Space technologies since 1957 2013Presentation Transcript
• October 4, 1957• Sputnik 1 – the firstartificial satellite• Sputnik means satellitein Russian. It was shapedlike a sphere and had fourradiating radio antennae.
• November 03, 1957• Russian send a dog to the spacenamed LAIKA• Sputnik II .• Laika (whose name means “barker”)was a 3year-old mongrel stray wandering thestreetsof Moscow when she was picked upandtaken to a secret Soviet spacelaboratory.
• January 31, 1958• the exploration of America ( Explorer I )• first U.S artificial satellite
• October 28, 1958• the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration wascreated• an agency of the United Statesgovernmentthat is created by an act ofCongress and isindependent of the executivedepartments
• March 03, 1959• first U.S lunar probe and missedmoonby 37, 3oo miles ( Pioneer 4)• Pioneer 4 did provide extensive andvaluabledata on radiation and the trackingof spaceobjects.
• August 7, 1959• returned first television photo of Earth• Explorer 6
• April 1, 1960• first weather satellite was launched• transmitted 22 952 cloud picture• Tiros I
• August 10, 1960• first payload is carried to be recoveredfrom orbit• Discoverer 13• Lichtenberg was the first Payload specialist.
Manned Space FlightVostok 1April 12, 19611:48Y. GagarinFirst manned spaceflight, one orbit the Earth.Vostok 3August 11, 196294:25A. NikolayerFirst dual space mission, spacecraft passed within 4 feet ofeach other.Soviet Union
Vostok 4August 12, 196270:59P. Popovich Popovich. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Problems with life supportsystem, resulted in cabin temperature dropping to 10 deg C.Returned to earth a day early due to communications secret codemix-up. First Ukrainian astronaut.Vostok 6June 16, 196370:50V. TereshkovaVostok 6 was a historic spaceflight made by the Russian cosmonautValentina Tereshkova. She was the first woman in space and the firstcivilian in space. Prior to her flight, only military personal had beenlaunched by any country.
Voskhod 1October 12, 196424:17V. Komarov, K. Feov, B. YegorovFirst spacecraft with mulktistotiman crew.Voskhod 2March 18, 196526:02P. Belyayev, A. LeonovBelyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed andaltitude records.
United StatesMercury 3May 15, 19610:15A. ShepardFirst ma American in space ( Subortial Flight)Mercury 6February 20, 19624:55J. GlennFirst American orbit the Earth.
Gemini 3March 23, 19624:53V. Grissom, J. YoungFirst American multiman crew.Gemini 4June 3, 196597:56J. McDivitt, E. WhiteWhite first American spacewalker.
Gemini 7December 4, 1965330:35F. Berman, J. LovellFirst United States Space rendezvouz ( with Gemini 6)Gemini 6December 15, 196525:51W. Schirra, T. StaffordRendezvoused within 1 foot of Gemini 7
Unmanned Satellite and Space ProbesUnited StatesRanger 4April23, 1962First United States lunar probe to reach the moon, crashed.Sncom 2July 26, 1963First synchronous – orbit communication satellite.
Ranger 7July 28, 1964Took first close-up photographs of lunar surface.Mariner 4November 28, 1964First successful mars probe; returned 21 pictures.
Other NationsAriel 1April 26, 1962First international satellite, made in england launched byunited states.Alouette 1September 28, 1962Frist Canadian satellite; launched by United States.
San Marco 1Decembe 15, 1964Frist Italian satellite; launched by united states.A1November 26, 1965Frist french satellite.
Ranger 7July 28, 1964Took first close-up photographs of lunar surface.
First soft landing on the Moon, by Luna 9 (USSR). - Russianprobe Venus 3 lands on Venus, though contact had been lost. -First circum-lunar probe, 3600-lb Luna 10 (USSR). - FirstAmerican soft-landing on the Moon (Surveyor 1) Improvedclose-range photographs of the Moon from 846-lb Orbiter 1NASA.
Luna 9 (E-6 series, N.13)was an unmanned spacemission of the Soviet UnionsLuna program. On February3, 1966 the Luna 9spacecraft was the firstspacecraft to achieve a softlanding on the Moon, or anyplanetary body other thanEarth, and to transmitphotographic data to Earth.
Luna 10The Luna 10 spacecraft waslaunched towards the Moon froman Earth orbiting platform onMarch 31, 1966. The spacecraftentered lunar orbit on April 3,1966 and completed its first orbit3 hours later (on April 4, Moscowtime). After a midcoursecorrection on 1 April, Luna 10,the second of two hastilyprepared Soviet Ye-6S probes(that is, the backup), successfullyentered lunar orbit two days laterat 18:44 UT.
Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-landerin the unmanned Surveyor program of theNational Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA, United States). Thislunar soft-lander gathered data about thelunar surface that would be needed forthe manned Apollo Moon landings thatbegan in 1969. The successful soft landingof Surveyor 1 on the Ocean of Storms wasthe first one by an American space probeonto any extraterrestrial body, and itoccurred just four months after the firstMoon landing by the Soviet Unions Luna 9probe.Surveyor 1 was launched May 30, 1966,from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Stationat Cape Canaveral, Florida, and it landedon the Moon on June 2, 1966. Surveyor 1transmitted 11,237 still photos of thelunar surface to the Earth by using atelevision camera and a sophisticatedradio-telemetry system.
Disaster at Cape Kennedy, resulting in the deaths of threeastronauts. - Death of Colonel Komarov in Soyuz 1 due toparachute failure. - First soft-landing on Venus by (USSR). - Firstchemical analysis of lunar soil by NASA 619-lb Surveyor 5.
Soyuz 1 (Russian: Союз 1, Union 1)was a manned spaceflight of theSoviet space program. Launched intoorbit on April 23, 1967 carryingcosmonaut Colonel Vladimir Komarov,Soyuz 1 was the first flight of theSoyuz spacecraft. The mission planwas complex, involving a rendezvouswith Soyuz 2, swapping crewmembers before returning to Earth.Soyuz 1 was plagued with technicalissues, and Komarov was killed whenthe spacecraft crashed during itsreturn to Earth. This was the first in-flight fatality in the history ofspaceflight.
Surveyor 5 was the fifth lunarlander of the Americanunmanned Surveyor program sentto explore the surface of theMoon.Launched September 8, 1967;landed September 11, 1967Weight on landing: 303 kg(668 lb)Surveyor 5 landed on MareTranquillitatis. A total of 19,049images were transmitted toEarth.
Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188Kosmos 186 (Russian: Космос-186 meaning Cosmos 186) and Kosmos188 (respectively, Cosmos 188) were two unmanned Soviet spacecraftthat incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landingscientific instruments and test objects. The two Soviet spacecraftmade the first fully automated space docking in the history of spaceexploration on October 30, 1967. Mutual search, approach, mooring,and docking were automatically performed by the IGLA-system onboard Kosmos 186. After 3.5 h of joint flight, the satellites parted on acommand sent from the earth and continued to orbit separately. Bothmade a soft landing in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union -Kosmos 186 on October 31, 1967 and Kosmos 188 on November 2,1967.
Testing of the American Saturn 5 rocket (Project Apollo). - Firstrecovery of circum-lunar probe, Zond 5 which had animalsaboard, (USSR). - First manned Apollo flight: Apollo 7 (Schirra,Cunningham, Eisele). - First flight round the Moon: Apollo 8(Borman, Lovell, Anders). - NASA OAO 2 orbiting astronomicalobservatory (4436-lb).
Zond 5, a formal member of theSoviet Zond program andunmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flybyspacecraft, was launched by aProton-K carrier rocket with aBlok D upper stage to makescientific studies during a lunarflyby and to return to Earth.Zond-5 became the firstspacecraft to circle the Moonand return to land on Earth. OnSeptember 18, 1968, thespacecraft flew around theMoon. The closest distance was1,950 km..
First Russian manned docking maneuver (Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5). -First space testing of the Lunar Module: Apollo 9 (McDivitt,Scott, Schweickart). - Further soft-landings of unmanned probeson Venus: Venus 5 and Venus 6 (USSR)(Stafford, Cernan, Young).- July 21 First men on the moon in Apollo 11 (Armstrong andAldrin: Collins in orbit) returning 48-lbs of lunar samples fromMare Tranquillitatis. - Further probes sent past Mars: Mariner 6and Mariner 7 (USA).
Soyuz 4 (Russian: Союз 4, Union4) was launched on January 14,1969. On board the Soyuz 7K-OKspacecraft was cosmonautVladimir Shatalov on his firstflight. The aim of the missionwas to dock with Soyuz 5,transfer two crew members fromthat spacecraft, and return toEarth. The previous three Soyuzflights were also dock attemptsbut all had failed for variousreasons.The radio call sign of the crewwas Amur, while Soyuz 5 wasBaikal. This referred to thetrans-Siberian railway projectcalled the Baikal-Amur Mainline,which was under construction atthe time.
Soyuz 5 (Russian: Союз 5, Union 5) was aSoyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OKspacecraft launched by the Soviet Union onJanuary 15, 1969, which docked with Soyuz4 in orbit. It was the first-ever docking oftwo manned spacecraft of any nation, andthe first-ever transfer of crew from onespace vehicle to another of any nation, theonly time a transfer was accomplished witha space walk – two months before the USApollo 9 performed the first ever internalcrew transfer.The flight was also memorable for itsdramatic re-entry. The crafts servicemodule did not separate, so it entered theatmosphere nose-first, leaving cosmonautBoris Volynov hanging by his restrainingstraps. As the craft aerobraked, theatmosphere burned through the module.But the craft righted itself before theescape hatch was burned through.
