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12706 aula jonh agosto sábado

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  • 03/08/13
  • 03/08/13
  • Countable Uncountable A competition = uma competição / um concurso concorrência A glass = um copo vidro A grammar = uma gramática gramática = regras A iron = um ferro de passar ferro = matal A jam = um congestionamento geleia A lace = um cadarço vestido de renda A paper = um jornal, um trabalho acadêmico papel a piece of paper / sheet =um papel lasso = laço de boi A property = uma propriedade posses, bens, patrimônio, conjunto de imóveis A room = uma sala espaço, lugar A sight = uma cena visão (olhos) / vista a view = uma vista A speech = um discurso fala A time = uma vez, uma época tempo A word = uma palavra notícias A milk = a cup of milk 03/08/13
  • 03/08/13
  • A piece / bit / of advice (some advice) A round of applause A knife and fork A piece of software Corner = corner on / corner at = esquina Corner = corner in = canto 03/08/13
  • Make a deal = fazer um trato Do a deal = fazer um negócio Beneficiário = for 03/08/13
  • Work = trabalho A job = um trabalho A food = um alimento Meal = comida Food = comida Behind schedule = atrasado 03/08/13
  • Trousers = pants = calças Tights = meia calça Shorts = Trunks = sunga, calção Underpants = cueca Knickers / panties = calcinhas Boxers = cueca samba canção Pliers = alicate de apertar porca Thongs = pegador de salada, tenaz Tweezers = pinça de depilar Nail clippers = alicate de unha Shears = tesoura de jardinagem Secateurs = tesoura de poda Scales = balança Googles = óculos de proteção Slipers = pantufas 03/08/13

Transcript

  • 1. The English Noun Key issues: • Countability • Use of articles the and a(n) • Possessive genitive (‘s form) • Replacing the noun to avoid repetition • Noun + noun combinations 03/08/13 1
  • 2. The Noun Phrase A noun phrase (sintagma nominal) consists of a noun (substantivo) combined with any or all of the following: • a determiner (e.g. the, a, this, which?, my, their etc.) • a quantifier (e.g. much, many, a little, few etc.) • an adjective or adjectives • a relative clause (oração adjetiva) • a prepositional phrase (sintagma preposicional) 03/08/13 2
  • 3. Types of noun • Common nouns : vast majority – concrete: book, house, girl – abstract: love, danger, personality • Proper nouns: names of people, places (basically) John, London, Lojas Americanas, the Boston Red Sox • Animate nouns: living beings girl, John, the Boston Red Sox, horse, president • Inanimate nouns: objects book, house, love, danger, London, Lojas Americanas 03/08/13 3
  • 4. Countability Countability classes in English: 1.Countable: dog > dogs, child > children 2.Uncountable: money, butter, shopping 3.Plural only: clothes, goods (mercadoria[as]) 4.Bipartite: scissors, trousers (pants), binoculars 03/08/13 4
  • 5. Classification of Nouns 1 • Countable nouns: – most concrete nouns referring to countable objects or living things – some abstract nouns indicating a countable event or incidence of something • Uncountable nouns: – most concrete nouns referring to substances (milk, wood, water, gas, air, etc...basically) – most abstract nouns denoting concepts and qualities (courage, surprise, love, etc...) – most nouns denoting an activity, including sports (shopping, skiing, basketball, any kind of sports, school subjects [math, biology, etc) OBS: disappointment = emotion = uncountable The film was disappointment = countable 03/08/13 5
  • 6. Classification of Nouns 2 • Plural only nouns – usually refer to collections of recognizably plural objects. Either no singular, or singular has a different meaning (clothes, pants, arms =armamento, goods, etc...). • Bipartite nouns – tools and items of clothing that consist of two connected parts, typically scissor-like implements, garments with holes for each leg, optical instruments with lenses for each eye 03/08/13 6
  • 7. Countable nouns • Most have a separate plural form (the few that do not have a plural form that is the same as the singular, e.g. fish, sheep, aircraft) • The singular can be used with the article a(n) and the number one • The plural can be used with numbers from two onwards and with quantifiers that refer to more than one, e.g. many, several, few, a few, a couple of 03/08/13 7
