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Fuel cell from bio gas

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  • One of the cleanest forms of power generation, the PureCell® fuel cell solution from UTC Power will use clean, quiet fuel cell technology to generate 400 kW of electric power using natural gas as input fuel. In a fuel cell, no fossil fuel combustion takes place. This clean energy solution easily meets the most stringent emissions requirements in the world. The only byproduct of the process is heat, about 1.7 MMBtu/hour (or about 500 kilowatts), that can be easily harnessed to provide space heating or domestic hot water, or with the addition of an optional absorption chiller, can produce about 50 tons of cooling.
    A key feature of this product is its 20-year life which is more than twice any other competitor in the marketplace. It’s high electrical efficiency (42% at beginning of life) remains high even at part loads down to 50%. Its ability to operate either in conjunction with the utility grid or without it is a critical feature that enables your facility stay powered up if the grid fails. This feature is called “dual-mode” capability. This high-efficiency system is well-suited for applications requiring anywhere from 400 kilowatts to about 2.5 megawatts of baseload power.
  • Transcript

    • 1. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC 2009 MWEA Biosolids Conference Robert J. Remick, PhD March 4, 2009 Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas
    • 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Wastewater Treatment Plants • WWTP operators are looking for opportunities to utilize biogas as a renewable energy source. • Majority use biogas through boilers for reheating • Interest is growing in distributed generation, especially where both electricity and fuel costs are high. • Drivers for the decision to purchase fuel cells – Reliability – Capital and O&M costs – Availability of Government Incentives
    • 3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas • Anaerobic digestion is a process used to stabilize wastewater sludge before final disposal. • The process uses microorganisms in the absence of oxygen to convert organic materials to biogas. Range of Biogas Compositions Methane 50% – 75% Carbon Dioxide 25% – 50% Nitrogen 0% – 10% Hydrogen 0% – 1% Sulfur Species 0% – 3% Oxygen 0% – 2%
    • 4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future WWTP Co-Gen Market • There are over 16,800 WWTP in the U.S. • 615 facilities with flows > 3 mgd that use anaerobic digestion • 215 do not use their biogas but flare it instead. • California has the highest number of municipal facilities using anaerobic digestion, about 102, of which 25 do not use their biogas.
    • 5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Case Study: City of Tulare Facility size: 11.5 million gallons per day Biogas generated: 600,000 SCF per day Fuel cells: Three 300-kW units from FCE Gas cleanup: Applied Filter Technology Startup: September 2007 Total Cost: $7 million State & Federal Incentives: $4.05 million Cost to City: $2.95 million Payback Period: 4.5 years
    • 6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Fuel Cell Value Proposition • Increased energy efficiency – 42% to 47% net electrical efficiency – Cogenerate heat to offset natural gas purchase – Combined electric + heat ≈ 80% efficient • Emissions savings – Low NOx and SOx – 40% lower GHG emissions compared to grid • High availability and reliability – Single unit availability > 97% – Multiple unit availability exceeds five 9’s.
    • 7. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Fuel Cell Products • There are two U.S. manufacturers with a track record for supplying fuel cell power plants for use with anaerobic digesters gas. • FuelCell Energy, Inc. (Molten Carbonate Technology) – Danbury, Connecticut – Power Plants Sizes: 300 kW, 1.4 MW, and 2.8 MW • UTC Power, Inc. (Phosphoric Acid Technology) – South Windsor, Connecticut – Power Plant Size: 400 kW
    • 8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future UTC Power PureCell® Model 400 * LHV at beginning of life ** with overhaul at end of year 10 • 400-kW electric output • Natural gas/ADG • 42% electrical efficiency* • 1.7 MMBtu/hr heat output (60°C) • Up to 85% system efficiency • Meets CARB 2007 standard • 20-year powerplant life** • Modular approach for MW-size applications New Product
    • 9. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future FuelCell Energy DFC 1500 • 1.4-MW electric output • Natural gas/ADG • 47% electrical efficiency* • 2.7 MMBtu/hr heat output at 60°C (0.5 MMBtu/hr at 300°C) • Up to 74% system efficiency • Meets CARB 2007 standard • 20-year powerplant life** * LHV at beginning of life ** with overhaul at end of year 5
    • 10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Analysis: 30 MGD WWTP serving 300,000 Technology UTC PAFC FCE MCFC Micro- turbine Recip. engine Capacity supported by bio-gas* 880 kW 1,100 kW 570 kW 470 kW Energy produced MW-hr/yr 7,700 9,150 5,000 4,110 Capital costs $/kW (current) $4,500 $4,300 $3,840 $2,870 Capital costs (promised) $1,500 $2,500 110 million SCF/year of biogas (Reference 1) Without incentives * Assumes full use of bio-gas without regard to generator unit size
    • 11. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future What’s Next? Tri-Generation DFC Power Plant Electrical Output [kW]* Hydrogen Produced [lbs/day] Vehicles Supported at 1GGE/day DFC-300 250 kW 300 ~130 DFC-1500 1000 kW 1,200 ~540 Heat, Hydrogen, & Electricity On-Site * Note: H2 is produced at the expense of electricity production efficiency.
    • 12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future H2 at WWTP can promote the fuel cell vehicles. H2 can be used on-site for fueling a municipal vehicle fleet or can be offered for sale to the public.
    • 13. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts Are Here Now Hydrogen fuel cells are a viable, cost- effective solution for material handling equipment. – Allow for rapid refueling – Provide constant power during use – Eliminate need for space for battery storage and chargers Fuel Cell Forklifts are in place today. – Chicago-based Central Grocers announced purchase of 220 fuel cell lifts from Plug Power in 12/08. – DoD’s Defense Logistics Agency is beginning a three-year fuel cell forklift pilot project that will place 100 fuel cell lifts in four distribution centers.
    • 14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future DOE has issued an RFI seeking input in five topic areas for future RD&D. 1. Early Fuel Cell Market Applications with High Volume Potential 2. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Systems and Public-Private Community-Based Partnerships 3. Using Biogas and Fuel Cells for Co-Production of On-Site Power and Hydrogen 4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Fuel Cell Systems 5. Using Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Systems to Co-Produce and Deploy Hydrogen to Early Market Customers
    • 15. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Summary Conclusions • Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation. • With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved. • Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H2 infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment. • DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.
    • 16. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future References Cited Reference 1 “Analysis and Opportunity for Fuel Cell Application at Data Centers and Wastewater Treatment Plants,” Mahadevan, K.; Judd, K.; Boczek, B.; Leibrand, A.; and Sommer, A. Presented at the 2008 Fuel Cell Seminar, Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2008.