First Japanese Earth orbiter, 58-lb Lambda. - First Chinese Earthorbiter (386-lbs). - Soviet unmanned Luna returned 3-5 oz oflunar soil after soft landing in Mare Fecunditatis. - Firstunmanned lunar vehicle, Lunokhod 1, soft-landed by Soviet Luna17 for ii-months operation in Mare Imbrium. - X-ray survey of thesky started by NASA-Italian 320-lb Explorer 42 (Uhuru-). - Francelaunched Earth orbiter.
Luna 16 (Ye-8-5 series) was anunmanned space mission, part of theSoviet Luna program.Luna 16 was the first robotic probe toland on the Moon and return a sampleof lunar soil to Earth. It represented thefirst lunar sample return mission by theSoviet Union, and was the third lunarsample return mission overall, followingthe Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions.The spacecraft consisted of twoattached stages, an ascent stagemounted on top of a descent stage. Thedescent stage was a cylindrical bodywith four protruding landing legs, fueltanks, a landing radar, and a dualdescent engine complex. The Luna 16automatic station was launched towardthe Moon from a preliminary Earth orbitand after one mid-course correction on13 September it entered a circular111km with 70° inclination lunar orbiton 17 September 1970.
Lunokhod 1 was the first of twounmanned lunar rovers landed onthe Moon by the Soviet Union aspart of its Lunokhod program.The spacecraft which carriedLunokhod 1 was named Luna 17.Lunokhod was the first rovingremote-controlled robot to landon another celestial body. Luna17 was launched on November10, 1970 at 14:44:01 UTC. Afterreaching earth parking orbit, thefinal stage of Luna 17s launchingrocket fired to place it into atrajectory towards the Moon(1970-11-10 at 14:54 UTC). Aftertwo course correction maneuvers(on November 12 and 14), itentered lunar orbit on November15, 1970 at 22:00 UTC.
The Venera 7, was a Sovietspacecraft, part of the Veneraseries of probes to Venus. Whenit landed on the Venusiansurface, it became the firstman-made spacecraft to landsuccessfully on another planet,and to transmit data from thereback to Earth.The probe was launched fromearth on August 17, 1970 at05:38 UTC. It consisted of aninterplanetary bus based on the3MV system and a lander. Duringthe flight to Venus two in coursecorrections were made using thebuss on-board KDU-414 engine.It entered the atmosphere ofVenus on December 15, 1970.
SpacecraftDateLaunchedRemarksPioneer10March 3,1972launched on an Atlas/Centaur/TE364-4towards Jupiter by the U.S., designed tofamiliarize alien life with humans. Itreturns the first close-up images ofJupiter in 1973.OAO-C August 21,1972Earth satellite to observe stars; last ofOrbiting Astronomical Observatories.Pioneer11April 5, 1973 launched for flying past Jupiter in 1974,and Saturn in 1979, where it discoversnew rings.Mariner 9, May 30,1971which becomes the first spacecraft tosurvey Mars from orbit.
Space craft DateLaunchedRemarksMariner 10 November 3,1973launched, on the first dual-planetmission. Over the next year, itreturned photographs of Venusand Mercury.Viking 1Viking 2August 20,1975September 9,1975Twin Mars probes, both placedlanding vehicles on Mars thattransmitted photographs andother data; neither confirmed norabsolutely ruled out existence oflife in the planet.GOES 1 October 16,1975First in series of GeostationaryOperational EnvironmentalSatellites for meteorologic data.
Viking 2Viking 1
SpacecraftDateLaunchedRemarksMars 2 May 19, 1971 Mars probe; instrument packagefirst man-made object to land onMars.Venera9 and 10June 8, 1975June 14,1975Twin Venus probes; bothdeployed descent capsules thatreturned data, including the firstphotographs taken on the surfaceof another planet.
Venera 10Venera 9
SpacecraftDateLaunchedRemarksProspero October 28,1971First all-British satelliteHelios 1 December10, 1974Joint solar probe byWest Germany andUnited States, closestapproach to sun todate.
SpacecraftMannedspace crewDatelaunchedDuration RemarksApollo 14 Alan Shepard,Stuart Roosa ,Edgar MitchellJanuary 31,1971moon mission,Shepard becomes thefirst man to hit a golfball on the moonApollo15David Scott ,James Irwinand A.WardenJuly 26,1971295:12 the first moon roverApollo 17 E. Cerman,R. Evans,HarrisonSchmittDecember 7,1972301:52 Last Apollo moonlandingSkylab 2 C. Conrad,J. Kerwin,P. WeitzMay 25, 1973 28 days First crew to occupySkylab1; Set newendurance record.
