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4. betty neuman's theories (liza)



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  • 2. # Betty Newman’s System Model By:- Mrs. Liza S. Pappachan Thursday, October 3, 2013 2
  • 3. # BETTY NEUMANN’S SYSTEM MODEL • Betty Neumann’s system model provides a comprehensive, flexible, holistic and system based perspective for nursing. • It focuses attention on the response of the client system to actual or potential environmental stressors. Thursday, October 3, 2013 3
  • 4. # BETTY NEUMANN’S SYSTEM MODEL • The use of primary, secondary and tertiary nursing prevention intervention for retention, attainment, and maintenance of optimal client system wellness. Thursday, October 3, 2013 4
  • 5. # HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE THEORIST Thursday, October 3, 2013 5
  • 6. # HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE THEORIST • Betty Neumann was born in 1924, in Lowel, Ohio. • Completed B.Sc. nursing in 1957, and M.S. in Mental Health Public health consultation, from UCLA in 1966. • She holds a Ph.D. in clinical psychology. Thursday, October 3, 2013 6
  • 7. # HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE THEORIST • A pioneer in the community mental health movement in the late 1960s. • Began developing her health system model, while a lecturer in community health nursing at University of California, Los Angeles. Thursday, October 3, 2013 7
  • 8. # HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE THEORIST • The models was initially developed, in response to graduate nursing students expression of a need for course content, that would expose them to breadth of nursing problems, prior to focusing on specific nursing problem areas. Thursday, October 3, 2013 8
  • 9. # HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE THEORIST • The model was published in 1972 as “A Model for Teaching Total Person Approach to Patient Problems” in Nursing Research. • It was refined, and subsequently published in the first edition of Conceptual Models for Nursing Practice, in 1974, and in the second edition in 1980. Thursday, October 3, 2013 9
  • 10. # DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL • Neumann’s model was influenced by a variety of sources. • The philosophy writers de Chardin and cornu (on wholeness in system). • Von Bertalanfy, and Lazlo on general system theory. • Selye on stress theory. • Lararus on stress and coping. Thursday, October 3, 2013 10
  • 11. # NEUMANN’S WORK & THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY • Theories can be the bases for hypotheses, that can be tested. • Theories contribute to and assist in, increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline, through the research implemented to validate them. Thursday, October 3, 2013 11
  • 12. # NEUMANN’S WORK & THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY • Theories connects the interrelated concepts in such a way, as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. • Theories must be logical in nature . • Theories should be relatively simple yet generalizable. Thursday, October 3, 2013 12
  • 13. # NEUMANN’S WORK & THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY • Theories can be utilized by the practitioner, to guide and improve their practice. • Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws and principles but will leave open unanswered questions, that need to be investigated. Thursday, October 3, 2013 13
  • 14. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF NEUMANN’S THEORY Thursday, October 3, 2013 14
  • 15. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 1. Each client system is unique, a composite of factors and characteristics within a given range of responses contained within a basic structure. I am unique Thursday, October 3, 2013 15
  • 16. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 2. Many known, unknown and universal stressors exist. Each differ in it’s potential for disturbing a client’s usual stability level or normal Line of Defense. Thursday, October 3, 2013 16
  • 17. # 3. Stressors both universal and known; some are unique to the client. They have potential to disturb equilibrium, thus causing a change in priority of needs at any given moment. Thursday, October 3, 2013 17 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS Stressors disturbs the normal equilibrium
  • 18. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 4. Man is a composite of the interrelationship of the four variables ( biological, psychological, socio-cultural and developmental) which are at all times present. Thursday, October 3, 2013 18
  • 19. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 5. Each client/ client system has evolved a normal range of responses to the environment that is referred to as a normal Line of Defense. The normal Line of Defense can be used as a standard from which to measure health deviation. Thursday, October 3, 2013 19
  • 20. # BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 7. When the flexible Line of Defense is no longer capable of protecting the client/ client system, against an environmental stressor, the stressor breaks through the normal Line of Defense. Thursday, October 3, 2013 20
  • 21. #Thursday, October 3, 2013 21 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
  • 22. # 8.Primary prevention relates to general knowledge applied to clients assessment to identify stressors before they occur. 9.Secondary prevention relates to symptomatology. These are interventions generally initiated after an encounter with a stressor. 10.Tertiary prevention relates to the adaptive process, as reconstitution begins and moves back towards primary prevention. These are the interventions initiated after treatment. Thursday, October 3, 2013 22 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
  • 23. # MAJOR CONCEPTS OF NEUMANN'S THEORY Thursday, October 3, 2013 23
  • 24. # FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS Thursday, October 3, 2013 24
  • 25. # 1.Person Each layer consists of five person variable or subsystems: Physiological- Refer to the physiochemical structure and function of the body. Psychological- Refers to mental processes and emotions. Socio-cultural- Refers to relationships; and social/cultural expectations and activities. Spiritual- Refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs. Developmental- Refers to those processes related to development over the lifespan. Thursday, October 3, 2013 25
  • 26. # 2.Environment The internal environment exists within the client system. The external environment exists outside the client system. A created environment which is an environment that is created and developed unconsciously by the client and is symbolic of system wholeness. Thursday, October 3, 2013 26
  • 27. # 3.Health Neuman sees health as being equated with wellness. She defines health/wellness as “the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in harmony with the whole of the client (Neumann, 1995)”. Thursday, October 3, 2013 27
  • 28. # 3.Health The client system moved toward wellness when more energy is available than is needed. The client system moves toward illness and death when more energy is needed than is available. . Thursday, October 3, 2013 28
  • 29. # 4. Nursing Neuman sees nursing as a unique profession that is concerned with all of the variables, which influence the response a person might have to a stressor. The person is seen as a whole, and it is the task of nursing to address the whole person. Thursday, October 3, 2013 29
  • 30. # 4. Nursing Neuman defines nursing as “action which assist individuals, families and groups to maintain a maximum level of wellness, and the primary aim is stability of the patient/client system, through nursing interventions to reduce stressors.’’ Thursday, October 3, 2013 30
  • 31. # 4. Nursing The role of the nurse is seen in terms of degree of reaction to stressors, and the use of primary, secondary and tertiary interventions. Thursday, October 3, 2013 31
  • 32. #Thursday, October 3, 2013 32 Primary prevention Secondary prevention Tertiary prevention Stressors Reaction Interventions Reconstitution Stressors Stressors Basic structure and Line of Defense The Neuman System Model (3 rd edition, 1995)
  • 33. # STAGES OF NURSING PROCESS (BY NEUMAN) Thursday, October 3, 2013 33
  • 34. # NEUMANN’S SYSTEM MODEL FORMAT Thursday, October 3, 2013 34
  • 36. # Conclusion Introduction of theory History and background of theorist Development of model Characteristics of theory Basic assumptions Major concepts Applications in nursing practice Thursday, October 3, 2013 36
  • 37. #Thursday, October 3, 2013First year M.Sc.Nursing 37