The independence of the spanish colonies in america2
THE INDEPENDENCE OF
THE SPANISH COLONIES
Nuria Berdugo Gómez, Livia Fernández Pérez, Alba Jaimez Moreno y Zenaida Muñoz Muñoz
Background leading to the Independence of the Colonies……………………..4.
The roll of Great Britain………………………………………………………13.
The majority of America had belonged to the Spanish Empire since 1492. Nevertheless, the
Spanish colonies in America wanted to be independent. That idea of independence was influenced
by many economic and political problems of the Spanish Empire and other external causes: United
Kingdom recognized the Independence of the United States (1783), and six years later, the French
Revolution started and Napoleon Bonaparte got the power and he proclaimed Emperor (1804).
The Spanish colonies in America gained their independence at the beginning of the 18th
century, except Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines that had to wait for many years.
We are going to talk about the Independence of American Colonies linking them with the
situations in Great Britain and Spain, the Independence periods, their consequences and the relation
with Great Britain. It was a long and complex process which lasted from 1808-1825:
Independence was led by the Creoles, while indigenous and popular masses fought in the
Spanish side and Creole.
The two oldest Viceroyalties: Nueva España and Peru showed like the regions more
conservative and faithful to the metropolis and because of this were the last territories that
became independent. By contrast, the viceroys of Nueva Granada and Rio de la Plata were
created in the 18th century and they were the engines of independence. Of these viceroys its
main leaders emerged: Bolivar and San Martin.
BACKGROUND LEADING TO THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE COLONIES
The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in
which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire,
combining to become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the
Parliament of Great Britain to govern them and then expelled all royal officials. By 1776 each
colony had established a Provincial Congress to govern itself, but still recognized the British Crown
and their inclusion in the empire. The North American War and the situation of Spain influenced in
the Independence of the Colonies.
After the abdications of Bayonne and the ascent to the throne of José I, the Spanish
Independence war started. The Spanish Patriots fought against the French and Spanish francized.
The abdications of Bayonne had created a vacuum of authority in the occupied Spain. Many
Spaniards refused to obey José I, whose authority that could be seen as illegitimate. To fill that void
and organize the spontaneous insurrection against the French, many Provincial Boards which took
sovereignty were organized.
The Provincial Boards felt from the beginning the need to coordinate. Thus, in September
1808, was the Central Board which, in the absence of the legitimate King, took all of the sovereign
powers and was established as the governing body. Similar to Spain, the Government Boards were
established in America.
Result of this new situation, the Central Board convened a meeting of the Extraordinary
Courts in Cadiz, act that clearly initiated the revolutionary process. Finally, in January 1810, the
Board gave power to the Regency, which has not stalemated the call for Courts. The Government
Boards are unaware the Council of Regency, replacing the colonial authorities, others chosen by
them (which dismissed the viceroys, General Captains and authorities representing Spain,
organizing own armies and seeking the support of England and United States).
Taking advantage of the absence of the King started the first bourgeois liberal revolution in
Spain, with two objectives: adopt reforms that end the structures of the Ancient Regime and
approve a Constitution that would change the political regime in the country.
In January 1809, the Central Board requests the territories of America sending members
who attend meetings of the coming Courts. However, there is a disproportion between the peninsula
members and those arriving from America. The representation of America was intentionally
reduced. In addition, were all, less the Puerto Rican Ramón Power, alternate (birth Americans
resident in the peninsular provinces not occupied by the French). The work of the American
members was arduous and complex, since they did not constitute a whole homogeneous, neither
ideological nor regionally (accounted for territories with conflicting interests).
Peninsular and American members are divided into four trends: the servile or realists,
including American members such as Blas Ostolaza (Peru) and Mario Rodríguez de Olmedo y
Valle (Peru); Conservatives, highlighting the uncle of Simón Bolívar: Esteban Palacios
(Venezuela); Liberals, moderates like Antonio Larrazábal and Arrivillaga (Guatemala), Francisco
Salazar and Carrillo (Peru) or Ramón Power (Puerto Rico); and, finally, the progressive Liberals
such as José Mejía Lequerica (Ecuador), José Miguel Ramos Arizpe (Mexico) or José Álvarez de
The Courts enacted: national sovereignty, division of powers, the recognition of Fernando
VII, equality between Spaniards and Americans, the creation of local councils, abolition of colonial
rights (the mandates, the mita, the indigenous tribute, the divisions...)... But the best known result of
these Courts was the Constitution of 1812.