SpacecraftMannedspace crewDatelaunchedDuration RemarksSkylab 3 A. Bean, J.Lousma, D.GarriottJuly28,197359 days Second crew to occupySkylab1; Set newendurance record.Skylab4G. Carr,W. Pogne,E. GibsonNovember16, 197384 days Last Skylab mission,Carr made recordsingle space walk ofseven hours; crew setendurance record.Apollo(18)V. Brand,T. StaffordD. SlaytonJuly 15,19759 days First docking of twospace craft fromdifferent nations ( withSoviet Soyuz 19)
To study theouter SolarSystem andinterstellarmedium. Operatingfor 35 years,7 months, and 22days as of 27 April2013, the spacecraftreceivesroutine commandsand transmits databack to theDeep Space Network.
• The Pioneer Venus 1(also known as thePioneer Venus orbiter)was the first of a two-spacecraft orbiter-probe combinationdesigned to conduct acomprehensiveinvestigation of theatmosphere of Venus.
April 12, 1981 - The firstmanned mission of the SpaceTransportation System (STS-1),Columbia , is launched. Crippen Awarded SpaceMedal of HonorBob Crippen, pilot on the firstshuttle mission in 1981, hasbeen honored with thenations highest award forspaceflight achievement, theCongressional Space Medal ofHonor.
June 19, 1981 - The EuropeanSpace Agency launches its thirdAriane rocket. Ariane 1 was the first rocket inthe Ariane launcher family. Ariane1 was designed primarily to puttwo telecommunications satellitesat a time into orbit, thus reducingcosts. As the size of satellitesgrew, Ariane 1 gave way to themore powerful Ariane 2and Ariane3 launchers.[
March 1, 1982 - Venera 13lands on Venus, andprovides the first Venusiansoil analysis. The sample was determinedto be leucite basalt, a rarerock type on the Earth.
March 1, 1982 - Venera 13lands on Venus, andprovides the first Venusiansoil analysis. The sample was determinedto be leucite basalt, a rarerock type on the Earth.
November 11, 1982 - Thespace shuttle Columbiasfifth mission, its firstoperational one, begins,deploying two satellites.Crew: Vance Brand, RobertOvermyer, Joseph Allen, andWilliam Lenoir.
June 19, 1983 - Sally K.Ride is the first U.S. womanto travel in space, onChallenger mission STS-7.
October 10, 1983 -Soviet Venera 15returns the first high-resolution images ofthe Venus polar area,and compiled athermal map of mostof the northernhemisphere.
January-November,1983 - The InfraredAstronomicalSatellite finds newcomets, asteroids,galaxies, and a dustring around the starVega that may benew planets.
July 17, 1984 - launch ofSoyuz-T 12 carryingSvetlana Savitskaya, whobecomes the first womanto walk in space.
August 30, 1984 - Thethird space shuttle,Discovery, lifts off on itsmaiden voyage (STS-41D). Crew: Henry W.Hartsfield, Michael L.Coats, Richard Mullane,Steven Hawley, Judith A.Resnik, and Charles D.Walker.
December, 1984 -Soviet/International Vega1 & 2 are launched,dropping probes intoVenus atmosphere beforecontinuing to HalleysComet.
January 8, 1985 - TheSakigake probe is launchedby Japans Institute ofSpace and AeronauticalScience, becoming the firstinterplanetary probe as itrendezvous with HalleysComet.
July 2, 1985 - TheEuropean Space Agencylaunches the Giottospacecraft from an Arianerocket. It encountersHalleys Comet in 1986, andComet P/Grigg-Skjellerupin 1992.
October 3, 1985 - Thefourth space shuttleAtlantis takes off on itsfirst mission (STS-51J).Crew: Karol J. Bobko,Ronald J. Grabe, Robert A.Stewart, David C. Hilmers,and William A. Pailes.
October 1985 - SpacelabD1, the first jointGerman/ESA mission, isflown. Its crew consistsof two German DARAastronauts, and DanishWubbo Ockels of the ESA.
Magellan May 4, 1989 The Magellan spacecraft,also referred to as the VenusRadar Mapper, was a 1,035-kilogram(2,280 lb) robotic spaceprobe launched by NASA onMay 4, 1989, to map thesurface of Venus usingSynthetic Aperture Radar andmeasure the planetarygravity. It was the firstinterplanetary mission to belaunched from the SpaceShuttle
Galileo October 18, 1989 Galileo was anunmanned NASA spacecraft whichstudied the planet Jupiterand itsmoons, as well as several othersolar system bodies. Named afterRenaissance astronomer GalileoGalilei, it consisted of an orbiterand entry probe. It was launchedon October 18, 1989, carriedby Space Shuttle Atlantisonthe STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived atJupiter on December 7, 1995,aftergravitational assist flybysof Venus and Earth, and becamethe first spacecraft to orbitJupiter.
