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Innovative technologies in agriculture and rural development Innovative technologies in agriculture and rural development Document Transcript

  • Innovative Technologies in Agriculture and Rural Development LIVOLINK FOUNDATION BHUBANESWAR
  • Preface and Acknowledgement Agriculture and rural development are few of the sectors where a system approach toinnovations has been least applied for several reasons. Institutional barriers and the perceiveddistance between research and practice meant that, in many countries including India,farmers’ knowledge and practices has only insufficiently been taken into consideration asa possible source of innovation. Much of what has to be done for rural development is made difficult by thecomplexity of the systems in which we intervene. Many interventions may appear relativelystraight-forward, maybe routine or programmable. However, the challenge lies in thejudicious application of such interventions according to the contextual applicability for aparticular target area or masses. For advancing local collective action towards up-scaling various technologicalinnovations in the development sector, we felt the ardent need to bring out a consolidateddocument on select innovations undertaken by civil society organizations, rural communitiesand research agencies from various parts of the country. We strongly believe that the onlyway India can sustain its long-term economic growth is by unleashing and harnessing thecreativity of its grassroots innovators especially in rural areas. The challenge is however,in the fact that grassroots innovations don’t scale up. Indeed most rural innovations andinitiatives however impressive they maybe – are sadly limited in their impact to a local andregional level and end up in augmenting the economic status and livelihoods of a limitedsegment of the poor and rural people. This document is brought forward to facilitate a mechanism to cross-pollinate andscale-up these bright and innovative ideas for subsequent attention of Government, policymakers, research institutions, donor agencies, scientists, academicians and others towardsenabling wider replication of such innovations in our country. We express our heartfelt gratitude and acknowledge the work initiated by variouscivil society organizations, NGOs and research agencies on innovative technologies. Thisdocument is a compilation of initiatives and cited experiences drawn from selected initiativesof NGOs and other agencies on such innovations. These constitute the reflections presentedin this document on Innovative Technologies for Agriculture and Rural Development. Anibrata Biswas Livolink Foundation
  • Foreword Dr Sanjiv Phansalkar Programmes Leader Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and Allied Trusts Mumbai, India As population pressure rises and land man ratio becomes adverse in wider areas of the country, theproblem of sustaining rural populations will become more and more pressing. Social safety nets of theentitlements type offer politically attractive solutions to this problem though given our track record theirefficacy in alleviating the miseries of the resource poor will remain in question. Even if social safety nets areoffered well, two questions will still need to be answered well. The first is how does one ensure that resourcesare protected and enhanced. The second is finding gainful ways of engaging and channelizing energies of thepeople. Hence it is important to find new ways of helping the resource poor manage their meager resourcesin ways that are profitable to them and sustainable in the long run. The solutions to these questions will varyacross regions and places given the diversity in conditions that prevails in the country. This booklet offers a collection of various methods of addressing these three issues: the incompletelyanswered food security question, the meaningful engagement for livelihoods activities question and theresource sustainability question. These provide interesting and useful mechanisms for solving practical problemsfacing millions of resource poor people across the country. The booklet is a narration of the methods and their possible gains. The development community wouldprofit by experimenting and piloting the methods that appear relevant in the local context. Future work onthis issue needs to be focused on three different dimensions: Techno-economic validation of these methods. Specification of the conditions under which the methods will be found to be most effective. Identification of methods for extending these innovative methods to possible users who live in the appropriate conditions. While one remains optimistic, here is a somber note. Virtually none of these methods need inputswhich are to be provided by an external economic actor. This appears to be a good news but only on surface.For, unless there is a strong economic motive in spreading an innovation, efforts to take it to scale suffer.Our society has not learnt to solve problems which are merely important but not commercially promising.
  • ContentsTree Based Farming Systems in Arid Regions 1Landless Garden 5Promotion of Low Cost Kitchen Garden 7Scaling up Mariculture 11Up-scaling Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties in Flood Prone Areas 22Gravity Flow Irrigation 24Integrating Poor into Marketing Systems 27Khaichum 29Machan Vidhi 32Up-scaling Innovative Technologies on Rain Water Management 34
  • Tree Based Farming Systems in Arid Regions This innovation has been undertaken by Bhartiya Agro Industries Foundation (BAIF)Core of the activity Nearly 70% of the geographical area of India is dry land, under three main categories: arid, semi-aridand dry sub humid. The arid zone lies between 24° and 29° N latitude, and 70° and 76° E longitude.Covering an area of around 35 million hectares (ha) spread over seven states—Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab,Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra—the arid zone constitutes around a sixth of thecountry’s area. Deserts in Rajasthan (20 mn ha) and Gujarat (6.2 mn ha) account for over 80% of the aridzone of the country. Desertification, which is described as “land degradation in arid, semiarid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities”, under theUnited Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), is a major problem in dry lands ofIndia, especially in the north-western parts of the country. The desert ecosystems poses a major development challenge as climato-vegetational factors result in avery poor natural resources base. The region is characterized by low and erratic precipitation (155- 350mm/yr), sandy terrain and sparse vegetation. High wind and solar regimes increase the effect of rainfall variability.Sand dunes are the dominant landform. The entire ecosystem is highly fragile and a small disturbance maycause great and irreversible loss. Drought is a recurring phenomenon and extreme temperature and loss of water through evaporation iscommon. In the face of these obstacles, subsistence agriculture is practiced, mostly irrigation. Traditionalanimal husbandry and agro-forestry practices are the major livelihood activities. Traditional watershedmanagement (run-off farming) and rainwater harvesting (through structures like tankas and kunds) are themain technologies used. Some silvi pastures are developed and protected near holy places. In general, the soilhas low organic content. Accumulation of soluble salts or carbonate minerals just below the surface makesthe soil more alkaline. Animals are an essential part of the production system. Generally, goat and sheep are reared on theavailable scanty grass and native tree leaves. Permanent pastures are highly degraded and neglected. Many ofthese pastures do not have any basal plant cover. Increased grazing pressure has led to disappearance ofmany species and decline in biomass yield. In the absence of any other alternatives for livelihood generation, migration is adopted as a copingstrategy by desert communities. Most of the men migrate and women who stay in villages face a difficult lifedue to scarcity of water, fuel and fodder. The desert economy is thus increasingly characterised by risingnumber of migrants and decreasing socio-economic opportunities based on traditional practices. Climatechange is likely to put additional pressure on ecological and socio-economic systems that are already understress, thereby threatening the very survival of the population. Desert districts have a poor health care infrastructure due to lack of communications and road network.High infant and maternal mortality rates, low life expectancy, malnutrition, high prevalence of infectionsand chronic diseases are some of the major health challenges. Recurring droughts, poverty and non-availabilityof health care systems contributes to the complexity of situation.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 1
  • In these circumstances, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate technology solutions, based on athorough understanding of communities and their livelihood systems. Agriculture production and income from livestock in hot arid zones is vulnerable to high inter-annualvariability in rainfall. There is a need to develop a stable, land-based source of income. To meet this need,BAIF is an organization that has piloted the tree-based farming model, known as Wadi. This has beenrecognised as a holistic model of development for backward regions. The core component is plantation of aselected variety of fruit trees in agriculture plots of around one acre, in such a manner that some cultivationof crops is possible till the trees reach maturity and start yielding regular annual income. Multi-purpose treespecies (MPTS), grasses or crops like til are planted near the plot boundaries. After trials, fruits like ber,gunda (Cordia gheraf), date palm and pomegranate can be identified for wadis in the Rajasthan cluster. In theKachchh (Gujarat) cluster, where the problem of salinity is acute, date palm is recommended. Amongstforestry species guggal, an endangered local tree whose gum has good commercial value, has potential forplantation along wadi boundaries, along with MPTS like khejari (Prosopis cineraria). Locally available natural resources can be used for fencing plots and protecting saplings from extreme heat.Cultivation of cucurbits like bottle gourd and ridge gourd along the fencing and fodder grasses are the ones thatcan be cultivated in spaces between fruit trees. Gunda is a small to moderate-sized (up to 5m) deciduous tree witha short trunk and spreading crown. It thrives in sandy soils, in areas with annual rainfall less than 500 mm. Thwberries are used as a vegetable and to make pickles while the sticky pulp is used to make glue.Conserving and promoting Guggal Guggal (Commiphora wightii), also known as mukul in north India, is a slow-growing woody shrub/small tree found in arid and semi-arid zones of India. After growth of 7 years, it has thick branches that yield fragrant oleo-gum resin which has high value in pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Guggal gum is one of the most effective cholesterol-lowering agents available naturally. Owing to its demand in the pharmaceuticals industry, poor propagation through seeds, slow growth and over-exploitation; it has become an endangered species. Conservation andpromotion of guggal in arid regions is thus a big challenge and opportunity.Intervention Package Types of Harsh Arid (like Barmer) Other Arid (like Kutch) Intervention A. Tree Crops 1. Fruit Crops Ber, Pomegranate, Gunda Date Palm, Pomegranate , Sapota, Mango, 2. Forest / Fodder Khejari(Prosopis cineraria), Crops Pilu(Careya arboria)Indian Siris, Sewan(Lasiurus hirsutus), 3. NTFP Crops Rohida(Tecomella undulate), Dhaman(Cenchurus ciliaris L.) Babul, Kumath(Acasia Senegal), Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Neem, Khair, Guggul(Commiphora wightii) Gunda(Cordia dicotoma) B. Agriculture Bajra, Gourds, Moth, Mung Wheat, Brinjal, Lady’s Finger, Tomato, Crops (Kharif), Watermelon, cucurbits, Cowpea Chilly, Guar, Mustard, Isabgol, Cotton, Bajra2 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • C. Water Resource Development 1. Traditional Traditional Tanka with Agor Water Recharge well, Roof top Harvesting System Roof top Harvesting 2. Micro Irrigation System Drip irrigation System D. Livestock Sindh Goat Banni Buffalow, Khader E. Area based Silvipasture development model on Silvipasture development model on treatments community owned pasture lands to community owned pasture lands to address address fodder and fuel wood needs fodder and fuel wood needs of villagers of villagers Basic Principles The basic principle of tree based farming system is to evolve a self sustaining livelihood developmentmodel within the resources of the poor people by utilizing the existing natural resources of the area. Thethrust is laid on developing and then optimally using water resource to support agro horticulture forestryspecies on land adjacent to the communities. Traditional management of the entire arid zone ecosystem iscentered on minimizing the risk of drought in diversified components and in efficiently utilizing scarceavailable natural resources, including agro-forestry products. The sustainability of any development activityto improve livelihoods depends on the degree of synergism with nature, native vegetation, livestock andlocally available inputs. Livelihood development has to blend the traditional systems of farming and waterconservation with new technologies, to promote natural regeneration/rehabilitation of arid zone ecosystemsand create assets for sustainable livelihood. This calls for use of a participatory and multi-dimensional approach.This approach comprises raising of 2/3 suitable perennial species of dry land horticulture crops for generationof sustainable income for the participants. The improved agriculture production should be able to ensurefood security while the forest and forage plantations will provide the requisite fodder and to a certain extentthe fuel need of farmers. To address the water scarcity problem including drinking water, establishment ofrain water harvesting structures can be envisaged.Economic analysis Cost of establishment of one unit Wadi (One Acre with 50 fruit plants) Sl No Particulars Cost (Amount in Rs.) 1 Fruit tree plantation (For 3 years) 16400 2 Drip irrigation for fruit trees 5000 3 Forestry plantation 1000 4 Vegetable production in wadi 1000 5 Irrigation support (For 3 years) 10200 Sub Total 33600 6. Water resource development activities Rainwater harvesting + agor/Rooftop connection 41575 7. Goat Intervention 500 Grand Total 75675 Assuming a maintenance cost of Rs 5000.00 for two years, the total cost up to 5 years works to be Rs80675.00 say Rs 81000.00.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 3
