa Mara Lando References
  120. 120. • http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/curric/files/pages/saisop/V acationLiteracy/whattodo.htm • School resources • http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/skillswise/mod_quizzes /words/spelling/recognising/homophones/quizengine • TES • The Guardian • Teach it • Learning Premium
  121. 121. • Linguist John Higgins has prepared a comprehensive list of homographs in various categories, including those where the meanings are related but the part of speech and pronunciation change. • For practising them: • • http://www.worksheetlibrary.com/subjects/languagearts/partsofspeech/homogra phs/homographs0136.pdf • There are many other strategies used to learn a vocabulary and the following links may give you food for thought. • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/vocab_acquisition.phtml • http://203.72.145.166/TESOL/TQD_2008/VOL_25_4.PDF#page=93 • http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy- guides/supporting-vocabulary-acquisition-english-30104.html • http://coachdes.wordpress.com/2005/10/24/english-use-and-usage/ •
  122. 122. If time allows
  123. 123. FALSE COGNATES
  124. 124. False Cognates(an English Speaker Learning Portuguese) ‘ Compromisso - looks like compromise, but really means “comittment”. (and the word “comprometido” means that you are in a relationship, or “committed”). cobra – you might think this word is referring to a cobra snake, when really “cobra” is actually the Portuguese word for snake, all snakes. desgraça – this is a very strong word in portuguese, while it looks like the english word “disgrace,” this is not the appropriate translation. Rather it is used to refer to things that are really abhorrent such as major tragedies or misfortunes. • http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/falsos_cognatos1.php
  125. 125. educado – this Portuguese adjective looks like it means “educated” but it really means “polite” or “well- raised”. To describe someone as being educated in Portuguese, say: “ele tem estudo” literally meaning: “he has study,” and translates to “he is educated.” esperto - while this word looks like it means “expert,” it really means clever, sly or intelligent in a savvy way. local – does not mean “local.” In Portuguese this is a noun that means “place,” as in a location. atualmente – looks like “actually,” but really means “currently,” “nowadays” or ”at the moment”. (To say “actually” in Brazilian Portuguese, say: “na verdade”).
  126. 126. rato – this is the Portuguese word for a rat, but also for a ”mouse.” propaganda – in Portuguese, this is the word for advertisement! It does not refer to the English word ‘propaganda. advertência – similarly, this word does NOT mean “advertisement”! The word advertência actually means “warning” in Portuguese. In order to say advertisement, use either anúncio or propaganda “fazer questão” – this phrase looks like it should mean “to make a question,” but what it really means is “to insist on/upon something”. graduação - looks like “graduation,” but really refers to a college or university major. For school graduations in Brazilian Portuguese, say “formatura.”
  127. 127. carona – this took me forever to figure out and I have no idea why. So, even though this word is the name of a popular Mexican beer, in Brazilian Portuguese, it means “ride,” as in to get a ride from someone, or to give a ride “dar uma carona” to someone´ parentes - does NOT mean “parents,” it means “relatives.” The Portuguese word for “parents” is “pais.” pretender – this verb does not mean “to pretend,” it really means “to intend” or “to plan (to do something).” puxar - ironically, while this Portuguese verb looks like it means “to push,” and is commonly written on doors in Brazil, its true meaning is “to pull.” The Portugues word for “to push” is empurrar.
  128. 128. More Activities • Gapped Sentences Instructions For questions 1-6, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Here is an example: • Some of the tourists are hoping to get compensation for the poor state of the hotel, and I think they have a very ........ case. There's no point in trying to wade across the river, the current is far too ........ . If you're asking me which of the candidates should get the job, I'm afraid i don't have any ........ views either way.
  129. 129. • Strong
  130. 130. • Q1 It is very difficult to fully ........ certain pieces of jazz music until you've heard them a good few times. Although I'm always ready to lend a hand, Marta never really seems to ........ the things I do for her.
  131. 131. • appreciate
  132. 132. • Q2 James is able to ........ an enormous amount of factual information in his head. Although the old house has been completely renovated, care has been taken to ........ as many of the original features as possible. When you're buying outdoor adventure clothing, the thing to look for is material that does not ........ a lot of moisture
  133. 133. • retain
  134. 134. • Q3 With less than a minute of the football match to go, Phil managed to ........ the ball into the back of the net. I think the best course of action would be to jump into the car and ........ for Bristol as soon as possible. Louise has been asked to ........ an investigation into what went wrong on the night of the accident.
  135. 135. • head
  136. 136. • Q4 Initially, few companies saw any potential in computers designed for the ........ rather than the office environment. Although extremely independent, and well able to look after themselves, cats are generally classified as ........ animals. Over the years the proportion of foreign stories in this newspaper has declined as people have become more engrossed in ........ issues.
  137. 137. • domestic
  138. 138. • Q5 The chess champion held off a serious ........ from his younger opponent in the last match of the tournament. The chairman of the meeting seemed to regard questions from the audience as some kind of ........ to his authority. You'll find some aspects of the job a real ........, but we're confident that you can cope.
  139. 139. challenge
  140. 140. • Q6 Melanie practised her lines each day after school, getting increasingly nervous as the date of her audition ........ even closer. Although Tim had been in the lead for most of the race, as they reached the final bend, Graham ........ level and threatened to overtake him. On an impulse, Laurie ........ all the money out of his bank account and went to London, intending to spend every last penny of it.
  141. 141. • drew

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