In America, the Constitution of 1812 was sworn in most of the populations which still
remained within the monarchical orbit, which caused the abolition of the viceroyalties as holders of
absolute power with the establishment of the provincial
councils and local councils. Therefore, next to the viceroys
ruling elites displayed his disgust and opposition, because they
lost their privileges as well.
The Constitution says that "the Spanish nation is the
meeting of all the Spaniards of both hemispheres". Moreover,
the American territories cease being colonies to become
provinces, with equal rights to the Peninsular.
Sovereignty left for the King to become national
sovereignty. In America are concerned, the royal opposition to
the Constitution is that you deprived him of his territories and
While most of the Peninsular Liberals advocated a State
monarchist and centralist, Americans thought of a divisible and
shared sovereignty. Hence the importance attributed to constitutional institutions, as the provincial
councils, which were to be the basis of economic self-determination and political sovereignty.
Therefore, although equal in rights to the Spaniards of both hemispheres or declare that there
were no more colonies, it's not over with the Empire. Since 1811 peninsular Liberals proposed
recovery by the weapons of the most wayward colonies.
Despite all the difficulties, the 1812 Constitution allowed in Spanish America will begin to
talk about democracy and citizenship, began to vote and settle Republican systems of Government
long before that in other vast parts of the planet.
All this led to the Spanish colonies in America to start their own independence processes.
Ignoring the authority of the metropolis, through Fernando VII, the viceroy, maximum authority
colonial, had no hierarchical superior who obey his orders, therefore, the Americans were left
outside the domain of his metropolis and with power to decide their own fate and choose their
But these were not the only causes that led to the revolution of the colonies. The discomfort
of the Creoles was a major cause of the American release.
The Spanish American independence starred Creole minority. The Creoles were the
descendants of the old Spanish immigrant, but they born in America. They represented 10-15% of
They owned large plantations (coffee, sugar and snuff), merchants and intellectuals enriched
by the rise in prices. This bourgeoisie aspires to conquer the state. But Carlos III were excluded
from power and public officials, therefore want to follow the example of American Independence in
These groups are influenced by the philosophy of enlightenment through various means:
1. Dissemination of the principles of the French Revolution of 1789, as the ideas of Locke
(theory of the English Revolution of the seventeenth century) and the texts of the French
Enlightenment: Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau.
2. The pacifist theory of Francisco Suárez (Spanish theologian and jurist of the 2nd half of the
The reasons we have talked before caused the American Colonies Independences. The War
was divided in two phases:
First Phase (1808-1818)
Miranda had just returned from Haiti,
where he got his independence but also
participated in the United States many years
before. He returned to Venezuela with army
men supported by Britain. On the first time,
Miranda couldn't get the independence but a
few months later (19 de Julio de 1810)
expelled Viceroy and Captain General
(Vicente Emparan). This led to the Supreme
Province of Caracas (self-government). The
July 7, 1811 was signed the Act of the
Declaration of Independence of Venezuela.
La Provincia de la Plata o Argentina
The Argentina Independence counted on the help of the British navy. During the process of
the independence, the realists who supported metropolis were against independence and faced with
the independence. However, between the independences there was a lack of a single thought having
many divisions among them. We must also consider that the independence of Argentina is linked to
the history of Paraguay and Uruguay. Characters who had a major role in its independence were
José Manuel Belgrano and San Martin. In 1813 he convened the Constituent Assembly assumed
sovereignty and representation of the United Provinces of Río del Plata.
Its independence begins in 1810, with the Conspiracy of Querétaro and “El Grito de
Dolores”- Dolores’ Shouting. His protagonists are Miguel Hidalgo, Allende and Aldama, who were
persecuted and defeated by the royalists. The protagonists were arrested and subsequently executed.
Their heads were exposed in Granaditas as a warning of what it would happen to whoever
participates or promotes independence. The highlights of independence are Querétaro, Dolores,
Coahuila, Chihuahua and Guanajuato.
