1 st Degree Malnutrition, mild wasting, severe stunting
chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic reversible airflow obstruction when exposed to various risk factors.
The pathologic changes, linked to persistent airways inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of the lungs.
Increasing prevalence of childhood asthma.
International study of Childhood Asthma & Allergies prevalence in 56 countries found 20x variation (range:1.6-36.8%)
~80% asthmatics report disease onset before 6 years old.
All young children experiencing recurrent wheezing, only a minority will go on to have a persistent asthma in later childhood.
Types of Asthma by Underlying Cause or Disease Process
Allergic asthma - triggered by environmental triggers called allergens.
Non-allergic asthma- triggered by factors other than allergens, such as irritants like smoke.
Occupational asthma - triggered by irritants in the workplace ( strong fumes or chemicals).
Exercise-induced asthma - triggered by exercise or vigorous exertion.
Cough-variant asthma - main symptom is continuous coughing. There may be shortness of breath, but generally there is no wheezing.
Medication-induced asthma - NSAIDS
Asthma Classifications by Severity Behrman, Kliegman, Jenson, et.al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 17 th Edn. p767 FEV 1 or PEF ≥80 of predicted; PEF Variability 20-30% 3-4 months ≥ 3 per week Mild Persistent FEV 1 or PEF >60 & ≤80% of predicted; PEF Variability >30% >1 time per week Daily symptoms, daily use of short acting ß-agonist Moderate Persistent FEV 1 or PEF ≤60 of predicted; PEF Variability >30% frequent Continual symptoms, limited physical activity, frequent exacerbations Severe Persistent FEV 1 or PEF ≥80 of predicted; PEF Variability <20% < 3 months <3 per week Mild Intermittent LUNG FUNCTION NIGHTS W/ SYMPTOMS DAYS W/ SYMPTOMS ASTHMA SEVERITY
Pathogenesis Asthma Triggers Airway Obstruction Airway Inflammation, Hyperresponsiveness, & Remodelling Status Asthmaticus Early phase:15-30mins Late Phase:4-12hr after allergen exposure DEATH
Clinical Manifestations ..
Diagnostic tools ..
Good asthma management
1. Maintain normal activity
- Attend school regularly.
- Participate fully in the sport of their choice.
2. Sleep well without disturbance due to asthma.
3. Experience little to no adverse effects from asthma pharmacotherapy
5. Prevent chronic asthma symptoms.
6.Maintain normal lung function.
7. With early intervention, stay safe by keeping asthma exacerbations from becoming severe.
Four Components of Optimal Asthma Management:
Regular assessment & monitoring.
- check-ups q 2-4wks until good control is achieved.
- 2-4 per year to maintain good control.
- lung function monitoring.
2. Control of factors contributing to asthma severity.
- eliminate or reduce problematic environmental exposures.
- treat co-morbid conditions.
- Annual Influenza vaccination
3. Patient education
4. Asthma pharmacotherapy
- Quick-relief medications (“relievers”)
a. short-acting ß-agonists
b. inhaled anticholinergics
c. short-course systemic glucocorticoids
Long-term-control medications (“controllers”)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.
- Inhaled glucocorticoids ..
- Sustained-release theophylline
- Long-acting inhaled ß-agonist
- Leukotriene modifiers
- Oral glucocorticoids.
Inhalers for Asthma
- as needed and for acute attack.
- if needed 3x a week or more to ease symptoms, a preventer inhaler is usually advised.
Long-Acting Bronchodilator Inhalers
- MOA is same with 'relievers', but work for up to 12 hours.
- salmeterol and formoterol.
Pressurised MDIs (Metered Dose Inhalers)
- contains a pressurized inactive gas that propels a
dose of drug in each 'puff'.
- easy to use, small & hand-carry.
- recommended for children ≥5 years old.
Breath-activated MDIs - ß-2 agonist.
- Alternatives to the standard MDI.
- require less co-ordination than the standard MDI.
- recommended for children ≥5 years old
used with pressurized MDIs.
Decrease risk of fungal infection.
Recommended for ≤4 years old.
50% decrease delivery to the lungs due to electrostatic charge to the plastic which attracts the aerosol.
Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI)
- Recommended for ≥4 years old.
- Not be used for children in severe attacks w/ greatly reduced inspiratory flow.
- No need any co-ordination to use, just breathe in and out.
