Diversion Based IrrigationA low cost option for poor to have food sufficiency and a decent living FES Udaipur Project supported by SDTT, Mumbai
Status of Implementation Sr.no Site Village Status Name 1 Mahadevji Pala 100% physical work completed 2 Sikar Ka Naka Pala 100% physical work completed farmer group organizing 3 Hapudi Pala 100% physical complete 4 Lanha Bhata 1 Dhar 100% physical complete 5 Lanha Bhata 2 Dhar 100% physical complete 6 Chatri ka Naka Karech 100% physical complete 7 Jhala Ki Karech 100% physical complete Rupan 8 Nalla Ka Upli Tegra 100% physical work completed Dhora farmer group organizingOut of ten proposed sites eight have been completed and work intwo sites is yet to be initiated
STRATEGY: i) CONFIDENCE BUILDING PHASE ii) CONSTRUCTION PHASE iii) COMMUNITY UTILIZATION PHASE iv) CONSOLIDATION PHASE
STAGE—1 : CONFIDENCE BUILDING STAGE
This stage involves Details..► Identification of villages & interaction with the people.► Organizing community.► Women Groups/ Institutions were influenced & motivated.► Need assessment was done► Farmers group formation► Encouraging farmers group for periodic meeting and developing norms.
Unfolding Stage 1► It was difficult to organize the tribal community because of their busy day to day schedule.► It was also difficult to convince them of the workability of the scheme as they were skeptical► Care was taken for addressing internal conflicts and where difficult to resolve were left alone for time being.► As far as possible all decisions were taken in Gram Sabha► Implementation monitoring committee was formed with equal participation of people from different caste, gender and economic strata.► Where institutions already exist they were given the role of overseeing and monitoring
Unfolding Stage 1 Continued► Youth from the community were specifically targeted to ensure greater participation, for training as resource persons with the objective of: Assisting in implementation (as para-workers) Continue assisting when project activity expands► Formation of farmers group done, however follow up to develop norms and for agriculture training and extension pending
Major Outcomes of Stage 1►A detail understanding of village agricultural practices,irrigation systems, use regimes, conflicts and thereforepossible solutions► Greater acceptance within the community for thetechnology► Community took the responsibility of execution.► With the first few sites ready, in areas with conflictcommunity showed resolve to address these and implementthe project
Stage -2 : CONSTRUCTION Technical planning Using Loop Software Permanent layout of trench Trench digging Material procurement. Construction of intake structure. Laying of pipes. Covering the trench.
Site selection► Site should be such that the weir and the channel can be constructed at the least cost► Site should be such that water availability is ensured atleast till summer months► Initial drop of minimum 1m within the first 100m-200m from sump► River / Stream reach should be straight and narrow and have well-defined high banks► Preferably located where community has some existing source of irrigation
Where are they located► Rivers have four stages, rocky, boulder, alluvial and delta► Rocky is considered unsuitable for locating the head-works, as the flow is less, channel construction is difficult and command area is away► Cost of head-works in boulder stage is less due to availability of stones locally, smaller width of river, smaller scour depth and proximity of higher banks► The fall in the boulder region may be used to produce electricity► A channel off taking in the boulder stage will require large no of cross drainage works► When water is diverted, where the stream emerges from the hills (as the slope is steep), it makes irrigation possible with least cost
Technical Planning► Estimate the discharge of source point► Using Auto level for Measuring head difference between source point to end point of scheme .► Taking RL each 50 m interval and also taking RL junction point and outlet point with length measurement .► Determine command area for every outlet.► Using loop software giving input of field data and generate Technical report/ feasibility of scheme
Trench digging► Demarcation of surveyed line.► Maintaining proper depth & width while digging.► Removing big stones & tree roots/bush clearing coming on the way.► Maintaining the slope while digging .
Material procurement► It was done with the joint responsibility of FES and community people.► Pipe , pipe fittings were procured after receiving quotations.► Boulders, sand & cement were procured by FES based on requirement.► Stock register to be maintained preferably at the site level and if this is not possible atleast at central (team) level
Construction of intake structure► Selecting mason from the community.► Digging to make seepage tank or foundation of intake tank.► Transferring boulders which were locally available.► Breaking boulders into small pebbles to make concrete.► Preparing slab to cover the tank.