  • Benefit: Average Income from One unit of Wadi (50 Plants )+other interventions (Amount in Rs)Particulars 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th Year 5th year Total Income Income Income Income (Projected Income in Rs in Rs in Rs in Rs Income in Rs in Rs)Income from fruit 0 0 10000 20000 30000 60000Income from the Leavesof the Trees 0 00 500 1250 2500 4250Income due to Savingsof Man days forcollecting water 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 15000Other Income1. Vegetable2. Agriculture 500500 600500 700500 700 700 320015003. Goat Intervention 0 0 3000 3000 3000 9000Total Income 4000 4100 17700 27950 39200 92950 Benefit Cost Ratio works out to be 1.14 A steady flow of income of Rs. 39200/- per annum will be expected from 5 th year onwards for next 20 years.Constraints for up scaling/Risk in up scaling Hostile agro climatic conditions: Scarcity of water, poor soil condition, environmental hazards Inadequacy of extension support Non availability of quality planting material and manure Inadequacy of skilled /experience human resources Limited availability of post-harvest technologies for Ber spp. Under developed forward linkages4 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Landless Garden This innovation has been undertaken by Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP)Core of the Activity The main focus of the activity is on Integrated Agriculture development for generating sustainableincome of the families through Landless garden and Kitchen Garden promotion with the most vulnerableand disadvantaged community in their backyard of their house. This would entail capacity building of poorfamilies promoting landless garden to grow different seasonal vegetables to cater to their own consumptionfor ensuring balanced nutrition for the whole family especially the women and children and enabling themto access nearby markets to sell their surplus produce to sustain the economic gain without disturbing thefamily livelihood cycle.Basic Principles In today’s scenario the type of people we are targeting in most developmental schemes or programmes are not consuming any vegetables in their daily diet. Mostly they buy potato and onion from the market with limited use to major vegetables. Due to this the health status of the children and the women are very poor. Such initiatives are suited to ensure nutritional security and then to sell the surplus produce to earn some money for their family. One could produce one’s own vegetable requirements in the backyard using available freshwater as wellas the kitchen and wastewater. This will not only facilitate prevention of stagnation of unused water whichwill be hazardous to health through environmental pollution, but can be useful for successful production ofone’s own requirement of vegetables. Cultivation in a small area facilitates the methods of controlling pestsand diseases through the removal of affected parts and non-use of chemicals. This is a safe practice, whichdoes not cause toxic residues of pesticides in thevegetables produced. The average land holding of farmers in many regions is very low almost 1 ha. This coupled with high soil submergence due to heavy flood in the rainy season and limited financial capital has led to poor agricultural productivity and a high rate of migration. Many farmers and families in rural areas are land less; all they have is a small patch of land in the Vegetables grown in landless gardenInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 5
  • back yard which remains fallow. These people generally are agricultural or unskilled labour. Therefore, the activities we are proposing are with these segments of families. The aim is to cater to those families focusing upon the women and the old aged people who remain in the house and can supervise the landless garden, kitchen garden without hampering the earning of their household (which may come from labour work or migration of the adult males). In addition, after the smoothening of production cycle the families can be motivated to go for agriculture to earn their livelihood by taking leased land.Economic analysis Promoting four bags per family as a package can be considered at the outset. This is because two bagsfor self consumption and two for the market to earn additional income for the family. This number can beincreased depending upon the space available. The economics of four bags are as follows:Input Cost:- Vermicompost (5 kg/bag @Rs5/kg) - Rs 100.00 Zyme (50 g/bag @Rs35/kg) - Rs 14.00 Seed (3 varieties of seed) - Rs 10.00 Labour Cost (0.5 day) - Rs 60.00 Total Input Cost - Rs 184.00Output :- 3 plants in a bag Total 12 plants in four bags Production from 4 bottle gourd plants - 60 pcs @1.5 kg per Pc @Rs4 per Kg - Rs 1440.00 Production of 4 bitter gourd plants - 5kg per plant @ Rs8 per kg - Rs 160.00 Production of 4 smooth gourd plants - 10 kg per plant@10 per kg - Rs 400 Total value of produce - Rs2000.00 Net Profit – Rs 1816.00 Crop cycle - 3.5 months So out of the total production the family consumes half of the produce and sells the rest half in the localmarkets. There is an additional income of Rs 900 to the family in addition to their regular sources oflivelihood.Constraints for up scaling/Risk in up scaling As this is a new method of vegetable cultivation, so for the first cycle proper handholding is needed. There may be families with whom this activity is being implemented who are not farmers and hence having no/little knowledge about the vegetables crop. Germination of seed is sometimes a problem. Advice and suggestions for pesticide application for pest attack is difficult to control.6 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Promotion of Low Cost Kitchen Garden This innovation has been undertaken by AVDRC – The World Vegetable CentreCore of the activity Under nutrition is a serious problem in India; Forty percent of the world’s malnourished children and35% of the developing world’s low birth weight infants live in India and these micronutrient deficienciesoften go unnoticed despite their insidious effects on the immune system, growth, and cognitive development.Micronutrient deficiencies have been referred to as “hidden hunger” and include iodine deficiency disorder,iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency. Per capita per day vegetable consumption in India is 130gwhich is far below recommended levels of 300g by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Mostpeople subsist on cereals based starchy staple-diets lacking in diversity, which contribute to micronutrientdeficiency and result in severe diseases, especially in young, pregnant women and children. The most popularapproaches to address malnutrition are supplementation and food-based strategies, which include nutrition,education, and food fortification. Home gardens/Kitchen garden are one of the most efficient sources ofnutrition for poor families. These gardens make use of spare land, recycled water, and organic wastes fromhome, and add nutritional value and variety to the diet year round. Indigenous vegetables, the cheapestsource of vitamins and minerals, are high value food sources for the poorest families and can be incorporatedin home gardens.Basic Principles Basic principle to design the home garden is to improve production and increase consumption ofdiversified vegetables round the year. The model is suitable for a plot size of 6 x 6 m. The plot has fivelongitudinal blocks (6 m long and 1 m wide) and each longitudinal block is further subdivided into 2 to 3plots measuring 2 x 1 m and 3 x 1 m depending on the crop. Four irrigation channels, each 25 cm wide is dugbetween the blocks. Fields are prepared after two to three ploughing and well-decomposed farmyard manureshould be mixed in the plot area. Twenty-three crops are selected based on location specificity, croppingseasons, nutritional availability, performance, and family requirement preference. Thirteen cropping sequencesfor the model layout are (Fig. I). Participatory homegarden design, planning, planting, nutritional yield andcontribution of designed home gardens to householddiet content including moisture, ascorbic acid, and betacarotene Protein, vitamin A, iron contents of vegetablesfrom home garden are being measured. Householdsurvey on acceptability of vegetables in home gardenwith designed questionnaires and survey is conductedin selected areas. Modified food practices based onsurvey results in improving nutrient retention andincrease availability and utilization of vegetables.Recipes are designed containing high protein, VitaminA and Iron vegetables based on the recommendations Home garden Moduleand available vegetables in designed home gardens. Training courses on home garden, food and nutrition;and establish community-based training centers are also conducted in target areas.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 7
  • Brief history of the innovation and spread Whatever we call it home, mixed,backyard, kitchen, farmyard, compound orhomestead gardens, family food productionsystems are popular in most of the countriesworldwide. They may be the oldest productionsystem known and their very persistence isproof of their intrinsic economic andnutritional merit. Traditional tropical gardenstypically exhibit a wide diversity of perennialand semi-perennial crops, trees and shrubs, welladapted to local microclimates and maintainedwith a minimum of purchased inputs. Studieson traditional mixed gardens have emphasizedtheir ecologically sound and regenerativecharacteristics, by which they “recreate natural Traditional home gardenforest conditions” and minimize the need for crop management. The dynamic role of home gardening in family nutrition and household welfare must be assessed in thecontext of the wider farming system and household economy. Usually, the functions and output of thehome garden complement field agriculture. Whereas field crops provide the bulk of energy needed by thehousehold, the garden supplements the diet with vitamin-rich vegetables and fruits, energy-rich vegetablestaples, animal sources of protein and herbs and condiments.Experiences: In 2008 the home garden model was established by AVRDC and evaluated on-station at Birsa AgriculturalUniversity (BAU), Jharkhand and Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra (KGVK) Rukka, Ranchi. The weekly andaverage yield of the vegetables grown was calculated from August 2008 to March 2011. The fresh vegetableyield was further used to calculate the nutritional yield and nutritional supplies for a household of fourmembers. The nutrient values of the vegetables were derived from the Indian Council of Medical Researchand United States Department of Agriculture databases. The quarterly average nutritional yields (per personper day) including protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and iron were calculated over one year from August 2008to July 2009, and compared to RDA values. In 2009, the Center’s home garden model was demonstrated by160 farm households; in 2011, approximately 885 Jharkhand households established home gardens based onthe AVRDC model. Thirteen vegetables were grown and harvested in every season in 36 m2 home gardens.The gardens produced an average of 5.10 kg vegetables every week and 266.5 kg per year, providing anaverage of 182 g of vegetable per person daily in a four-member household family. A total of 351 kg freshvegetables were harvested from April 2010 to March 2011 The quarterly nutritional yield (per person per day) for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and iron wascalculated based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Vitamin A and vitamin C supplies were morethan sufficient, and approximately 3/4 of protein and 1/4 of iron requirements were met (Table 1). TheCenter is incorporating high protein legumes and very high iron vegetables in the garden designs anddisseminating improved recipes using these plants to enhance the nutritional value of meals.8 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Table 1: Nutritional yield from home garden vegetable harvest, Jharkhand Protein (g) Beta Carotene (mg) Vit C (mg) Iron (mg) Nutritional yield/year 5348.5 3898 96819.1 9012.3 RDA for a family of four 1287.5 3212 58400 38142.5 % RDA met 73.4 121.4 165.8 23.63 Other activities related to home garden in three years of the project 160 home garden kits along withthe home gardening information were prepared and distributed to the farmers. 