- used mainly in hospital for severe
attacks of asthma when large doses of inhaled drugs are needed
Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in terms of Severity Behrman, Kliegman, Jenson, et.al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 17th Edn. p767 Step 1 + group education & monitoring Anti-inflammatory: low-medium dose inhaled glucocorticoids, & either LABA, Leukotriene Short acting ß-agonist - prn Step 3: Moderate persistent Step 1 + group education & monitoring Anti-inflammatory: low dose inhaled glucocorticoids, cromolyn, leukotriene modifier, nocromil. Alternative: sustained release theophylline Short acting ß-agonist - prn Step 2: Mild Persistent Step 1 + group education & monitoring + referral Anti-inflammatory: high-dose inhaled glucocorticoids + LABA, either leukotriene modifier, sustained release theophylline. Oral glucocorticoid Short acting ß-agonist - prn Step 4: Severe Persistent No daily medication needed LONG-TERM CONTROL MEDICATION Use of MDI & spacer, environmental control measures Short acting ß-agonist - prn Step 1: Mild Intermittent EDUCATION QUICK RELIEF MEDICATION ASTHMA SEVERITY
FEV 1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second; PEF = peak expiratory flow. * Any exacerbation should prompt review of maintenance treatment to ensure that it is adequate. † By definition, an exacerbation in any week makes that an uncontrolled asthma week. ‡ Lung function is not a reliable test for children 5 years and younger. One in any week† One or more/year* None Exacerbations <80% predicted or personal best (if known) Normal Lung function (PEF or FEV1)‡ More than twice/week None (twice or less/week) Need for reliever/rescue treatment Any None Nocturnal symptoms/awakening Any None Limitations of activities Three or more features of partly controlled asthma present in any week More than twice/week None (twice or less/week) Daytime symptoms Uncontrolled Partly controlled (Any measure present in any week) Controlled (All of the following) Characteristic Levels of asthma control according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA ).
Probable Reasons for Poor Asthma Control
Incorrect choice of inhaler
Poor technique use of inhaler
Non-adherence to treatment
Individual variation in response to treatment
Mother : M. L., 24 years old, common law partner, unemployed, asthmatic
- educational attainment: Grade III
Father : W. C. Sr., 27 years old, common law partner, breadwinner (panday-mason), who earned only ~Ƥ 800/wk., occasional alcoholic drinker.
- educational attainment: 2 nd year High school
Winmar. L. - 7 years old, male, 1 st child,
grade 1 in Lahug Elementary school.
2. Winnie C. Jr. - 5 years & 10 months old, male, 2 nd
3. Winjel C. - Index Patient, 2 years & 6 months old, female, 3 rd child, asthmatic
4. Winnie Rose C. - 10 months old, female, 4 th child
Marissa, Winnie Rose, Winnie Jr., Winjel House of Betty, the sister SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
Lapuz-Caparida’s Hause Bedroom
Smilkstein’s Cycle of Family Function
FAMILY IN EQUILIBRIUM STREESFUL LIFE EVENTS: Asthma attacks & no permanent work CRISIS: Inadequate family income EXTRA-FAMILIAL RESOURCES: Free medical check-ups Free medicines Can borrow money from older sister Permanent work ADAPTATION
Impact of Illness
Stage I – Onset of Illness
Stage II – Reaction to Diagnosis (Impact phase)
Stage III – Major Therapeutic efforts
Stage IV – Early Adjustment to Outcome (Recovery)
Stage V – Adjustment to the Permanency of the
Family Assessment Tools
Clinical Biography and Life Events
Family genogram lapuz-caparida family january 13, 2009 Entiquino, 49 @ x † Francisca 36, ͏͏ Ѿ @ Carmen 39 Betty 30 Rosela 27 Renante 25 Marissa 24, Roger 23 Jenny 22 Remarck 16 Queeny 10 Winnie Sr. 27, Winmar, 7 @ Winnie Jr. 5 @ Winjel, 2 Winrose, 10 mos. 1988 I ii III @ Rostica 59, Alejandro 60 Generoso 42 Dita 36 Rita 45 Ronnie 29 Amay 28 Benvienido 25 LEGENDS: @ - Asthmatic Index Patient † or X deceased recurrent urticarial rashes 5 months pregnant ͏͏ Ѿ Abella-Lapuz Jimenes-Caparida male female
FAMILY CIRCLE MARISSA WINMAR WINROSE WINNIE SR. WINJEL WINNIE JR. BETTY
FAMILY APGAR i INFORMANT: MARISSA CAPARIDA & betty 9 Total √ I am satisfied with the way my family and I share time together. R √ I am satisfied with the way my family expresses affection and responds to my emotions. A √ I am satisfied that my family accepts and supports my wishes to take on new activities and direction. G √ I am satisfied with the way my family talks over things with me and shares problems with me. P √ I am satisfied that I can turn to my family for help when something is troubling me. A Hardly ever Some of the time Almost always
screem Limitations in finances for medical check-up & medicine. Can borrow money from the eldest sister in case of emergency. Medical check-up with the family physician M edical Learns at home Primary education E ducational Inadequate monthly income. The father works as a construction worker E conomic Attends mass occasionally during fiesta, Christmas. Prays at home. R eligious Using herbal medicine & linements Herbal medicine C ultural Nobody can help the wife in attending the 4 children Interacts with neighbors and relatives. No known enemies. S ocial Pathology/Weakness Resource/ Strength
Nuclear type of family with young children, highly Functional, Lower Class
Stage IV of the Family Illness Trajectory.
Father is the breadwinner; mother is the primary care giver; patriarchal
Health status of kids: poor
Religious practices: poor
Preventive measures & environmental sanitation.
Follow – up check-up regularly.
Giving some free medicines.
Referred to pediatric pulmonologist for consult.
To continue the medical center. constructed by the PSH-Dept. of Family & Community Medicine.
To propose a nebulizer machine in the community center.
To propose a free medicines from the Brgy. Health Center & Bry. Lahug.
To suggest a vehicle from the Brgy. Lahug for emergency purposes.