  • 8. Uncountable nouns • No plural form • Cannot be used with the indefinite article a(n) or the number one • Can be used with quantifiers that refer to part of a whole, e.g. much, little, a little, a bit of, a great/good deal of (uma parte de alguma coisa) • Can be used with partitive expressions like: a piece of, a glass of, a slice of etc. 03/08/13 8
  • 9. Plural-only and Bipartite Nouns • Behave grammatically like plural countable nouns • Plural-only nouns can be used with collective quantifiers, like many, few, a few, but not with numbers, or counting quantifiers, like several or a couple of (ex.: few clothes) • Bipartite nouns can be counted using pair of. Can be used directly with collective quantifiers. (ex.: where are the scissors? Ex.: Two pair of scissors. Many scissors) 03/08/13 9
  • 10. Countability shifting • Many basically uncountable nouns can be used countably when referring to different varieties of the substance: e.g. precious metals, fossil fuels, tropical hardwoods • Uncountables denoting food and drink can be used countably when referring to portions: e.g. two waters, please Would you like a coffee? • Countables denoting animals, fruits, vegetables etc. are used uncountably when referring to the thing as a food substance: e.g. Have you ever eaten snake? It’s mixture of potato and carrot. 03/08/13 10
  • 11. Countability with Proper Nouns • Most kinds of proper nouns can be used countably: e.g. There are three Johns in my class. There are two Frankfurts in Germany. • Note special meanings: – countable: The gallery has two Picassos. – uncountable: Would you like to listen to some Beethoven? 03/08/13 11
  • 12. Why is countability a problem? 1. The same noun can be countable or uncountable, with a different sense (e.g. a look of great surprise vs. a big surprise; The company has a lot of work vs. The gallery has a lot of works [pinturas, trabalhos de arte]) 2. Countability determines the correct usage of the articles the and a(n) 3. There are differences in countability between corresponding words in English and Portuguese Obs: uncountable = work = trabalho countable = work = pinturas, obras 03/08/13 12
  • 13. Exercise 1 1. The people in my class are very nice. As pessoas na minha sala são muito legais. 2. the indigenous peoples of the Amazon. Os povos indigenas da Amazônia. 3. We’re hoping to see some play at Wimbledon today. Esperamos ver alguns jogos em Wimblendon hoje. 4. We’re hoping to see a play today. Esperamos ver uma peça hoje. 5. The kids were playing football. As crianças estão jogando futebol. 6. The kids were playing with a football. As crianças estavam brincando com uma bola de futebol. 7. Phil’s car is in the shop. O carro do Phil está na oficina. 8. Phil made this table in shop. Phil fez esta mesa na aula de trabalhos manuais. 9. I advise you to take note of what I say. Eu o aconselho a tomas notas do que você diz. 10. I advise you to take notes on what I say. Eu o aconselho a fazer anotações sobre o que eu vou falar. Shop = school subject A trouble = uma mágoa, um distúr 03/08/13 13
  • 14. Exercise 2 Look at the following words. Make up two sentences for each word, one using the word in its countable sense, the other using the word in its uncountable sense: competition, glass, grammar, iron, jam, lace, paper, property, room, sight, speech, time, word 03/08/13 14
  • 15. Countability comparison Type English Portuguese Countable noun house - houses countable noun: casa - casas Uncountable noun milk trouble work uncountable noun: leite plural noun: problemas count/uncount noun: trabalho Plural-only noun clothes goods arms Count noun, singular or plural: roupa(s). mercadoria(s), armamento(s) Bipartite nouns trousers scissors Singular count noun: calça, tesoura 03/08/13 15
  • 16. Countability mismatches English uncountable singular Portuguese countable plural advice conselhos applause aplausos business NB: a business (countable) negócios uma empresa cutlery /silverware talheres data dados equipment equipamentos evidence evidências furniture móveis information informações news notícias real estate imóveis software softwares03/08/13 16