2000 home garden kitsincluding five leafy vegetables were distributed to the farmers. Modified food practices including pickling,sauce making, drying were the food processing methods identified for vegetables and detailed processes ofthese were suggested to the farmers in the training programs. Extension material for home gardening andnutrition awareness were prepared and distributed to the trainers and farmers. 529 NGOs field staff, farmers,and household were trained in 30 one day home garden trainings cum demonstration programs joaintlyorganized with the partners at different sites for enhancing home garden vegetable cultivation awareness.There were seven training courses and two field days conducted involving 273 trainers and farmers. Therewere 30 new modified recipes, utilizing home garden vegetables, developed. Modified food practices includingpickling, sauce making and drying were also promoted to farmers in training programs. More than 4,000village members, policy makers, visitors and media persons visited the model home gardens. There were8,000 home garden fact sheets and model posters developed and distributed to farmers.Investments and economic analysis Well-planned, intensive cultivation of vegetables in home gardens can enhance vegetable productivityby 73.9 t/ha compared with average vegetable productivity of 12.7 t/ha in India. To promote home gardens,AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center and partners distributed a total of 160 year-round home garden and2000 winter leafy vegetable kits; the home gardeners were able to produce about 142 t of vegetables worthabout Rs. 15.4 lakh. Although dietary customs are culture-related, new indigenous vegetables can be introducedto diversify diets. Highly nutritious vegetables such as kangkong and basella have been introduced and havebeen accepted and consumed by the farm families. New recipes have been developed to enhance thebioavailability of iron, protein, and vitamins A and C. The number of home gardens increased to 885 in2010-11, which will have the capacity to produce about 214.5 t annually. The potential economic benefits of home gardening, which should be considered in designing gardenprojects and included in project evaluations, include the following: Returns to land and labour are often higher than those from field agriculture; Gardening gives dual benefits of food provision and income generation; Gardens provide fodder for household animals and supplies for other household needs (handicrafts, fuelwood, furniture, baskets, etc.); Household processing of garden fruits and vegetables (drying, canning) increases their market value and ensures year-round supply; Low-input, low-cost gardening has few “barriers to entry”; Marketing of garden produce and animals is often the only source of independent income for women.Strategies for Upscaling In areas where diets are based on cereals, meat, or spicy crops, promoting vegetable consumption becomesmore difficult. The importance of vegetables contribution to daily nutrient requirements should be promotedInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 9
  • and the healthy diet gardening kits supported to gain wider acceptance among farmers and consumers.Establishments of home gardens on a large scale can help improve year-round vegetable production; ensuringnutritious vegetables are available to the smallholder farmers and poor households. Training provided toscientists, extension workers, and farmers will encourage the adoption of new technologies and home gardeningskills for enhanced vegetable productivity in the region. Overall, the interventions in this project will helpthe people of Jharkhand achieve nutritional security, and provide an additional source of income to poorfarmers. In another five year, the program can be implemented in other areas of Jharkhand as well as otherstates of country. The following strategies are required for upscaling the home gardens: Work should be done in areas where households have some experience with home gardening; build on traditional methods to enhance household food security. Using a group approach and select village leaders for technical training. Integrating nutrition awareness and education into garden planning. Involving whole families in garden planning and management, and especially women in the distribution of garden harvests and income generated. Flexibility with respect to choice of species and cropping patterns, encouraging diversity and use of locally adapted varieties. Encouraging reliance on local materials for soil, water and pest management and on household or community seed production; minimize “giveaways”. Monitoring the project for regular feedback and fine-tuning of training and other needs.Constraints for upscaling/Risk in upscaling Non availability of water in summer Less attention to home garden during rice season Damage by domestic animals and poultry Less availability of quality open pollinated variety seeds Lack of seed production technique and storage. Shifting / discontinuation of home garden according to season10 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Scaling up Mariculture This innovation has been undertaken by Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell (CSPC)Core of the activityConcept of lobster fattening The spiny or rock lobsters (Panulirus spp.) are marine crustaceans (shellfishes) commonly found inrocky shores and grow up to a body length of 60 cm. The dominant and most widespread species of thePacific is the golden rock lobster. Other common species are the painted lobster, the striped leg lobster andthe ornate lobster. Eight species of spiny lobsters, six shallow water species and two deep-sea species and thesand lobster contribute to lobster fishery of India. The shallow water species are: P. homarus, P. ornatus, P.polyphagus, P. pencillatus, and P. versicolor and P. longipes).Background of related initiativesInitiation of Fishery Groups People’s Learning Center for Livelihood Security and Disaster Mitigation for Coastal Communities(PLC)- has been an organization whose intervention in the fisheries sector begun in 2004, when an initialsurvey was carried out to assess the dependency on fishing as a livelihood. A training programme in Victorvillage followed this where 58 people came forward for a two-day training. The people were all from theVaghri community, which is not a traditional fishing community but its members are adept at catching smallwildlife and many were practicing sea-shore fishing, albeit without legal permits and without properequipment. After the training, 32 people decided to come together to set up a self help group on a cooperativebasis. 21 of these were involved in temporary fishing while 2 to 3 were practicing fisheries on a regular basis.Due to poor catch and harassment by local authorities most of these people were unable to make a livelihoodout of fishing and had to migrate to survive.The cooperative made it possible for them to: - Gain legitimacy by procuring license for seashore fishing catch and sale. - Access loans to buy fishing nets - Get technical guidance from PLC’s resource-persons as well as from Fisheries Department to carry out sustainable and profitable fishing. - Get a better price for their produce in the marketFishing intervention and its impacts On the suggestion of PLC team, several changes in the fishing methods and norms were made whichbegan to bear fruit in terms of increased productivity and income on a sustainable basis. Where the dailyincome from fishing was Rs. 30-50/- before, now it has increased to about Rs. 70-80/- per day. On anaverage, a family began to earn an additional Rs. 1000/- month and as a result, migration levels began tocome down. Soon more villages began to join the movement and by the beginning of 2008 there were 21groups. The group has been registered in the name of Matsagandha Sarvangi Vikas Sanstha as a public trustand Society.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 11
  • Genesis of Lobster fattening and other mariculture opportunities While working with the fisheries groups, the PLC team encouraged them to be innovative and makesmall experiments. At Akhtariya (as also other villages), there was a tradition of using small pits to store fishfor a few days (say 10-15) and then sell them in order to get the right price. PLC team recalled that during anexposure visit to Hindustan Lever at Chennai they had seen experiments on lobster fattening which wasproposed to the people. This resulted in the development and standardization of the pit culture method forlobster fattening. The species of rock lobster found here is Panulirus homarus. The pits were made in softrock on the seashore where the pits were flushed regularly by tidal water. Pits of small size (virdas) as well aslarger sized tanks were made to find out the best option. At Chanch Bawadiya there are many creeks. The Creekspeople used to carry fish and lobster in bags made ofnet and keep them for a while before marketing. PLCteam asked Bachubhai Verabhai, one of the membersto put some juveniles in a net bag and tied it in acreek. After three months the lobsters had grownfrom 50 gm to 70 gm. And after another two monthsthey became 150gms in weight, making themmarketable. However, predators had damaged thelegs of the lobsters, which affected their market value.The experiment paved the way for developing thecage method and standardizing the culture procedures. The cages were made of bamboo sticks and nylonnets were tied in two or three layers around the bamboo structure. In the same way, crab-culture was also initiated recently and the results are very promising. Althoughcrabs fetch a lower price than lobsters, they are less prone to the kind of production risks faced by the latter.These experiments/trials and their outcomes are discussed in more detail in the next section.Basic principlesSeed (juvenile) collection Juveniles are not easily available everywhere. The natural habitats are usually located in areas, whichhave soft rock bottom - lobsters avoid clayey and silty bottoms. Juvenile seed material is available during thetwo monsoon months of July and September. The seed material collected thus can be stocked in pits untilmid October when the first cycle begins. Catching lobster juveniles is a specialized job and 2-3 members of the mandal can specialize in it. Juvenilesare best caught with Japan disco net of gauge 3" x 3". Such nets are costly, and last only for a month, but thecost can be recovered in one day itself because marketable lobsters would also be caught along with thejuveniles. At current prices, the net costs Rs. 500/- for every 200 ft. The cost of total length of net requiredwould be about Rs. 2000/-. In Bhavnagar area, these nets are easily available in the Rajual market. Juvenile lobsters can also be bought from other fishermen who do not belong to a mandal and who arehappy to sell their produce at a lower cost in order to get immediate cash.Site selection Lobsters are sensitive to certain environmental factors. Hence care should be taken to ensure that suchfactors are favourable in the chosen site. The following criteria may be used for selecting a suitable site: i) The first and foremost condition is to look for soft stone areas where tidal water is 2-3 feet deep. Stony areas with sharp edges should be avoided as this will make it difficult to clean the pits and to12 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • move about in the mariculture site. The site should be level as far as possible. Care