April 24, 1990 The Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) is a spacetelescope that was carriedinto orbit by a SpaceShuttle in 1990 andremains in operation. A2.4-meter(7.9 ft) aperture telescopein low Earth orbit, Hubblesfour main instrumentsobserve in the nearultraviolet, visible,and near infrared. Thetelescope is named afterthe astronomer EdwinHubble.This 1995 Hubble SpaceTelescope image of thePillars of Creation isprobably the most famousastronomical image of the20th Century. Taken in visiblelight using a combination ofSII/H-alpha and OIII filters, itshows a part of the EagleNebula where new stars areforming. The tallest pillar isaround 4 light-years high.
Ulysses is adecommissioned robotic space probe that was designedto study the Sun as a jointventure of NASA andthe European SpaceAgency (ESA).Thespacecraft was originallynamed Odysseus, becauseof its lengthy and indirecttrajectory to near Solardistance. The spacecraftsmission was to study the Sunat all latitudes. To do thisrequired a major orbitalplane shift.
The Phobos (RussianFobos, Greek:Φόβος) program was anunmannedspace mission consisting oftwo probes launched by the SovietUnion to study Mars andits moons Phobos and Deimos.Phobos 1 was launched on July 7,1988, and Phobos 2 on July 12,1988, each aboard aProton-Krocket. Phobos 1 suffered a terminalfailure en route to Mars. Phobos 2attained Mars orbit and returned 38images with a resolution of up to 40meters, but contact was lost priorto deployment of a planned Phoboslander.
F. Scobee et.al. First united states in flight disaster;challenger exploded 73 seconds after lift offas the result of a fault rocket booster seal.
1986 - Europe - Halleys Comet - Success - Giotto flyby 1987 - Japan - Earth - Success - Launch of the Ginga X-ray satellite(ASTRO-C) 1988 - Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Phobos 1 orbiter and lander 1988 - Soviet Union - Mars - Partial Failure - Phobos 2 flyby and lander 1989 - USA - Venus - Success - Magellan orbiter launched which mapped99 percent of the surface of Venus (300 m resolution) 1989 - USA - Venus/Earth/Moon/Gaspra/Ida/Jupiter - Success -Galileo flyby, orbiter and atmospheric probe 1989 - USA - Neptune - Success - Voyager 2 sends back images of Neptuneand its system 1989 - Europe - Earth - Success - Launch of the Hipparcos satellite 1989 - USA - Earth - Success - Launch of the COBE satellite 1989 - Soviet Union - Earth - Success - Launch of the Granat gamma-rayand X-ray satellite 1990s 1990 - USA/ Europe - Sun - Success - Ulysses solar flyby 1990 - Japan - Moon - Success - Hiten probe, this was the first non-United States or USSR probe to reach the Moon 1990 - USA/ Europe - Success - Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope 1990 - Germany - Success - Launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite toconduct the first imaging X-ray sky survey
UARS is a science satelliteused from 1991 to 2005 tostudy Earths atmosphere,including the ozone layer. Planned for a three-yearmission, it proved much moredurable, allowing extendedobservation from itsinstrument suite. It waslaunched aboard Space ShuttleDiscovery and deployed intospace from the payload baywith its robotic arm, underguidance from the crew
Mars Pathfinder on Mars NASAs Discovery Program (ascompared to NewFrontiers, Explorers, or FlagshipPrograms) is a series of lower-cost, highly-focused Americanscientific space missions thatare exploring the Solar System. It was founded in 1992 toimplement then-NASAAdministrator Daniel S. Goldin’svision of "faster, better,cheaper" planetary missions
Mars Observer Launch: Sept. 25, 1992After a 17-year gap sinceits last mission to the redplanet, the United Stateslaunched Mars Observer onSeptember 25, 1992. The spacecraft was basedon a commercial Earth-orbiting communicationssatellite that had beenconverted into an orbiterfor Mars.
December 2, 1993 -SpaceShuttle Endeavour launches on STS-61,making the first on-orbit service ofthe Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST).
Clementine (officially called theDeep Space Program ScienceExperiment (DSPSE)) was a jointspace project betweenthe Ballistic Missile DefenseOrganization(BMDO, previouslythe Strategic Defense InitiativeOrganization, or SDIO) andNASA. Launched on January 25, 1994,the objective of the mission wasto test sensors and spacecraftcomponents under extendedexposure to the spaceenvironment and to makescientific observations ofthe Moon and the near-Earthasteroid 1620 Geographos.