  • 17. Exercise 3 1. Ela me deu dois bons conselhos. She gave me two pieces of good advice. ( or two good pieces) 2. Um aplauso para o vencedor! A round of applause for the winner! 3. Acho que fizemos um bom negócio. I think we did a good deal. 4. Pega um talher na gaveta. Get a knife and fork from (out of)the drawer 5. Estes dados são muito interessantes. This data is very interesting. 6. É um equipamento que mede a radiação no ar. It’s a piece of equipment which measures the radiation in the air. 7. Existem evidências que os incriminem? Is there any evidence that incriminates them? (To incriminate them?)(incriminating them?) 8. Acho que um móvel antigo ia ficar melhor naquele canto da sala. I think a piece of antique furniture would (look /go ) be better in that corner of the room. 9. Preciso de uma informação. I need some (a piece of / a bit of) information. 10. Tenho duas notícias: uma boa e uma ruim. I have two pieces (bits) of news: a good one and a bad one. (one good and one bad). 11. O senhor possui algum imóvel? Dou you own any property? ( any real estate?) 12. Existe um software específico para isso? Is there some(a specific piece of) specific software for that? 03/08/13 17
  • 18. Exercise 4 1. Estou com vários trabalhos pendentes. I have several (a number of) outstanding (pending) jobs. (assignaments = trabalho escolar) 2. Os trabalhos do novo projeto começarão no ano que vem. (The) Work on the new project will start next year. 3. Restaurar o quadro é um trabalho minucioso. Restoring the painting is (detailed) painstaking work ( a painstaking job). 4. A que horas você sai do trabalho? What time do you leave work? (get off work? / Get off?) 5. Tocaram uma música de Mozart. They played a piece (of music) by Mozart. (A Mozart piece / some Mozart / some music by Mozart) A piece of Mozart was played) 6. A música brasileira é muito conhecida no exterior. Brazilian music is very well known abroad 7. Adoro essa música! Vamos dançar! I love this song. Let’s dance. 8. Vou fazer uma comida para nós. I’ll make us (a meal) (something to eat). 9. No almoço comi uma carne e um arroz branco. For lunch I had (ate) some meat and some plain rice. 10. Você já gastou todo o dinheiro? Have you spent all the money? 03/08/13 18
  • 19. Bipartite Nouns 1 Esta tesoura é ... > These scissors are ... uma tesoura > some scissors/a pair of scissors/one pair of scissors duas tesouras > two pairs of scissors muitas tesouras > a lot of (pairs of) scissors várias tesouras > several pairs of scissors 03/08/13 19
  • 20. Bipartite Nouns 2 • Clothing: trousers, pants, tights, shorts, trunks, underpants, knickers, panties, boxers etc. • Tools: scissors, pliers, tongs, tweezers, nail clippers, shears, secateurs, scales (Brit) • Eyewear: glasses, goggles, binoculars 03/08/13 20
  • 21. Exercise 5 1. Aquela calça é pequena em mim. Those pants are too small for me. 2. Preciso comprar um novo alicate de unha. I need to buy (get) a new pair of (some new) nail clippers. 3. Levei três bermudas na mala. I packed three pairs of shorts. 4. Achei uma cueca sua na máquina de lavar roupa. I found a pair of your underpants. (some underpants of yours)in the washing machine / washer. 5. Tem duas pinças no armário do banheiro. There are two pairs of tweezers in the bathroom cabinet. 6. Esse binóculo é muito bom. These binoculars are very good. 7. Gostou do meu óculos novo? Do you like my new glasses? 8. Preciso de um sapato preto para o casamento. I need some black shoes ( a pair of black shoes) for the wedding. 9. Quantas meias você comprou? How many pairs of socks did you buy? 10. Não se pode entrar no local de chinelo. You are not allowed in in (wearing) flip –flops. OBS: we put clothes, shoes, sandals, flip flops on. Once we put them on we are in them . 03/08/13 21
  • 22. Countability and the Indefinite Article 1 • Singular COUNTABLE nouns must be preceded by a determiner. Default determiner is a(n): Ela é atriz. She’s an actress. A casa virou museu. The house has become a museum. Saí sem guarda-chuva. I came out without an umbrella. O hotel tem piscina. The hotel has a pool. Você já comprou passagem? Have you bought a ticket yet? É mais fácil comer miojo com garfo. It’s easier to eat noodles with a fork. Ele trabalha como garçom. He works as a waiter. Ela me chamou de idiota. She called me an idiot. Eles moram no Leblon, bairro nobre do Rio. They live in Leblon, an upscale neighborhood of Rio. 03/08/13 22
  • 23. Countability and the Indefinite Article 2 • UNCOUNTABLE nouns cannot normally be used with the indefinite article: Fazia um tempo maravilhoso. It was wonderful weather. Que trânsito infernal! What awful traffic! O cachorro começou a apresentar um comportamento estranho. The dog started to exhibit strange behaviour. Ela tem uma paciência incrível. She has incredible patience. 03/08/13 23