should be taken to ensure that there are no hollows in the stone site and that there are no sweet water aquifers beneath. Sometimes if sweet water finds its way through the hollows, it can adversely affect the salinity levels and cause mortality. Muddy water should be avoided at all costs. ii) Tidal waves should be coming on the site two times a day. Ideally the salinity level of the water should not exceed the range of 24 to 28 ppt. Areas where salinity of the water can fluctuate beyond this range should be avoided. Sites, which are inundated with sweet water currents, should be avoided. iii) In case the pits are located above the level of the tidal water, arrangements should be made to pump water into the pits and drain out water from the lower end. About a fourth of the water should be changed once in every three days. iv) Lobsters are very sensitive to temperature. The temperature should be between 18-20 degrees centigrade. In summer if the tidal water is hot their metabolism gets affected. Wet sacks can be placed on top of the pits in summer to prevent the water in the pits getting hot. Sites, which are frequently inundated with hot water currents, must be avoided. Sites with black stone should be avoided as these can get heated up more quickly. v) If a dungra or bet (small raised islet on the coast) is selected care should be taken to avoid the side facing the sea, as this side tends to get muddy. vi) The pH of the water should ideally be 7.5 and can range from 7 to 8. The pH gets affected also when sweet water flows come into the creeks or pits, especially during monsoon. vii) Areas with high predator population should be avoided to minimize loss of juveniles to predators and damage to the nets - in case of cage method. viii) Avoid sites where the water current is too strong to cause damage to the pits or cages. ix) Some times people may select a site that is difficult to access so that it is not vulnerable to damage / sabotage by other human beings. But this could also make it difficult to attend to the routine work related to husbandry of the lobsters. x) While selecting a creek for cage culture, care should be taken that there are no river flows in the creek or that saltpans are not located upstream as the latter release rainwater from their pans in monsoon. Very small creeks (with water flows of only 1 ft deep) should be avoided, as these will bring in mud or hot water flows. xi) Creeks, which have a high load of seaweeds, are generally not preferred for cage culture as this can mean more labour for keeping them clean. However, if the weeds can be converted into vermicompost, as done in other parts of coastal India that can serve as an additional source of income.Preparation of pits / tanks i) Although the size of pits can vary, two sizes have been found to be useful. The “virdas” are small pits of dimension 8’ x 6’ x 3’. The virdas must be spaced out to allow enough space for movement between them – say about 5 feet. The layout would depend on the shape of the available site. The large pits or tanks with dimension 20’ x 30’ x 5’ have also been tried. The borders of these tanks are made firm with a cemented stonewall about one foot in height. The pits are located at lower levels where the tidal water flushes take place two times a day. Hence the dissolved oxygen and nutrients flow in naturally. In the case of the tanks an outlet with a valve is located at the lower end from where the lower muddy water can be drained out. Provision for pumping in fresh seawater must be made. The pump needs to be located on a pedestal and protected from tidal water.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 13
  • ii) Pits are made with hand tools, since the rock is soft. Often the time available between tides is less and the time available during a given day for digging may be only a couple of hours. This implies that more number of people may be needed in order to accomplish the work in stipulated time. iii) In the sides of the pits, small holes of half a foot are made so as to provide a hiding spot for the moulting lobster. Heaps of loose stones on the bottom of the pit can also serve the same purpose. iv) The pits must be covered with nylon nets that prevent the lobsters from being taken away by tidal waters. The nets must be fastened in such a way that the force of the water does not easily remove them. If the nets open up, not only can the fattened lobsters be lost, but predators can also enter the pits and cause harm to the stock. v) The entire site should be cordoned off so that it is not affected knowingly or unknowingly by any other human activities.Recommended practices for pit culture Preparation of pits i) Only male juveniles are used for lobster fattening. The seed consisting of male juveniles should first be stocked in a separate pit. The seed can be stocked for the entire year. About half the seed will be used in the first round of 4-5 months. The other half will remain in the stocking pit without growing. After five months they can be removed and used in the next cycle for grow out. ii) The pits should be prepared first by cleaning them. The tidal water should be allowed to wash the pit at least twice. The quality of water should be tested on all the various parameters like pH, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (only in case of tanks where fresh water does not enter twice a day). iii) Stocking density – Juveniles should be stocked in such as way that each lobster gets 2.5 sq ft of floor space of the pit. In the case of cages, the stocking density can be 1.25 times that of pit method. For a cage of size 6’ x 3’ about 7-8 lobsters is optimum. iv) Juveniles of the same weight and size should be kept together so that they all undergo moulting at the same time as far as possible. Due to cannibalism, large lobsters may feed on small ones or on ones that are in the moulting stage. For the same reason, moulting lobsters should be placed in a separate pit.14 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • v) The quality of seed should be checked before releasing into the pits. The tail should not be damaged in any way. The seed should be disease free. The incidence of disease so far has been rare, but elsewhere certain fungal and bacterial diseases are reported due to over-stocking. vi) The pits must be cleaned once in 3 days and the tanks once in 15 days. The water should be emptied out and filled again after cleaning. To test if the pit needs cleaning other than the routine cleaning, tie a saucer to a string and hang it in water. If it can be seen clearly upto 2 feet in depth the pit does not need cleaning. If the water is murky/ muddy, it needs to be cleaned. vii) During cleaning operations, the lobsters should be removed and placed in another pit. After cleaning the pit, the routine pit preparation should be repeated. Sort out the lobsters based on size, moulting stage etc. and re-start the pit. viii) Measurements of environmental variables must be taken thrice a day (before sunrise, at 12 noon and after sunset) and entered in a logbook. Action may have to be taken to protect the stock from any sudden changes in temperature, salinity or pH values. Periodic weighing of the juveniles is also necessary to monitor the growth in different pits. ix) In order to maintain sanitation and hygienic conditions, it is recommended that only one or two people are designated to do the cleaning work and others should not enter the pits. The use of rubber shoes and gloves is recommended for the same reason. x) Feeding practices: trash fish like chipla (snails); boomla (Bombay ducks) and sundhi jinga (small sized white marine prawns) and undersized boi fish are considered ideal feed material. These are all fish which fetch some market value, but when undersized they don’t get fetch any value and therefore considered trash fish. Other types of trash fish do not lead to good growth and should therefore be avoided. The trash fish should be minced and fed in accordance to the weight of the lobsters. It is recommended that the feed should be about 1/10th of the weight of the lobsters. If excess feed is given, it leads to wastage or indigestion. xi) During stormy weather, protection is needed. The fishermen should ensure that the nets are fastened securely with galvanized nails that do not dislodge or corrode easily. xii) Protection from human interference, pilferage and sabotage is important. Some system of watch and ward may be needed in villages where the social threat is high. Oil spills can affect the cultivation. Sand and silt coming from nearby jetties and ports can create problems. xiii) If any specific experiments are to be carried out to measure the impact of different treatments on growth etc. this should be done in separate pits marked out for the purpose. xiv) The lobster must be alive when taken to the market. Live lobsters fetch a better price in the market. The quality of the lobsters should be checked before placing in the market. Lobsters reddened due to lack of nutrition or oxygen etc may not fetch a good price and must be segregated. They must also be segregated by weight since price is fixed according to weight and size of the lobster.Preparation of cages i) The structure of the cage can be made from any salt-tolerant wood material. Bamboo sticks (Dendocalamus strictus) can easily be procured at a reasonable price and used for the purpose. In selecting this material sticks with smaller inter-nodes should be preferred. Unlike the larger bamboo species, microorganisms in the water do not attack this variety. Approximately 10-12 bamboo sticks are needed to prepare a cage of size 6’ x 4’ x 3’. The cage has a rectangular base and tapers towards the top so that seaweeds and other material would not cling to it and it would not be broken easily due to wave action of water.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 15
  • ii) The fishermen can themselves prepare the Nylon nets cage with or without the help of a local carpenter. It is recommended that the poles be fastened together with nails made from bamboo splinters instead of using metal nails, which may corrode in the water. The approximate labour for making one cage at current prices is Rs. 200/-. iii) Once the structure is ready, it must be covered with nylon nets of 20 mm mesh. At least two layers of net, each separated from the other by a distance of 1-1.5" is recommended. This is because predators like crabs can cut through the nets and attack the juvenile lobsters in the cage. Sometimes snake like predators also get in through holes when the cage gets damaged. The mesh of the two layers should criss-cross each other so that snake like predators would get stuck in them. iv) A small round feeding gate is made at the top end of the cage by cutting the net. It should be large enough for a human hand to go through and should be stitched together each time after feeding operations.Recommended practices for cage culture i) The cage should be placed in a suitable site in a near-by creek. It should be fastened or anchored down with the help of a large boulder or a heavy log. ii) It should be submerged at least 75% but should not lie on the bed of the creek, which is bound to be muddy and where predator attack is likely to be high. iii) About 7-8 cages can be stocked in a cage of the size mentioned above. The first cycle starts from mid October and takes about 4-5 months. iv) The cages should be inspected regularly to see if any predators have attacked, to repair the nets of the cages, to clean it from seaweeds and silt. v) The same trash fish mentioned for pit culture should be fed through the feeding hole in the same proportion mentioned earlier. However, since fresh water is continuously passing through the cage, it brings natural feed into the cage, which can also sustain the lobsters. Hence even if the fisherman misses feeding on a particular day because of some urgent commitment, the lobsters would not be adversely affected. vi) Watch and ward of the cages and constant vigilance to check the salinity and temperature of the water are important factors for success.Equipment for monitoring environmental variables The following equipments are required for measuring the variables mentioned earlier: i) Refractometer, which can measure salinity ranging from 0 to 100 ppt. ii) Litmus paper strips to measure pH. If budget allows, a pH meter can also be considered. iii) Thermometer to measure temperature of water. iv) Weighing machine to measure the growth of the juvenile lobsters from time to time.16 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Economic analysis Financial analysis of Lobster Fattening (Pit Method) The financial analysis of lobster fattening as shown below is on the basis of our previous experiences ofthe complete pilots. With more experiences, it will be possible to further minimize risks.Assumptions: Possibility of two lobster fattening cycle in one year One family requires one stocking pit and three fattening pit (each unit size 8 x 6 x 4 feet) 23 juveniles in one pit for fattening with 80% survival rate i.e. 18 lobsters x 3 pits=54 no. of fattened lobsters. In first cycle lobster will weigh 8 kg 100 gm and second cycle lobster will weigh 10 kg and 800 gm (stocking pit converts in to fattening pit in second cycle). Total production: 18 kg and 900 gm Each fattened lobster weigh 150 gm 126 lobster x 150 gm = 18 kg and 900 gm Rate of 1 kg Rs. 600 (conservative price) Particulars Amount (Rs.) Capital cost (includes preparation of pit by breaking rocky terrain, Cement works purchase of nets, ropes and other hardware) 7,460/- Production cost per year (includes cost of feed, lobster juveniles, Water maintenance etc.) 4,924/- Income(from sale of adult lobsters in two cycles) 11,340/- Contribution (towards capital costs, being income less production cost) 6.416/- Break even: since the contribution is enough to cover about 85% of the capital cost the project willeasily break-even after the first cycle of the second year even after taking care of the overhead and marketingexpenses.Constraints for up scaling/Risk in up scaling Risk Assessment and strategies for dealing with themInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 17