February 6, 1995 - Spaceshuttle Discovery maneuvers to within 37 feet ofRussian space station Mir, in preparation for ashuttle-Mir docking (STS-63). This is the firstshuttle mission to be flown by a female pilot. March 22, 1995 - Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakovreturns to Earth after a 438-day mission aboardRussian space station Mir, setting a new spaceendurance record.
(1996 – 2000)
December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta IIbooster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor waslaunched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Marss Ares Vallis,in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palusquadrangle.Delta II is an American spacelaunch system, originally designedand built by McDonnell Douglas.The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) wasa US spacecraft developed by NASAsJet Propulsion Laboratory andlaunched November 1996
July 15, 2000 - the CHAMP satellite was launchedwith a Russian COSMOS launch vehicle.Challenging Mini Satellite Payload
1997- Robotic Marsrover named Sojournerexplored Mars foraround three months.
July 8, 2000 – International space stationestablished.International Space Station (ISS) isthe largest artificial body in orbit, itcan often be seen at the appropriatetime with the naked eye from Earth
12 February 2001 - NEAR Shoemaker made its first landingon an asteroid, 433 Eros. 4 January 2004 - Spirit rover was made as a free ranging Marsrover.
25 January 2004 - Opportunity rover (Free rangingMars rover) 1 July 2004 - Cassini–Huygens was the first to orbitSaturn.
14 January 2005 - Cassini–Huygens made its firstlanding on Titan (the largest moon on Saturn). 19 November 2005 – Hayabusa made its first asteroidascent (25143 Itokawa - Mars and Apollo crosserasteroid) and its first interplanetary escape withoutundercarriage cutoff
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
New HorizonsMission type FlybyLaunch date 2006-01-19 19:00:00 UTC (7 years,3 months, and 10 days elapsed)Launch vehicle Atlas V 551Launch site Launch Complex 41Cape Canaveral Air Force StationMission duration In transit (Pluto)(7 years, 3 months, and 10 dayselapsed)APL flyby(completed 2006-06-13)Jupiter flyby(completed 2007-02-28)Flyby of APL, Jupiter, Plutoand its moons(Charon, Hydra, Nix,S/2011 P 1,and S/2012 P 1)Flyby date 2015-07-14 (projected)Inclination negligible as of 2010
space mission led by the French Space Agency (CNES) The missions two objectives are to search for extrasolar planets withshort orbital periods, particularly those of large terrestrial size, and toperform asteroseismology by measuring solar-like oscillations in stars It was launched at 14:28:00 UTC on 27 December 2006, atop a Soyuz2.1bcarrier rocket, reporting first light on 18 January 2007 on 2 February 2007, started to collect science data. COROT is the first spacecraft dedicated to the detection of transitingextrasolar planets, opening the way for more advanced probes suchas Kepler and possibly TESS and PLATO.
o was a robotic spacecraft on a spaceexploration mission on Mars underthe Mars Scout Program.oPhoenix lander descended on Mars onMay 25, 2008.oThe lander completed its mission inAugust 2008, and made a last briefcommunication with Earth on November2 as available solar power dropped withthe Martian winter.oThe program was considered a successbecause it completed all planned scienceexperiments and observations.
Better known in Japan as KAGUYA( moonprincess) was thesecond Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft. the spacecraft was launched on September14, 2007 After successfully orbiting the moon for ayear and eight months, the main orbiter wasinstructed to impact on the lunar surfacenear the crater Gill at 18:25 UTC on June10, 2009
is a robotic NASA spacecraft tasked with theexploration and study of Vesta and Ceres, the twolargest members of the asteroid belt. Launched on September 27, 2007, the probe enteredorbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011 Dawn left Vesta on September 5, 2012, on a coursefor Ceres, which it is scheduled to reach in February2015. Dawn is NASA’s first purely exploratory mission touse ion propulsion. Dawn was the first spacecraft to visit Vesta, and isscheduled to be the first to visit Ceres. If itsuccessfully reaches Ceres, it will also be the firstspacecraft to orbit two separate extraterrestrialbodies, using ion thrusters to travel between itstargets.
was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part ofthe first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The spacecraft was named after the Chinese Moongoddess, Change. Change 1 was launched on 24 October 2007 at 10:05:04 UTCfrom Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The first picture of the Moon was relayed on 26 November2007. On 12 November 2008, a map of the entire lunarsurface was released, produced from data collected byChange 1 between November 2007 and July 2008. Data gathered by Change 1 was able to create the mostaccurate and highest resolution 3-D map ever created of thelunar surface. Change 1 is the first lunar probe to conduct passive, multi-channel, microwave remote sensing of the moon by using amicrowave radiator. On 1 March 2009, at 08:13:10 UTC, Change 1 crashed ontothe surface of the Moon, ending its mission.