PVC pipe handling► Pipe shipment inventoried and inspected► To prevent PVC pipe from scratching or cracking avoid dragging it over rough surfaces, throwing it off the side of the delivery truck or dropping it on to the ground► Stack them upto 5’-8’ high and prevent from rolling due to high wind or any other means► Protect them from sunlight if they are to be stacked for more than 6 months by a light colored opaque cover with provisions for air circulation► The discoloration means that the impact strength is reduced► At very low temp they become stiffer and brittle► Store solvent cement in tightly sealed containers away from excessive heat
Pipe joining► Wipe the entire circumference of the pipe and the socket► Rub them lightly with sand paper► Apply a thin layer of solvent cement with cloth, sponge, glove or brush to the outside surface of pipe and Temperature Minimum Set inside the sucket Range °C Time► Then push the pipe end into the 15 to 40 30 minutes socket and hold for a minute 5 to 15 1 hour► Put it into the trench after the -5 to 5 2 hour minimum set time
Laying of pipes► Demonstrating the villagers about joining pipes.► Demarcation of outlet points.► Using pipe fittings properly.
Pipe installation► Bed material should be free of large stones (>1.5”), hard lumps and debris► Goal should be to provide firm, stable and uniform support for the pipe► Trench width = 16-24” + pipe dia
Covering the trench► Covering the trench only with soil as far as possible.► Avoiding direct contact of any hard substance with the pipe.► Avoiding loose packing around the pipe.► Avoiding exposure to sunlight for the pipes.► Checking erosion of pipe line as far as possible.
Unfolding Stage-2► On time availability of pipes was a problem.► The construction process was uneven and behind schedule because of internal conflicts among the villagers.► Inter village conflicts had to be resolved. Positive role by Rural Volunteer/s► This year temperature was very high so, people needed constant motivation to maintain the pace of work.► Rebates under NREGS also affected pace of implementation of DBI
Unfolding continued continued► One type of intake structure were tried 1) tank to divert the water after siltation.► Pipe joining was a big challenge because of the uneven terrain.► Regularizing village level committee meeting was not possible in all the villages given the pace of implementation, hence we took responsibility for executing it, direct interaction with villagers with us monitoring sites every alternate day,
Major Outcomes of Stage 2 ►Development of confidence in the feasibility of implementation by self without external input both at the community and team level ►Technical feasibility proved with water being discharged @ 15-20 litres per second ►Emergence of atleast 4-5 youth (para- workers) from the community who played an important role in implementation and monitoring the project ► Scope for convergence between NREGS and DBI i.e. implementation costs from NREGS and material costs from the project in order to expand project.
Stage—3 : COMMUNITY UTILIZATION PHASE
It includes:► Construction of structures for domestic use.► Training people for improved agricultural practices.► Making good quality seeds, fertilizer & pesticides available to the farmers.► Making improved agricultural implements available to farmers
Unfolding Stage 3► Tanks and other infrastructure for domestic utility yet to be completed► Contact established with MPUAT► Assistance sought from KVK Udaipur and GMKS Udaipur► Training organised for 20 farmers from DBI sites at KVK with resource persons from MPUAT► Exposure visit and training for 150 farmers on improved agriculture practices► Breeder seed of Pratap III distributed (50 k.gs.) to 10 farmers► Improved variety of Wheat seed (Raj 3765 & GW 273), 5 tons and 150 k.gs. Gram seed (Dahod yellow) provided to 150 farmers
Major Outcomes - Stage 3 ► Better understanding developed on how to assist farmers better in improving productivity Seeds of right quality to be made available in time Better handholding required to ensure demonstration is done effectively Need to identify resource persons/ agencies who will provide the necessary training and support to farmers
Stage—4: CONSOLIDATION PHASE
It includes…….► Documentation of experiences.► Transferring total control of developed system over to the community for future maintenance.
Unfolding Stage-4► Documentation and data storing was a continuous process.► We are yet to develop systems for total handover of entire system, would involve the following: Strengthening of farmer group for each system Understanding existing system of water distribution and applying same/similar principles and norms for new system This would include development of payment for water use which would also go towards maintenance and upkeep of system
MAJOR LEARNINGS► Community should completely take charge for implementation.► Making the people to believe on the success of such project was a difficult task.► Every village has different dynamics so varied strategy has to be taken at different stages in different village.► In spite of good rapport and perfect exposure villagers will not move unless their internal conflicts are resolved.
Continue………► Need of such scheme is very high it is felt as crop productivity in region is very low, little water is available for critical irrigation and therefore project is important to ensure food security and even incomes► Maximum benefit is to women who now get water near the village for domestic use, because it is far more useful than the defunct tube well of the village.
OVERALL IMPROVEMENTS DURING THE PROJECT► Integration among the Village: The village has developed a feelings integrity and resolved a political issue.► Technical Skills: The resident also developed techniques for laying & joining pipes. Identifying similar sites at different places. Though they cant use dumpy level so efficiently but can act as a bare foot engineer.► Information and Awareness : the village level committee is now a platform for information sharing.► Change in living: people are now ready to take double crop and the schemes also addressed their demand for water in most scarce time of the year.