  • Table 1: Risk Assessment of Pit culture Method18 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • A similar risk analysis has been carried out for the cage culture method also, which is shown in table 2. Table 2: Risk Assessment of Cage culture MethodInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 19
  • 20 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • It has been noticed that the risks involved in crab fattening are much less. Crabs are less prone topredator attack. However, they are more likely to cut the nets and escape or make burrows in the side of thepits and escape. Regular feeding, slippery sides and other measures are recommended to minimize theserisks. Some general strategies for risk mitigation: A general solution for both the methods for lobster fattening would be to explore the possibility of getting insurance cover for both the stock of lobsters as well as fishermen. Since the economics is attractive, the cooperative/ mandal would be in a position to pay the premium collectively. Apart from that efforts should be made to reduce the period of production cycle from five to four months so that two cycles could be accommodated in a year without running into the monsoon months when the risks are high. This could be achieved through better feeding andculture practices. The use of commercial feed to supplement the trash fish currently being fed could beexplored. Husbandry methods that lead to earlier moulting could also be explored. In one experiment carriedout by the organization, the “moustaches” of 16 lobsters were trimmed. It was noticed that four of theseexperienced early moulting by a month. Also the body weight of treated lobsters was 15 gm more than thatof control lobsters. However, the local people did not find it attractive because the “moustaches” did notgrow again – thus the net weight of the lobsters sold was not significantly different. Such experiments couldlead to breakthrough in reducing the cycle, which is very important from the viewpoint of reducing the riskfactors. In the short run, it is advisable to go for only one cycle so far as the cage method is concerned, sincethe risk factors in the creek are far greater during the monsoon months. Instead, more number of cages canbe placed in the creek to achieve the desired turnover.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 21
  • Upscaling Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties in Flood Prone Areas This innovation has been undertaken by Grameen Development Services (GDS)Core of the activity Now climate change and global warming are widely discussed topics with their own perspectives.However, for agriculture and the farmers, climate change means Erratic rainfall (early, late, below average, more rain within a short span of time) leading to drought, floods and submergence. Shorter rainy and winter seasons, extreme conditions are rampant with sudden changes. (extreme summer and winters are seen and there are rapid changes in the season) In the changing climatic conditions, the stress on the crops is increasing and is resulting into reducedyields or the complete crop losses. Following stress tolerant varieties have been developed by the researchinstitutions and have been field tested with the farmers in the eastern UP and northern Bihar: Submergence Tolerant Rice: Swarna Sub-1, IR-64 SuB-1, Sambha Mussourie Sub-1 (Improved versionreleased by International Rice Research Institute Manila). These varieties give good yield under normalconditions and have tolerance to submergence up to 15-20 days. Drought Tolerant Rice: Sahbhagi Dhan (IRRI), Shuska Samrat (NDUAT Faizabad). Required irrigationis like wheat requires. It can be field tested in rain-fed areas.Basic Principles Climate change and the stress to the Agricultural crops are the reality of present days. Nothing muchcan be done to check the impact of the climate change on Agriculture, overnight. The requirements are thedevelopment, the resilience, the coping capacity and tolerance among the existing crops (particularly cerealsfor food security of poor) through technical innovation (the work being done by the research institutions).The field based social organizations like GDS work for transferring these technologies and practices to theusers and practitioners for contextualization, adoption, up scaling, and provide feedback to the Researchinstitutions. This is the core of this entire effort.Economic Analysis: Cost benefit analysis for these varieties has been worked out to be as follows, based on the above-mentioned yield patterns:22 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Cost of Demonstration Execution in the field is estimated roughly to be as under for a unit of 400farmers in 200 Acres of Land and for a period of 6 months:Particulars (one season Paddy crop-6 months) Unit No. of Unit Total Units Cost (in Rs.)Agriculture Executive Month 6 18,000 108,0008 Barefoot Agriculture Resource Persons(Local- Part time) Person Months 48 1,200 57,600Training to Farmers and Resource persons(LS), organize field days, exposure of otherfarmers to Demo sites etc Lump sum 1 80,000 80,000Subsidized Inputs (One Time) Hectare 200 1,800 360,000Agriculture Experts/ Resource Persons Person days 10 4,000 40,000Operational overheads Lump sum 1 60,000 60,000Grand Total 705,600Strategies for up scaling The possibilities of enhancing the outreach would depend on the resources being put in. However, thestrategies would include the following Varieties should be identified based on the climatic trends analysis in the region with inputs from agriculture experts and progressive farmers. Ensure the availability of quality seed of these varieties through universities or by establishing farmer seed banks. Large-scale demonstrations need to be organized at strategic locations where it can provide visual impact and trigger self-replication. First time field-testing should offer subsidies to the farmer for risk sharing. Training, follow up and regular interaction with agriculture experts will ensure success of the demonstration, which is critical for large-scale adoption. Capable and trained human resources are extremely important for interaction with the farmers and provide timely feed -back and solutions to the problems. In the absence of such an arrangement, it may become a seed distribution programme. Provisions for technology transfer can enhance the effectiveness of such intervention e.g. SRI with these varieties, technical instrument required would be cono-weeder and markers. The process and outcome of such demonstrations should be recorded, analyzed and taken back to the farmers and the research institutions.Constraints for up-scaling: Non-availability of quality seeds may jeopardize the whole endeavour. If the climatic conditions become more erratic and beyond the toleration limit of these varieties, the crops would be then damaged. Competition with Hybrid varieties.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 23
  • Gravity Flow Irrigation This innovation has been undertaken by Sir Dorabji Tata Trust (SDTT) and The Allied TrustsCore of the activity The gravity flow irrigation in our country is mainly of two types: One is to revive the traditional irrigation systems and the second is pipe laid gravity flow irrigationsystem. The most important feature of this system is low-cost irrigation schemes addressing issues of poorand marginal farmers. It emphasizes indigenous simple technology, which can be managed by the community. Revive traditional irrigation system: Generally in almost all the drought / flood prone areas of ourcountry there are traditional irrigation systems that need to be revived in an innovative manner using simplemodern technologies.Ahar Pyne in Bihar and Jharkhand These are traditional water harvesting system to store the rainwater using an earthen bund called aharand the canal to carry irrigation water from this ahar is termed locally as pyne. The pyne irrigates thecommand area of the up streamside ahar and connects to another ahar at the down streamside to store thesurplus water. Thus, it is a network of water bodies to harvest the rainwater and use for irrigation. There are also canals (pynes) directly connected to the rivers that carry water at non-silting non-erodingvelocity that irrigates thousands of hectares in kharif season. The waterlogged areas near the ahar in kharifseason are used for rabi crop like gram and give bumper yield due to the fertile silt that retains the residualmoisture until the harvesting of the crop.Dong in Northeastern states of India Dong is a canal that is connected to a river that draws water from a river for irrigation and drains outwater from the waterlogged areas during flood. Both the sides of the canal are encroached and generally, thecanals are not maintained. Simply cleaning these canals and constructing a sluice gate before it joins the rivercan cater to thousands of hectares benefitting thousands of families. This intervention gets support frommany farmers and opposition from few people who have a stake in the encroached land at both the sides ofthe canal since many years.Pipe laid gravity flow irrigation system This system is used when the source is comparatively at a higher elevation than the command area. Thissystem not only protects kharif and rabi crop but also caters to household water supply and kitchen gardenthroughout the year. This system consists of mainly three components Intake structure Conveyance system Distribution system24 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Intake Structure The intake structure has a sedimentation tank that helps removing in sands and particles which pose athreat to damage the conveyance system. The tank of 3m X 2m X 1m dimension is capable to remove a0.2mm particle with an 80 liter per second discharge. This tank is constructed below the streambed level andcreates barrier of 20cm height above the bed level to divert water into the tank. The construction of thewalls of the tank is done by 1:2:4 CC and RCC slab covered on it. On the top of this tank, below the RCCslab a strainer is placed to obstruct big size particles in to the tank.3X2X1 model Intake StructureConveyance system: The PVC pipe is preferred for conveyance of water for irrigation because of the following reasons. Less costly for low discharge and high head Easy installation by the villagers Long life (100 years) Low maintenance cost Cross drainage works not needed Not damaged by surface operations Runoff does not enter into it It can cross mounds No conveyance loss Economics can be singled outDistribution system The outlets near the crop field use flange outlets and ball valves to control the flow of irrigation water.Sprinkler and drip irrigation can be installed according to the crop and the head availability. Where everpossible water supply to each household in the village is also included for growing kitchen garden to addressthe nutritional need of their family. This water is also used for bathing near their house that reduces womendrudgery because the women of these villages use to go long distance for bathing during summer.Basic principles Few people have individual interests and lack of community mobilization causes non-maintenance oftraditional irrigation systems. Revival of the existing systems is not in practice and needs not only financialInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 25