•a NASA satellite that is making a map of the boundarybetween the Solar System and interstellar space.•The mission is part of NASAs Small Explorer programand launched with a Pegasus-XL rocket on October 19,2008, at 17:47:23 UTC.•Results from IBEX have repeatedly shocked thescientific community and overturned old theories. Thefirst shock came when it revealed a narrow ribbonof energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission.•The nominal mission baseline duration was two yearsto observe the entire solar system boundary. This wascompleted by 2011 and its mission was extended to2013 to continue observations.•IBEX is collecting Energetic neutral atom(ENA)emissions that are traveling through the solar system toEarth that cannot be measured by conventionaltelescopes.
Planck is a space observatory ofthe European Space Agency (ESA) anddesigned to observe the anisotropies ofthe cosmic microwave background (CMB)over the entire sky, at microwave andinfra-red frequencies with high sensitivityand small angular resolution. Planck was launched in May 2009, reachingthe Earth/Sun L2 point in July, and byFebruary 2010 had successfully started asecond all-sky survey. On 21 March 2013, the missions all-sky mapof the cosmic microwave background wasreleased. Planck provides a major source ofinformation relevant to severalcosmological and astrophysical issues, suchas testing theories of the early universeand the origin of cosmic structure.
Herschel Space Observatory is a European SpaceAgency space observatory sensitive to the farinfrared and submillimetre wavebands (55-672 µm). The observatory was carried into orbit in May 2009,reaching the second Lagrangian point (L2) ofthe Earth-Sun system, 1,500,000 kilometres(930,000 mi) from the Earth, about two monthslater. Herschel is named after Sir William Herschel, thediscoverer of theinfrared spectrum andplanet Uranus, and his sister andcollaborator Caroline Hersche. The Herschel Observatory is capable of seeing thecoldest and dustiest objects in space; for example,cool cocoons where stars form and dusty galaxiesjust starting to bulk up with new stars.
was Irans first domesticallymade satellite. Omid is a data-processing satellite forresearch and telecommunications, Iransstate television reported that it wassuccessfully launched on 2 February2009. Omid was reported to have successfullycompleted its mission without anyproblems. It completed more than 700orbits over seven weeks. According to U.S. Strategic Command,the Omid satellite reentered Earthsatmosphere on April 25, 2009, during an8-hour window centered on 0342 UT.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA todiscover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars. The spacecraft,named for the 17th-century astronomer Johannes Kepler, waslaunched on 7 March 2009. The Kepler observatory is "specifically designed to survey aportion of our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover dozensof Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone and determinehow many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets“ The Kepler observatory is currently in active operation, withthe first main results announced on 4 January 2010. As expected,the initial discoveries were all short-period planets. As themission continued, additional longer-period candidates werefound. A new candidate, announced on 7 January 2013, is Kepler-69c(formerly, KOI-172.02), an Earth-likeexoplanet orbitinga star similar to our Sun in the habitable zone and possibly a"prime candidate to hostalien life" In April 2013, a white dwarf star was discovered bending the lightof its companion red dwarf star in the KOI-256 star system. In April 2013, NASA announced the discovery of three new Earth-like exoplanets – Kepler-62e, Kepler-62f, and Kepler-69c– inthe habitable zones of their respective host stars,Kepler-62and Kepler-69. The new exoplanets, which are consideredprime candidates for possessing liquid water and thus potentiallylife, were identified using the Keplerspacecraft
RISAT-2, or Radar Imaging Satellite 2 isan Indian radar reconnaissance satellite thatis part of Indias RISAT programme. successfully launched aboard a PSLV-CArocket at 01:15 GMT on April 20, 2009 fromtheSecond Launch Pad at the Satish DhawanSpace Centre. RISAT-2 is Indias first heavy satellite witha synthetic aperture radar. It has a day-night,all-weather monitoring capability. Potentialapplications include tracking hostile ships atsea that could pose a military threat
formerly known as the Venus Climate Orbiter(VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese unmannedspacecraft which was intended to explore Venus. It was launched aboard an H-IIA 202 rocket on 20 May2010. The mission reached Venus on 7 December 2010 (JST)but failed to enter orbit around the planet. Akatsuki is a Japanese space mission to theplanet Venus. Planned observations include cloud andsurface imaging from an orbit around the planet withan infrared camera, which are aimed at investigationof the complex Venusian meteorology. Otherexperiments are designed to confirm the presenceof lightning and to determinewhether volcanism occurs currently on Venus.