  • 24. Countability and the Definite Article • Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns WITHOUT an article have a general meaning: Champagne is expensive. Apples are good for you. • Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns WITH a definite article have a specific meaning: The champagne was really expensive, so I didn’t have any. The apples I bought are really sweet. 03/08/13 24
  • 25. Exercise 6 1. Uma característica da sociedade brasileira é a diversidade. One characteristic (feature) of Brazilian society is diversity. 2. Os preços não param de subir. Prices just keep going up. 3. Ela se tornou freira. She became a nun. 4. Como advogado, não posso comentar. As a lawyer, I cannot comment. 5. Nem todos os brasileiros gostam de futebol. Not all Brazilians like soccer. 6. Todos os alunos gostaram da aula. All the students liked the class. 7. Vocês têm cachorro? Do you have a dog? 8. A história britânica é muito interessante. British history is very interesting. 9. O homem não respeita o meio-ambiente. Man does not respect the environment. 10. É uma pena ficar em casa com um tempo tão bonito! It’s a pity (a shame) to stay (at) home in such (a) nice weather. 03/08/13 25
  • 26. Açaí text A fruta é pequenininha, arredondada e muito roxa, quase preta. Lembra uma jabuticaba em tamanho reduzido. Tem um caroço grande, e muito pouca polpa. Para se obter um açaí saudável, o mais importante é a rapidez desde o "debuio" (que é como se diz lá, para o trabalho de tirar os frutos do cacho) até o processamento. Quem diz isso é o Prof. Hervé Rogez, engenheiro químico, cientista e pesquisador da Universidade Federal do Pará, o "Papa" do assunto e fanático tomador de açaí. O açaí é muito rico em antocianina, uma substância antioxidante, que ajuda no combate ao colesterol e aos radicais livres. Você já ouviu que um copo de vinho tinto por dia faz bem ao coração? É devido à antocianina da uva. Não é por acaso que a cor do açaí é semelhante à do vinho tinto, porém o açaí tem 33 vezes mais antocianina que a uva. As antocianinas também são potentes corantes naturais. Além de ser considerado um dos alimentos mais ricos em ferro, o açaí também é rico em fibras, sendo bastante indicado também para pessoas idosas e/ou com mal funcionamento do aparelho digestivo. Por suas características microbiológicas o açaí é considerado uma das mais nutritivas frutas da Amazônia, perdendo apenas para a castanha-do-pará. 03/08/13 26
  • 27. Possessive form (‘s genitive) Basic rules for formation of ‘s genitive: • Singular nouns: add ‘s John > John’s car my brother > my brother’s car • Plural nouns ending in -s: add ‘ my parents > my parents’ house the Simpsons > the Simpsons’ house • Irregular plural nouns, not ending in –s: add ‘s women > women’s clothes people > people’s lives 03/08/13 27
  • 28. Use of ‘s genitive • With proper names of people and places: John’s car, President Obama’s advisors, London’s streets, Brazil’s oil reserves • With common nouns denoting animate beings (people and animals): my mother’s name, the dog’s bowl, the students’ questions • With nouns denoting collectives of animate beings, or nouns thought of in this way: the government’s policies, the school’s performance, the world’s finest wines • With certain expressions of time: a week’s vacation, two months’ vacation, today’s paper, tomorrow’s weather, next week’s class, tonight’s show 03/08/13 28
  • 29. ‘of’ construction 03/08/13 29
  • 30. Exercise 7 1. Há um ninho de beija-flor na copa da árvore. 2. Santiago é a capital do Chile. 3. Os brinquedos das crianças estavam espalhados pelo chão da sala. 4. Esta música é a Quinta Sinfonia de Beethoven. 5. Temos dois meses de férias. 6. Viajo hoje à noite. Volto daqui a três semanas. 7. A reunião de quarta-feira foi cancelada. 8. Camilla Parker-Bowles é a esposa do Príncipe Charles. 9. O carteiro deixou a encomenda na casa dos Jones, ao lado. 10. Você sabe o nome de todos os alunos? 03/08/13 30
  • 31. Genitive vs. Adjective 1. London’s taxis - London taxis 2. the family’s home - the family home 3. two months’ vacation – a two-month vacation 4. one hour’s sleep – a one-hour sleep 5. the government’s policies – government policies 6. women’s campaigners – women campaigners 7. the Simpsons’ house – the Simpsons movie 8. children’s books – child labor 03/08/13 31