  • support but also meticulous community mobilization. There is also need of creating such new systems,which requires less investment than any other modern irrigation system. This is an innovation because it is community managed irrigation system using low cost technologiesfor conveyance of water and construction of sluice gates to regulate entry and exit of the water in the canal. Generally irrigation means big dams with canals but the pipe laid irrigation targets small and marginalfarmers mostly ST, SC and OBC community living in undulating terrains from where all the streams startflowing. Mono-crop paddy economy is the main stay of their livelihood that also fails due to frequentdrought. The secondary occupation of these people is NTFP collection and seasonal migration.Brief history of the innovation There has been sporadic effort by few agencies for renovation of traditional irrigation as well as pipelaid irrigation system. However, SDTT and allied trusts have launched a national program to promote thesetechnological innovations for gravity flow irrigation and named it Diversion Based Irrigation program during2008. After that, around 49 NGO partners experienced both revival as well as creation of traditional irrigationsystem and pipe laid irrigation system. This step can be termed as the demonstration of some low costirrigation but the scope for spread is in all the drought-affected districts.Strategies are required for up scaling Revival of traditional irrigation systemcan be done in around 100 districts of ourcountry and in next 5 years, it can be spreadto about 100,000 hectares (Rs. 15,000/Ha). Similarly, in next 5 years pipe laidirrigation in around 100 districts can addressirrigation issues for 500 hectares in eachdistrict. A special emphasis should be givento the hilly undulating districts affected byLeft Wing Extremists. There are 60 LWEdistricts identified by the central Government.The cost would be around Rs 15000 per hafor 50000hactares. Major strategy for up scaling would be Irrigation & household benefitsto sensitise the district officials throughexposures, workshops and trainings to let them believe the concept that low cost irrigation schemes havehigh economic as well as social benefits. Creating a large number of local barefoot engineers through rigoroustraining and exposure is very essential, as the schemes would be implemented in remote areas. Convergenceof these DBI schemes with the existing government programs like NREGA is essential for leveraging.Constraints for up scaling /Risk in up scaling For revival of the existing traditional irrigation system, the main challenge is to convince the individualswho have encroached the canals and the common water bodies. The risks could be of political interferenceand few people-creating disturbances during implementation. In case of pipe laid irrigation system, most ofthe streams are found in the forest areas where the permission from the forest department may be a problemin up scaling. A major constraint is to arrange and provide quality capacity building and identification ofvillage level experts.26 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Integrating Poor Into Marketing Systems This innovation has been undertaken by International Development Enterprises (India) International Development Enterprises (India) started implementing the programme titled IntegratingPoor into Market Systems (IPMAS), with the goal to assist smallholders overcome poverty by removingwater and market constraints and increasing agricultural productivity. Since inception, IDEI has focussed onenabling smallholder farmers overcome the constraint of water by promoting affordable irrigationtechnologies. Over the years it was found that there were farmers who make more additional income thanothers while the technology promoted & its usage by both set of farmers was the same. Research show thatfarmers that were using additional inputs like organic nutrients or those better connected with markets weremaking more money. Taking the cue, IDEI conducted an external evaluation and identified the constraintsfarmers face. Following were the key findings: A thorough analysis of constraints at each market level and in each constraint category will normallyresult in a long and daunting list of market constraints. In order to limit and focus the potential areas ofintervention, constraints are prioritized to identify the “key logs in the logjam” that can unleash growthpotential for large numbers of smallholders. Such leverage points may be found by identifying nodes in thevalue chain where a small number of firms act as intermediaries for large numbers of smallholders, or bytaking advantage of geographic clustering of similar enterprises or production systems, or by identifyingpolicy levers that will remove constraints for many market actors at once. Constraints are ranked andprioritized based on the potential impact on smallholder income and the number of smallholders affected.Based on these findings, framework for implementing the programme was developed.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 27
  • Framework for addressing the key constraints: The programme was implemented with support fromSDTT in 2006 in the state of Orissa in 12 market shedsfor a period of 18 months. The programme was evaluatedand upon getting positive feedback, it was expanded tothe states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in 2008.Strategy and steps Following are the components of programmeimplementation: At the input stage, the focus may be on promotinglow cost affordable technologies to improve water use efficiency. Elements of this strategy include a productfocus, technology development and supply chain development. Depending upon the need of the farmer,technologies can be identified and promoted amongst the farmers. The range of technologies include waterlifting technologies such as bamboo treadle pump, surface treadle pump, pressure pump, rope and washerpump (and their adaptations); water application technologies such as drum kit, bucket kit and customiseddrip irrigation systems. Developing supply chain included identification and establishment of a chain ofmanufacturers, dealers and village based mechanics. At the on farm stage, the focus can be on compiling and documenting information on agriculturalpractices and disseminating them to smallholders. It involved documenting best practices from the fields andpromoting them amongst larger farmer base. These are called Productivity Enhancement Packages. At thisstage, sustainable agricultural practices such as organic farming techniques (vermi-wash, pot manure, magictonic, biodynamic pesticides) were also promoted and a sustainable medium was promoted so that it continuesby promoting entrepreneurship at the grassroots level. Output stage: With the use of organic material and following the tips on increasing the yield, farmerscan increas output/yield. However this in itself does not provide increased additional income, instead sellingthis produce directly in markets will fetch them the money. Therefore, there is a need to connect the farmersdirectly to markets and to eliminate (as much as possible) the middle man. Towards the end, farmers need tobe connected with mechanisms that provide them information on market trends on crops, price and toconduct exposure visits so that they make informed decisions w.r.t price of crops. Finally efforts can bemade to connect the farmers with traders directly so that their capacities to negotiate with the markets andtherefore get best price for their produce. The impact can definitely be result in increased incomes, higher surpluses converting into higherinvestments / savings, reduction in migration and a high level of KAP impacts both about sustainableagricultural practices as well as about market information about vegetables. Experiences indicate that farmers are now growingmultiple vegetables and thus use to get good returns.Thus, efforts are part of a basket of crops suitable forvarious seasons and areas. Introduction of new cropvarieties and package of management practices also leadto improved productivity substantially. Moreover, it isalso revealed that while the technology is user friendlyand does not require much maintenance, one of the majorreasons of for low level of complaints is the centrallymonitored quality assurance programme. This has ledto a successful de-centralisation of manufacturing process. Marketing strategies28 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Khaichum This innovation has been undertaken by Action of Women in Development (AWID) “Khaichum” is a low budgeted locally innovativeinitiative for food and livelihood security in thevillages of North East parts of India. It is a system ofrearing fish in mini ponds dug/constructed in paddyfield. These ponds are called khaichum in Tangkhuldialect of the North East India. The literal meaningof Khaichum is fish bank. Fish is called Khai and Bankis called Chum. Generally the Khaichum are dug andconstructed in irrigated paddy field plots, with sizesranging from (one to one & half {1- 1 ½} Metresside) 2-3 metres or more in circumference with adepth of 1- 1 ½ metre. The shape may be rectangular,square or circular. The circular one is the most Khaichumcommon type; there may be 1-3 such ponds in eachof the plot depending on the size of the plots. Some ponds are walled with stone or pine wood logs wherethe soil of the field is loose. In each of the ponds, logs, stones and small bundle of straw or thatch grass arepiled up on the bottom floor for the fish to take shelter in the water filled ponds.Brief History Since time immemorial, fishes have been an integral part of the food habits of these communities. Fishes are collected from rivers, streams and wet paddy fields. The main species of the fishes found in the rivers of parts of North East are – Nunga, Tharobi, Ngarin, Ngami, Ngamu, Ngamu shangom etc. On the other hand, the rivers of Western & Northern areas are smaller, shallow with wide banks which are suitable for construction of paddy fields. The fishes found in this area are small indigenous fishes like Ngami, Ngakha, prawns and crabs. These smaller fishes migrate to paddy fields and lay their eggs in the fields itself. Therefore,people rear these fishes in their fields by digging ponds and catch the fishes from these ponds instead ofgoing to rivers and streams. These practices have been followed since generations. Nowadays, most households in these areas have started rearing common carps, a species not known tothem in the past. It was only in the late 60’s that this species had been introduced and people have startedstocking them in their fields. Every household, who own paddy field rear this species which they buy fromthe local agents. Poor families who cannot afford to purchase the fingerlings take loan from moneylendersfor purchasing the fingerlings. In these cases the farmers have to give half of the harvested fish to themoneylender.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 29
  • STOCKING AND HARVEST SEASON OF FISH The stocking season for the fingerlings is in the monthof June and July when paddy plantation is over and thebody weight of the fish ranges from 3-5 grams. The fishesare harvested in the month of September – October beforepaddy harvest. There are some people who do not harvest all theirfishes in Sep-October and harvest the remaining fishes inthe month of May or June. thus they are able to harvestfish twice in a year. The body weight of fish harvestedduring this season may attain 900 grams to 1 KG, whereasthe body weight of the fish harvested earlier attains around300 to 500 grams.How to harvest the Fish Generally before paddy is harvested, the water in the paddy field is drained out from the fields, water outlet are fenced with nets, and canal like water passages are made by parting the paddy plants from ponds to water outlets. During the draining process when water level starts decreasing then the fishes swim to the ponds along the water passages. After the water is drained out from the ponds, with a bucket. During the draining process fishes can be seen gasping and jumping which can be caught easily with bare hands, without using a net. Feed and Management Harvesting of fish People in the region do not use chemicalfertilizer, pesticides, weedicides or any other chemical in the field and no special feed is required for thefishes. They feed themselves on insects and other naturally available tiny aquatic plants found in the field.They get plenty of sunlight and water to swim freely. If the water level becomes shallow they swim towardsthe pond and take shelter in the pond. During this process paddy plants are aerated and become healthier.No manpower or technique is required for its management. We need to be careful only when water levelrises during heavy monsoon and fishes do not flush out with overflowing water. Water outlets should beproperly fenced with bamboo, woven nets. Feed and Management30 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Basic Principles 1. Pond should be dug/ constructed in irrigated paddy fields. 2. The perimeter/dykes of paddy fields should be strong and should be high enough to hold water body. 3. The ponds should be constructed during dry seasons ensuring that the walls are not collapse when filled with water. The wall should be strengthened by using stones, logs etc. 4. Use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides or any other chemicals should be avoided. 5. No extra labour and technique is required for management. The only care to be taken is to check water level during heavy rainfall time that fishes does not flush out with water overflow. 6. Water outlets of the field should be fenced properly with bamboo or iron mesh. 7. Inner wall should be strengthened in such a way with stones or pine logs, to avoid soil erosion.Economic Analysis Activities Unit cost Quantity Cost (Rs) Construction of pond 2000 Fingerlings Rs 8 per piece 100 pieces 800 Total Cost (a) 2800 Fish harvesting Rs 150 per Kg 40 Kgs Total selling amount (b) 6000 Profit a–b 4200 Along with this there are some of the indirect benefits as well associated with this intervention. a. Some families preserve dry fishes for their future consumption. In this technology different speciesof indigenous fishes are also harvested along with the common crops. b. These local varieties like Ngamu, Ngakra, Ngakijou, Ukabi, Ngacha etc are marketable. It can bedried, fermented and preserved for future consumption. c. Fish is a wonderful source of nutrients which is required by our body such as carbohydrate forenergy, protein for growing, mineral and vitamin for glowing, fat for body heat.Constraints and Risks - Attitude culture and behaviour of different communities - For low lands it may be risky for stocking common calf, due to frequent flood, but for local varietiesthere will be no problem.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 31