a Japan Aerospace ExplorationAgency(JAXA) experimental spacecraft.The spacecraft was launched on 21 May2010, aboard an H-IIA rocket, togetherwith theAkatsuki (Venus Climate Orbiter)probe and four other small spacecraft. IKAROS is the first spacecraft tosuccessfully demonstrate solar-sail technology in interplanetary space. On 8 December 2010, IKAROS passedby Venus at about 80,800 km (50,200 mi)distance, completing the plannedmission successfully, and entered itsextended operation phase. The IKAROS probe is the worlds firstspacecraft to use solar sailing as themain propulsion.
a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launchedon 1 October 2010.It was a follow-up to the Change1 lunar probe, which was launched in 2007. Change 2 was broadly similar to the Change 1 probe,but had important differences. While Change 1operated in a 200-kilometer orbit, Change 2 flew atonly 100 kilometers, allowing for higher-resolutionimages and more precise science data. In April 2012, Change 2 departed L2 to begin anextended mission to the asteroid 4179 Toutatis, whichit successfully flew by in December 2012. Thissuccess made China the fourth spacefaring entityto directly explore asteroids, after the United States,the European Union and Japan.
Juno is a NASA New Frontiers missionto the planet Jupiter. Juno waslaunched from Cape Canaveral AirForce Station on August 5, 2011. Juno will also search for clues abouthow Jupiter formed, includingwhether the planet has a rocky core,the amount of water present withinthe deep atmosphere, and how theplanets mass is distributed. It will alsostudy Jupiters deep winds, which canreach speeds of 618 kilometers perhour (384 mph). Juno requires a five-year cruise toJupiter, arriving around July 4, 2016. Teams:Scott Bolton, Toby Owen, AndyIngersol, Fran Bagenal, Candy Hansen,Jack Connerney.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt was anattempted Russian sample returnmissionto Phobos, one of the moonsof Mars. Fobos-Grunt also carried theChinese Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1 and thetiny Living Interplanetary FlightExperiment funded by the PlanetarySociety. It was launched on 9 November 2011 at02:16 local time (8 November 2011,20:16 UTC) from the BaikonurCosmodrome, but subsequent rocket burnsintended to set the craft on a course forMars failed, leaving it stranded in lowEarth orbit. Fobos-Grunt was designed to become thefirst spacecraft to return a macroscopicsample from an extraterrestrial bodysince Luna 24 in 1976.
was an experimental Iranian Earth observationsatellite. The satellite carried a camera for taking higher-precision imagery of Earth and it was also beused to collect weather data and monitornatural disasters. The third satellite to be launched indigenouslyby Iran, it was placed into orbit by a newconfiguration of the Safir carrier rocket,featuring a larger second stage with 20%more thrust.The launch occurred atapproximately 00:04 UTC on 3 February 2012.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) isa robotic space probe missionto Mars launched by NASA on November26, 2011,which successfullylanded Curiosity, a Mars rover, in GaleCrater on August 6, 2012. The overallobjectives include investigatingMars habitability, studyingits climate and geology, and collectingdata for a manned mission to Mars.Therover carries a variety of scientificinstruments designed by an internationalteam.
1. NASAs Z1 Spacesuit The new suit, which bears a Buzz Lightyears-esque appearance withits green accents, boasts superior mobility over the old suits, a largeentrance port for easy donning, and increased radiation protectionto allow for longer spacewalks.
2. SpaceXs GrasshopperOn May 25, SpaceX became the first private company todock a spacecraft at the International Space Station with itsFalcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft. On December 17,the company delivered its encore with a successful test ofits Grasshopper reusable rocket, in which the rockethovered at an altitutde of over 130 feet before landingsafely. Over the next few months, SpaceX has higher andmore sophisticated "hops" planned for the Grasshopper. Asthe first ever completely reusable spaceflight system, therocket has the potential to dramatically lower the cost offuture launches if SpaceX successfully sends it into low-earth orbit.
3. Orbital Sciences Commercial Orbital TransportationServices (COTS) Demo FlightOrbital Sciences, a Dulles, Va. based space company, isscheduled to launch its Cygnus spacecraft in 2013 as part of itsNASA Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) agreement. Thesystem, like SpaceXs Dragon spacecraft, was developed under aCommercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) contract withNASA. If Orbitals launch is successful, it could mark thebeginning of a U.S. commercial space race, leading to moreefficient technologies and increased private sector funding.
While NASAs Mars Science Laboratory, a.k.a. Curiosity rover, hastaken front stage in recent months, a project that remains indevelopment is the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN)probe, an unmanned spacecraft that will be used to sample Marsenvironment. The probe is scheduled for launch in November 2013and is expected to reach Mars in 2014. While Curiosity continues torelay data back to earth from Mars Gale crater, MAVEN will providemeasurements from Mars atmosphere, allowing for a more completepicture of the planets environment.