Drama
“I made mistakes in drama. I thought drama was
when actors cried. But drama is when the
audience cries” (Frank Capra...
History of Drama
 all Drama originates from ancient










greece wHere groups of people
worsHipeD tHe goD Dionys...
early tHeatrical
conVentions
 THEATERS WERE BUILT INTO NATURAL

HILLSIDES
 THE GREEK ACTORS (HYPOKRITES) WERE ALL
MEN
 ...
Aristotle's definition
of A trAgic hero
 comes from nobility
 hAs A trAgic flAw (cAused by A

simple mistAke or A chArAc...
structure of
drAmA
 1. exposition
 2. rising Action
 3. climAx
 4. fAlling Action
 5. denouement/resolution
Aristotle’s unities:

A wAy of providing A
focus to trAgedy
 unity of time: the plAy

tAkes plAce in A 24
hour time perio...
Aristotle's six
elements of drAmA
 1. Plot (the incidents or story







line)
2. chArActer (PhysicAl, sociAl,
Psyc...
goAls of A trAgedy
 trAgedy is meAnt to reAffirm







the fAct thAt life is worth
living, regArdless of the
sufferi...
more goAls
 the trAgic ProtAgonist must fAll from








high to low; they will hAve A noble
soul.
the Audience mus...
“To be or noT To be…”
(william ShakeSpeare)
 The Tragic proTagoniST muST

aSk The firST and laST of all
queSTionS: whaT d...
did you know?
 Tragedy waS aT

iTS heighT in
greek SocieTy
when The SocieTy
waS aT iTS heighT.
 comedy—an
ouTleT for The...
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Drama for English 9 Advanced

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These drama notes prepare students for A DOLL'S HOUSE by Henrik Ibsen

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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Drama for English 9 Advanced

  1. 1. Drama “I made mistakes in drama. I thought drama was when actors cried. But drama is when the audience cries” (Frank Capra).
  2. 2. History of Drama  all Drama originates from ancient      greece wHere groups of people worsHipeD tHe goD Dionysus by singing anD Dancing togetHer. yearly rigHts to Dionysus eVolVeD into tHe structureD form of greeK Drama. tHe greater Dionysia was HelD for fiVe Days During tHe spring. eacH writer woulD present tHree trageDies anD a satyr play (a farcical, often bawDy paroDy of tHe goDs anD tHeir mytHs). 15,000 people woulD sit tHrougH tHe plays in tHe Dionysian tHeater anD woulD Vote for tHeir faVorite plays by casting stone ballots. winners woulD receiVe tHe laurel
  3. 3. early tHeatrical conVentions  THEATERS WERE BUILT INTO NATURAL HILLSIDES  THE GREEK ACTORS (HYPOKRITES) WERE ALL MEN  THE ACTORS EACH WORE A LARGER THAN LIFE MASK (PERSONA), WHICH INDICATED THE NATURE OF THE CHARACTER TO THE AUDIENCE.  EACH MASK ALSO CONTAINED A MEGAPHONE, SO THOSE FARTHEST AWAY IN THE AMPHITHEATER COULD HEAR THE ACTORS AND CHORUS SPEAK.
  4. 4. Aristotle's definition of A trAgic hero  comes from nobility  hAs A trAgic flAw (cAused by A simple mistAke or A chArActer flAw) mAybe pride or hubris  undergoes A reversAl of fortune (fAlls from high to low)  hAs A downfAll  recognizes his mistAkes (in A cAthArsis or purgAtion of pity And feAr
  5. 5. structure of drAmA  1. exposition  2. rising Action  3. climAx  4. fAlling Action  5. denouement/resolution
  6. 6. Aristotle’s unities: A wAy of providing A focus to trAgedy  unity of time: the plAy tAkes plAce in A 24 hour time period  unity of plAce: the plAy hAs only one setting  unity of Action: the plAy hAs one plot And no mixture of trAgedy And comedy
  7. 7. Aristotle's six elements of drAmA  1. Plot (the incidents or story      line) 2. chArActer (PhysicAl, sociAl, PsychologicAl, morAl--PeoPle rePresented in the PlAy) 3. thought/theme (insights into humAnity And life 4. music (All sound) 5. sPectAcle (scenery And other visuAl elements) 6. diction/lAnguAge (the diAlogue And Poetry)
  8. 8. goAls of A trAgedy  trAgedy is meAnt to reAffirm     the fAct thAt life is worth living, regArdless of the suffering or PAin thAt is PArt of humAn existence. trAgedies Are About PeoPle in conflict with the universe. trAgedies Are AlwAys About sPirituAl conflicts, never About common events. trAgic Actions Arise from A chArActer's inner conflict. A trAgic ProtAgonist must hAve mAgnitude; his struggles Are greAt becAuse he is imPortAnt
  9. 9. more goAls  the trAgic ProtAgonist must fAll from      high to low; they will hAve A noble soul. the Audience must cAre About the trAgic ProtAgonist. the trAgic ProtAgonist is A good mAn, but not Perfect. he usuAlly suffers from hubris.  once the trAnsgression is reAlized, the chArActer enters the stAge of recognition And will undergo A reversAl of fortune. the ProtAgonist's Actions should Arouse feelings of both Pity And feAr in the Audience: Pity becAuse the ProtAgonist is better thAn we Are, so we PlAce ourselves into his Position (emPAthy) And feAr becAuse we too do not know our future or fAte. by the end of the PlAy, the Audience
  10. 10. “To be or noT To be…” (william ShakeSpeare)  The Tragic proTagoniST muST aSk The firST and laST of all queSTionS: whaT doeS iT mean To be?     he muST face The world alone and kick againST hiS faTe.     he can never eScape hiS faTe, buT he will inSiST upon accepTing faTe on hiS own TermS.
  11. 11. did you know?  Tragedy waS aT iTS heighT in greek SocieTy when The SocieTy waS aT iTS heighT.  comedy—an ouTleT for The fruSTraTionS of SocieTy—waS moST popular during The decline of The greek governmenT.
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