  • Machan Vidhi This innovation has been undertaken by Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN)Core of the activity Creating more space for root growth (for vegetables) Raising machan for proper spreading, flowering and fruiting of plants Collective monitoring, planning and local marketing Trained Community Resource Persons for handholding support Irrigation/WHS/strengthening drainage channelsBasic principles The poorest in the community can betargeted. It enhances monetary returns to theparticipant families. It can be replicated among small andmarginal farmers for regular cash inflow at thehousehold level. Share croppers and landless households canalso benefit from this.Current Investment and Economic Analysis The investment per family varies between Rs 5000/-(Rupees Five thousand only) to Rs 10,000/-(Rupeesten thousand only) depending upon the topography, catchment area and quality of land. Current investment is Rs 7000/-per family (Rs 6000/- on infrastructure and Rs 1000/- on Agricultureintervention including Machan vidhi). The return is in terms of food security (additional gains), nutritionalsecurity and a cash income in the range of Rs 5000/- to Rs 15000/- through machan vidhi vegetables integratedwith root intensification. A group of 30-50 farmers in a village can implement and execute this projectcollectively.Cost of one unit (50 households with 25-30 acres) Sr N. Particulars Amount(Rs) 1 WHS, Command area development 250,000.00 2 One borewell 120,000.00 3 Agriculture intervention 30,000.00 4 Training and capacity building 50,000.00 5 Techno-managerial assistance 50,000.00 Total 500,000.0032 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Thus the investment per family is Rs 10,000.00. This ensures round the year food and nutritionalsecurity with cash income for household needs.Strategies for upscaling Interventions required are: Creating space in market and linking the market with small and marginal cultivators Linking with KVKs and other government departments and banks Creating WHS/irrigation infrastructures to support the interventionsConstraints Non-availability of funds for such investmentsis the major constraints for this initiative. Thegovernment can take up these interventions at alarge scale to address poverty of small and marginal Promoting vegetables through Machan Vidhifarmers. There is no support for small producers from the market. Mandis exclusively for small and marginalfarmers market need to be created in small cities and towns to mainstream these poor households. Thereshould be large-scale skill building of small and marginal farmers on Machan Vidhi integrated with rootintensification methods of vegetables cultivation. These poor farmers need to be organized in groups andwith mutual help and collective efforts they would bring changes in their lives. Vegetable preservationcenters would also help in scaling up these activities, as more small and marginal farmers will join the activities.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 33
  • Upscaling Innovative Technologies on Rain Water Management This innovation has been undertaken by Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural UniversityCore of the activities Appropriate land configurations would provide more efficient in-situ water conservation of erraticrainfall events. Cultivation and sowing across the slope or on contour with opening of furrows enhances theavailability of soil water, fragile tilth soil facilitates favourable soil environment for root growth at initialplant growth period and mulching reduces evaporative loses from the soil surface at the later stages of plantgrowth. Rainwater conservation practices adopted to reduce the loss of soil water through evaporation haverecorded higher yield of rainfed crops. In-situ rainwater conservation practices with specific landconfigurations improves soil porosity, water intake rate and reduces the runoff, where as opening of deepfurrows in between the crop rows during monsoon conserve the stored soil water through decreasedevaporation by reduced capillaries, results in reduced evaporation and act as soil much and increases the timeof runoff concentration. The excess rain water after storage in profile with different land configurations enhances the moisturecontent which can be used during moisture stress period through seepage system of rain water utilization.After the second step, the excess rain water harvested in to the farm ponds constructed in the lowest positionof the catchments from the various part of the operational area. This stored runoff was recycled for the lifesaving irrigations during dry spells of monsoon season and during rabi at deficits moisture situation. Thisenhances the rainwater use efficiency in terms of more crop per drop. The benefits of adoption of the above cultivation practices over traditional practice of cultivation alongthe slope from experiences of Punjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola, are discussed hereafter.Deep cultivation: The soil moisture content was found enhanced by 22.72, 19.14 and 26.93 per cent in cotton sole, soybeansole and intercrop of cotton+soybean (1:2) respectively over shallow cultivation. The yield levels in solecrop of cotton and soybean enhanced by 11.34 and 20.05 per cent respectively. However in intercroppingsystem of cotton + soybean (1:2) the yield of cotton and soybean enhanced by 36.84 and 36.95 per centrespectively over the period of 12 years (1995-96 to 2009-10). Similarly the rain water use efficiency in solecrop of cotton and soybean found enhanced from 0.98 to 1.09 and 1.24 to 1.49 kg/ha/mm respectively.However in intercrop of cotton + soybean was observed enhanced from 0.54 to 0.74 kg/ha/mm in cottonand from 0.81 to 1.11 kg/ha/mm in soybean. From the results it is concluded that deep cultivation gives thebetter performance in terms of enhanced productivity and rainwater use efficiency in sole and intercroppingsystem of cotton and soybean over shallow cultivation.Across the slope cultivation: The soil moisture content enhanced by 5.00 to 45.57 per cent in Cotton, Soybean, Green gram (Mung),Jowar, and Pigeonpea (Tur) and similarly during semi rabi in Sunflower soil moisture content enhanced by9.78 to 35.80 per cent at 15 to 60 cm depth respectively. The yield levels enhanced by 36.00 to 144 per cent inCotton, Soybean, Green gram (Mung), and Hy. Jowar. In intercrop Green gram (Mung) + Pigeonpea (Tur),the yields of Green gram (Mung) enhanced by 80.00 per cent and Pigeonpea (Tur) by 17.64 per cent. Similarlyin Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur), the yields enhanced by 20.83 per cent in Soybean and by 25.00 per cent in34 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • Pigeonpea (Tur)) and in Sunflower during Across the slope cultivation semi rabi the yields enhanced by 25 per cent. Rain water use efficiency (WUE) enhanced from 0.35 – 1.25 to 0.61 – 1.75 kgha-mm-1, in Cotton, Soybean, Green gram (Mung), Black gram (Udid) and Hy. Jowar. In intercrop Green gram (Mung)+Pigeonpea (Tur) the rain water use efficiency enhanced from 0.25 – 0.43 to 0.33 – 0.50 kgha-mm-1 and in Soybean+Pigeonpea (Tur) enhanced from 1.20 – 0.40 to 1.45 – 0.50 kgha-mm-1. In Sunflower during semi rabi rain water use efficiency enhanced from 1.09 to 1.37 kgha-mm-1. The economics in terms of gross monitory return, net monitory return and B:C ratio considering theprevailing market price of in-put and out-put enhanced from 1.19 to 2.15 in cotton, soybean, green gram(Mung), black gram (Udid), Hy.Jowar and sunflower (semirabi). In intercrops of soybean + pigeonpea (Tur)and green gram (Mung) + pigeonpea (Tur). The B:C ratio increased from 1.51 to 1.71 and 1.22 to 1.44respectively. The gross water productivity enhanced from 14.96 to 40.86 Rs ha-mm-1 in cotton, soybean, green gram(Mung), black gram (Udid), Hy. Jowar and sunflower (semirabi). In intercrop of soybean + pigeonpea (Tur)and green gram (Mung ) + pigeonpea (Tur) The gross water productivity increase for 41.66 to 50.97 and26.81 to 34.76 Rs ha-mm-1 respectively.Opening of alternate furrow in across the slope cultivation: The soil moisture content enhanced by10.92 to 62.96 per cent in Cotton, SoybeanHy. Jowar, and Pigeonpea (Tur). The yieldsenhanced by 40 to 44 per cent in Cotton,Soybean and Hy. Jowar. In intercrop ofSoybean+Pigeonpea (Tur), yield ofSoybean enhanced by 37.50 per cent andPigeonpea (Tur) by 87.50 per cent. The rainwater use efficiency enhanced from 0.35 –1.25 to 1.05 – 1.80 kgha-mm -1in Cotton,Soybean and Hy. Jowar and in intercropof Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur), the rainwater use efficiency enhanced from 1.20 - Alternate furrows0.40 to 1.65 - 0.75 kgha-mm -1 . Theeconomics in terms of B:C ratio and the gross water productivity increased from 1.19 to 2.00 and 15.66 to42.06 Rs ha-mm-1 in Cotton, Soybean and Hy. Jowar and in intercrop Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur) B:C ratioincreased from 1.51 to 2.15 and the gross water productivity from 41.66 to 64.89 Rs ha-mm-1 respectively.Contour cultivation: The soil moisture content enhanced by 10.92 to 68.67 per cent in Cotton, Soybean, Hy. Jowar, Pigeonpea(Tur), Black gram (Udid) and Green gram (Mung) crops at 15 to 60 cm depth and data in Table 5 (a) indicatedthat the yield enhanced by 52 to 300 per cent in Cotton, Soybean Hy. Jowar, Black gram (Udid) and GreenInnovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 35
