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  2. 2. Content  Need for automation  Simple automation system  Designing automation systems  Implementation of automation system
  3. 3. Need for automation Why do we automate 1. Productivity improvement 2. Accuracy 3. Cost saving 4. Safety of the employees
  4. 4. Automated System Sensors and Switches Motors and Actuators Controller Signal Conditioning Signal Conditioning
  5. 5. Example A1 Is C1 C2 Fig:Two views of the system Is-Inductive sensor A1-Pneumatic Actuator C1-Collector C2-Collector Gear Box motor-m item Os-Optical sensor A0 A0
  6. 6. 1. When Os detects an item, it should be pushed by A0 and conveyor should start moving 2. If the item is metal, it has to be identified by Is. 3. Metal items are to be pushed by A1 and collected in C1. 4. Non-metal items are to be collected at the end of the belt to C2 5. If an item is in process, even if Os detects an item, it should not be pushed by A1 until the previous item is fully processed.
  7. 7. Start -No item Os=0 Os=1 A0 should be ejected provided no other item is in process If the item is metal, it is sensed by Is. If Is=1 item is metal, this should be remembered If Is had been 1 it has to pushed by A1 after a time interval If the item is not metal, it should not be pushed and collected at the end. The time required to travel is also required.
  8. 8. Sorting System I Logo Operating Voltage –24 v I s- A1 C C Gear Box m Os I1 I2 PLC inputs ? PLC outputs Q1 Q2 A0 Q3 ?
  9. 9. Sorting System II Amplifier Electro-pneumatic valve PLC S7-200 Operating Voltage –24 v I0.1 I0.0 Q0.0 Q0.1 I s- C C2 Gear Box m Os If output the sensor is in mv A/C motor RelayA0 Q0.2 Electro-pneumatic valve A1
  10. 10. Design your automation what do we automate 1. What functions or what sections are to be automated 2. Partially, semi-automate, fully automate
  11. 11. Design your automation Contd. How to automate 1. Conceptual design 2. Detail design
  12. 12. Packing machines
  13. 13. Current orientation of cups Blow Two options 1. Take it without blowing 2. Re-orient it after blowing
  14. 14. Conceptual Design Do we need to use the same mechanism used in the manual methods ? Orienting Cups
  15. 15. Milk Packet Machine
  16. 16. Detail Design  Component Selection  Interfaces and Connections between sensors, instrum  Automating, controlling and communication requireme (The main function)  Safety requirements and interrupts  Maintainability  Cost and productivity analysis Objective
  17. 17. Component Selection  Select sensors, signal conditioning, motors, actuators  Selection of the controller Note – The selection should match the objectives of automation
  18. 18. Interfaces and connections  The can be communicated via design drawings. 1. Mechanical Flow diagram 2. ICM (Instrumentation, Control and Monitoring ) flow diagram based on mechanical flow diagram 3. Mechanical component diagram 4. Electrical component diagram 5. Electrical wiring diagram and wire cabinets 6. Communication network diagrams
  19. 19. Automating Controlling The main requirement is documented. Different approaches are used. Written documents UML (Unified modeling Language) approach
  20. 20. Implementation of automation system  Installation of systems 1. Mechanical 2. Electrical/Communications 3. Instruments 4. Wiring  Testing the system for basic working conditions  Programming the controllers according to the detail design requirements
  21. 21. Programming Methods Programming method depends on the type of the controller and the selection of the programming language Types of Controllers
  22. 22. Type of Controllers  Pneumatic controllers  Fixed Electronic controllers  Electro-mechanical relay types  PLC  Computer Control  Embedded Controllers  PAC  Integrated controllers
  23. 23. Fixed Controllers 1. Electronic controllers or cards 2. Electro-mechanical controllers 3. Pneumatic controllers The above mentioned controllers cannot change the controlling system without changing the hardware of the control system The other types, can program the controller using software so that one can change the way it is controlled without changing hardware
  24. 24. PLC- Programmable Logic Controllers Small Level Medium Level Advanced Level Programming Languages 1. Ladder 2. Functional Block diagrams 3. Statement Lists 4. Structured text 5. Sequential functional charts
  25. 25. Data bus Address bus Control bus CPU clock Memory Input/ Output unit Program panel Input channels Output channels Architecture of a Programmable Logic Controller
  26. 26. Siemens S7-PLC Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
  27. 27. Industrial PLC
  28. 28. CNC Milling Machine Main program is written using a PLC Pneumatic actuators and Valves are used Servo Motors are used for processing
  29. 29. Pneumatic Controllers 0.1 On/off valve with the filter 1.0 Double Acting Cylinder 1.1 5/2 way double pilot valve 1.2 3/2 way, push button 1.3 3/2 way roller lever valve 1.4 3/2 way, push button 1.6 shuttle valve (or)
  30. 30. Electro-mechanical Controllers Relays and Contactors Basic Relay 1 2 3 4 5 Coil Supply input outputs No Supply 1-3 gets connected 1-2 no connection With Supply 1-2 gets connected 1-3 no connection Normally opened contact 1 2 Normally closed contact 1 3
  31. 31. Electro-Pneumatic Valve 1 2 3 4 5 Coil Supply Input pneumatic supply outputs No Electrical Supply 1-3 gets connected 1-2 no connection With Electrical Supply 1-2 gets connected 1-3 no connection
  32. 32. Embedded Controllers  Micro-controllers  Complex Programmable Logic Device  Field Programmable Gate Array
  33. 33. S1 S2 A1 M1 Computer Control Serial Port Parallel Port USB port
  34. 34. Computer Control Use the computer as the main controller Programming Languages 1. C, C++ or C# 2. Visual Basic Programming port 1. Parallel port 2. Serial port 3. USB port For serial port and USB port the other end should support such requirements and protocols or such a system has to be designed and interfaced with an embedded controller
  35. 35. END