  • Contour cultivation gram (Mung). In intercrop of Green gram (Mung) + Pigeonpea (Tur) the yields enhanced by 120 and 76.47 per cent and in Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur) by 54.16 to 90 per cent over conventional method. Rain water use efficiency (WUE) enhanced from 0.35 – 1.25 to 1.00–1.93 kgha-mm -1 in Cotton, Soybean, Hy. Jowar, Black gram (Udid), and Green gram (Mung). In inter crop of Green gram (Mung)+Pigeonpea (Tur) the rain water use efficiency enhanced from 0.25 to 0.55 in Green gram (Mung) and from 0.43 to 0.75 kgha-mm-1 in Pigeonpea (Tur). Similarly in Soybean+Pigeonpea (Tur) rain water usage efficiency enhanced from 1.20 – 0.40 to 1.85 – 0.76 kgha-mm-1. The benefit cost (B:C) ratio enhanced from 1.19 to 3.08 in Cotton, Soybean, Hy. Jowar, Black gram(Udid), and Green gram (Mung), In intercrops Green gram (Mung)+Pigeonpea (Tur) and Soybean+Pigeonpea(Tur) B:C ratio increased from 1.22 to 2.06 and 1.51 to 2.26. Gross Water productivity enhance from 14.96 to 45.66 Rs ha-mm-1 in Cotton, Soybean, Green gram(Mung), Black gram (Udid), Hy. Jowar and Sunflower (Semirabi). In intercrop of Green gram(Mung)+Pigeonpea (Tur) and Soybean+Pigeonpea (Tur) the gross water productivity increased from 26.81to 51.95 and 41.66 to 69.68 Rs ha-mm-1 respectively.Opening of alternate furrows in contour cultivation : The moisture content enhanced by 12.63 to 74.70per cent in Cotton and Soybean. The yields enhancedby 58.00 per cent in Soybean and 80.00 per cent inCotton. In intercrop of Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur) theyield, of Soybean enhanced by 58.33 per cent andPigeonpea (Tur) by 125 per cent.Rain water use efficiency(WUE) in Cotton enhanced from 0.75 to 1.35 kgha-mm-1 and in Soybean enhanced from 1.25 to 1.97 kgha-mm-1.In intercrop of Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur), the rainwater use efficiency enhanced from 1.20 to 1.90 kgha-mm-1 in Soybean and from 0.40 to 0.90 kgha-mm -1 inPigeonpea (Tur). Alternate furrows in contour cultivation The B:C ratio in Cotton enhanced from 1.19 to 1.84 and in Soybean enhanced from 1.53 to 2.04. Inintercrop, Soybean + Pigeonpea (Tur), the B:C ratio enhanced from 1.51 to 2.43. Gross water productivity in Cotton and Soybean enhanced from 26.28 to 47.32 and 30.04 to 47.47 Rsha-mm-1. In intercrop Soybean+Pigeonpea (Tur) water productivity from 41.66 to 76.11Rs ha-mm-1.Opening of tide furrows in crop rows sown along the slope When the farmers do not have any other option than to cultivate his land along the slope in such casesit is recommended to open tide furrows in crop rows at the time of first hoeing. The soil moisture contentenhanced by 3.24 to 15.82 per cent in Cotton, Soybean and Hy. Jowar at 15 to 60 cm depth. The yield levels enhanced by 4.16 to 12.00 per cent, B:C ratio enhanced from 1.19 to 1.55 and grosswater productivity enhanced from 15.66 to 31.54 Rs ha-mm-1 in Cotton, Soybean and Hy. Jowar. The rain36 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • water use efficiency enhanced from 1.25 to 1.30 kgha-mm-1 in Soybean and 0.75 to 0.90 kgha-mm-1 in Cotton and from 1.25 to 1.40 kgha-mm-1 in Hy. Jowar. Agro-Horticulture System : The agro-horticulture systems, Aonla + Pigeonpea (Tur), Mango+Cotton and Custard apple+Green gram (Mung) agro- horticultural system were developed in across the slope cultivation in vertisols. The systems were introduce to reduce the risk in rainfed farming in saline tract of Purna river valley. Tide furrowsRainfed rabi in Vertisols :Cultivated fallow during kharif: Across the slope cultivation the soil moisture content enhanced by 13.42 to 42.94 per cent at 15 to 60 cmdepth. The yields of Gram enhanced by 35.00 per cent. Rain water use efficiency enhanced from 1.15 to 1.50kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 2.01 to 2.20 and gross water productivity from 23.03 to 30.04 Rs ha-mm-1. In contour cultivation with opening of contour furrows at 20 m HI enhanced the yield of Gram by67.39 per cent, rain water use efficiency from 1.15 to 1.92 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 2.01 to 2.63 and grosswater productivity from 23.03 to 38.55 Rs ha-mm-1. The development of Square basin lay out (20 m x 20 m)prior to rainy season enhanced the yields of Gram by 65.21 per cent, rain water use efficiency from 1.15 to1.90 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 2.01 to 2.59 and in gross water productivity from 23.03 to 38.05 Rs ha-mm1.Green manuring during kharif: Across the slope cultivation with Green manuring in kharif enhanced the soil moisture content by 5.00to 37.42 per cent, yield of Gram in rabi by 20.00 per cent, rain water use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.20 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 1.74 to 1.76 and gross water productivity from 20.03 to 24.03 Rs ha-mm-1. In contour cultivation with green manuring in kharif enhanced the soil moisture content by 12.50 to73.00 per cent, yields of Gram by 70.00 per cent , rain water use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.70 kgha-mm-1, B:Cratio from 1.74 to 2.32 and gross water productivity from 20.03 to 34.05 Rs ha-mm -1. The development ofsquare basin lay out (20 x 20 m) with Green manuring in kharif enhanced the soil moisture content by11.53 to 74.84 per cent, yield of Gram by 75.00 per cent , rain water use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.75 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 1.74 to 2.29 and gross water productivity from 20.03 to 35.05 Rs ha-mm-1.Gram in rabi as a second crop after Green gram (Mung) in kharif : Across the slope cultivation after Green gram (Mung) enhanced the soil moisture content by 4.03 to37.64 per cent at 15 to 60 cm depth, yields of Gram enhanced by 30.00 per cent, rain water use efficiencyenhanced from 1.25 to 1.62 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 2.19 to 2.38 and gross water productivity enhancedfrom 25.03 to 32.54 Rs ha-mm-1. The contour cultivation with Green gram (Mung) in kharif enhanced thesoil moisture content by 7.42 to 53.93 per cent at 15 to 60 cm depth, yield of Gram by 44.96 per cent, rainwater use efficiency from 1.25 to 1.81 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 2.19 to 2.48 and gross water productivityfrom 25.03 to 36.29 Rs ha-mm-1.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 37
  • Gram in rabi as a second crop after Soybean in kharif : Across the slope cultivation with Soybean in kharif enhanced the yield of Gram by 25.00 per cent, rainwater use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.25 kgha-mm-1 B:C ratio from 1.75 to 1.83 and gross water productivityfrom 20.03 to 25.03 Rs ha-mm-1. In contour cultivation with Soybean in kharif enhanced the yield of Gramby 67.50 per cent, rain water use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.67 kgha-mm-1, B:C ratio from 1.75 to 2.29 andgross water productivity from 20.03 to 33.55 Rs ha-mm-1.Rainfall Harvesting : In vertisols and specially in saline tract of Vidarbha region in Amravati, Buldana and Akola districtscollection of runoff in to the farm ponds or community tanks is most important and need of the day toprovide the protective irrigation at least to some part of the holding of the farmer.Protective Irrigation : Application of protective irrigation in vertisol by sprinkler and MIS of 50 mm depth for raising cropsduring non rainy periods enhancing the water use efficiency, water and crop productivity.Protective irrigation in Kharif Two protective irrigations through drip and sprinklersystem from farm pond enhanced yields of Cotton by126.47 and 115.68 per cent, rain water use efficiency from1.02 to 2.10 & 2.00 kgha-mm-1 respectively. The B:C ratioenhanced from 1.47 to 2.76 & 2.72 and gross waterproductivity from 37.55 to 73.60 & 70.09 Rs ha-mm -1 .respectively. One protective irrigation to Soybean through sprinklerfrom farm pond enhanced the yield by 20.00 per cent, rainwater use efficiency from 1.75 to 1.99 kgha-mm-1, the B:Cratio from 1.92 to 2.10 and gross water productivity from42.06 to 46.22 Rs ha-mm -1. One protective irrigationthrough drip and sprinkler system from form pondenhanced the yield of pigeonpea (Tur) by 63.33 and 56.66 per cent, rain water use efficiency 0.75 to 1.22 &1.17 kgha-mm-1, the B:C ratio from 1.47 to 2.18 and 2.09 and gross water productivity from 28.54 to 44.82& 42.99 Rs ha-mm-1 respectively.1. Protective irrigation in Rabi The one protective irrigation through sprinklers from Purna River and farm pond to Gram (secondcrop after Soybean) enhanced the yield by 75 per cent, rain water use efficiency from 1.00 to 1.74 kgha-mm-1 , the B:C ratio from 1.46 to 2.39 and gross water productivity from 20.00 to 37.70 Rs ha-mm-1. One protectiveirrigation through sprinkler from river and open well to Gram (second crop of after Green gram (Mung)enhanced the yields by 19.00 per cent with rain water use efficiency from 1.25 to 1.89 kgha-mm -1, the B:Cratio from 1.83 to 2.59 and gross water productivity from 25.03 to 36.59 Rs ha-mm-1.Possible outreach and strategies for upscaling Almost three fourth of the cultivated area in India and even in Maharashtra is not irrigated. In Vidarbha,about 93 per cent of the total cropped area is rainfed and this results in large annual fluctuations in cropproduction. The scope for increasing irrigation potential appears to be very limited. All attempts to storethe rainfall effectively in the soil profile, between the bunds and check dams and in farm ponds need to be38 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development
  • made on large area, so that the rainfall can effectively be utilized in rainfed agriculture. Subsequent cropimprovement measures such as intercropping, across the slope cultivation, contour farming, timelyimplementation of all agricultural operations, adoption of improved varieties etc. are components of theintegrated package of rainfed agricultural technology. This can only be possible by linking the farming withattempts of drought proofing. Providing the means of higher and prolonged residual soil moisture conservationto every farmer in the river basin are must, so that weather vagaries can be considerably managed, whichrescue the farmers. Insitu recharge of rain water which calls for land treatments in such a fashion that themaximum water of rainfall infiltrates into the soil profile and it becomes available to the crop during theprolonged monsoon break. Efficiently utilization of rain water (yield per unit of water used) is the only wayof boosting agricultural production. Because of the fragile nature of the ecosystem, the rainwater managementin rainfed agriculture in the river basin for soil and water conservation is of paramount importance, andshall receive top priority in rainfed farming as they form the foundation for the sustainable agriculture.Water resources development stimulates all further development in the river basin in all respects. All attempts to store the rainfall in soil profile between the bunds, check dam and farm ponds needs tobe done upto the full extent in the entire river basin for effective and efficient utilization in rainfed agriculture.Subsequently, in order to reduce the runoff soil and nutrient losses and to enhance the crop productivity,the crop improvement measures such as across the slope and contour cultivation with vegetative contour keylines and land configurations like opening of furrows, development of sown silvipasture system on theshallow and waste land in the river basin, timely implementation of all agricultural operations, adoption ofimproved varieties are the few component of sustainable rainfed agriculture in the river basin. This of coursewill need the participation of farmers in the river basin to reduce the runoff, soil and nutrient losses and toenhance the crop productivity and to decrease the sediment load and concentration of chemicals to avoid theadverse consequences on the function of the rivers and ecosystems. Therefore, in this context there is a full scope for further expansion of these innovations.Farmers’ feed-back Drought is a common feature in the Vidarbha region and about 89 per cent of total cultivated land isunder rainfed agriculture. Further, the scope for increasing the irrigation potential, appears to be verylimited. Under such circumstances, now the farmers participating in this programme have given their feedbackas under, i) Efficient utilization of Water (Yield per unit of Water used) is the only way of boosting agricultural production. ii) Due to the fragile nature of the ecosystem, rainwater management in rainfed agriculture/water conservation is of paramount importance and receives top priority in rainfed farming as they form the foundation for the sustainable agriculture. iii) Water resources development by way of increasing the moisture content in the soil profile, conserving the soil and nutrient stimulate all further development in the rainfed farming. iv) Reforms in cultivation practices and such as deep cultivations and across the slope cultivation, opening of furrows in between the alternate crop rows after 30 days of sowing similarly contour cultivation including the opening of contour furrows in alternate crop rows, opening of tied furrows in between the crop rows sown along the slope, timely implementation of agricultural operations, adoption of improved varieties etc. are components of the integrated package of rainfed agriculture. v) Improvement in the rainfed agriculture is only possible by linking the farming with attempts of in- situ soil and water conservation cultivation practices.Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development 39
  • vi) Providing the means of higher and prolonged residual soil moisture conservation to every farmer is a must at least to the part of his holding alone, so that the weather’s vagaries, can be considerably modified and will come to the rescue of farmers. vii) Demonstrated technologies are easy for adoption, affordable and able to reduce the runoff, soil loss and nutrient losses and enhancing moisture content etc. viii) Finally the farmers are of the opinion that the adoption of these technologies enhanced the productivity in the kharif season by way of providing the required moisture to the crop during the prolonged monsoonic break by conserving the rainwater or by providing protective irrigation from the farm ponds. ix) Few farmers have given their opinion to provide the additional credit from banks and subsidy on priority to the farmers who wish to adopt these technologies. x) Large scale demonstration should be conducted at each village to make the farmers aware about these technologies.Constraints: For upscaling these technologies, capacity building of the farmers along with financial support is themajor cited constraint.40 Innovative Technologies in Agriculture & Rural Development