The Conspiracy of Querétaro was planned to dismiss the political and administrative
positions of the Viceroyalty of Nueva España. Miguel Hidalgo, Allende and Aldama were reported
and discovered by a traitor among the conspirators. Thanks to a woman, who was called Josefa
Ortiz, they were not caught, they did not fall. They fled to the town of Dolores. There they got the
support of the people denouncing Spanish misruling. This popular uprising is known as “el Grito de
Dolores” on September 16th 1810.
Miguel Hidalgo along with Allende
toured the cities and counties forming an
army of 20,000 insurgents, most of them
were miners and labourers. In a few days
they turned up in the city of Celaya, and as
it was known that the insurgents had
sacked the city of Atotonilco, middle and
upper classes moved away their support
for the rebel army. This provoked
differences between Miguel Hidalgo and
Allende (military). They conquered the
city of Granaditas and this time Hidalgo
punished looters severely. Meanwhile the
royalists began a relentless pursuit of the
insurgents. On the other hand the realists
offered bounties on the heads of the
insurgents and the Catholic Church
excommunicated all participants and those who support them. A month later "El Grito de Dolores”
had 60,000 men so they could conquer the city of Michoacán. In this town Hidalgo was named
Generalissimo and Allende was named General Captain of the insurgent army.
Finally the royalist troops could defeat the insurgents. The leaders of the insurgency,
Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama and Jimenez were defeated, captured and defeated, and their heads were
exposed in Granaditas from 1811-1821.
The insurgency had great support from the peasants because of ongoing famine and drought
and rising prices of food during the previous 30 years. Therefore, not only was a nationalist
insurgency, but also social.
Between 1811 and 1815 the independence movement continued to act, and sought to give it
a legal and political structure. The social and political composition of the insurgents was very
diverse. Morelos was supported by blacks; Indian from Bajío supported Rayon and also realistic
army defectors soldiers and peasants supported him, until they get the support of the urban middle
Until 1814 Morelos controlled Oaxaca City when he was defeated by the royalists. Anyway
it will be here when the basic elements of a new constitution for Mexico, the Constitutional
Elements, are written.
The 1812 Constitution of Cadiz abolished the viceroys, and thus changed the political
structure in the colonies. But the insurgents continued with Mexico’s independent project.
In 1813 it was read the ‘Acta de Independencia de América Septentrional’, which rejected
the Ferdinand VII sovereignty. With the return of Ferdinand VII it was restored the Inquisition in
Mexico. Traders and middle classes from Mexico rejected the repeal of 1812 Cadiz Constitution
and this meant a greater social support of the insurgents.
Despite the setbacks and losses occurred between 1815 and 1820 such as the death of
Morelos, it was the time when the rebel army is reorganized practicing guerrilla warfare.
As precedents are marked inequalities in all Latin America, also in Chile. It was a society
breeding because only Spaniard (neither her children born in Chile) could access to institutional
powers. The Chilean society was dominated by Spaniard and colonist they subdued natives. The
creoles, mixed races and the rest of the social classes (peasants, worker) were in a lower position.
In favor of the Independence of Chile had occurred conspiracy since 1808-1810, so they had
confronted with troops of viceroyship of Peru. José Miguel Carrera (they supported a constitutional
monarchy regime) and Bernardo O’Higgins (they supported a republic regime) were important.
Phase of Patria Vieja: it is the period known for Chileans between 1810-1814. For the time
being, they accepted the sovereignty of Spanish monarch and they managed in him name,
recognized Supreme Board of Cadiz. During that time hadn’t recognized rights for creoles and
mixed races, were Spanish and civil servant of Local Administration who unlawfully hold the
power. A Creole, Juan Martínez de Rozas, get the union of all his class and he get to have a better
appearance in the politic life of Chile’s life, where up to the date they only were electors the
Spanish’ Nobility, asking military helping the United Province of the Rio de la Plata.
Elections were promoted to a National Congress where Creoles participate. This was
considered by the realists an anti-monarchist conspiracy, leading to the first military confrontation
known as "The Mutiny of Figueroa". Here begins the independence of Chile. Subsequently
elections were held and the moderates triumphed, being remained loyal to the monarchy. This did
not satisfy all the people. In September 1811, there are movements for independence by Race and
Rozas. Here begin the clashes between Carrera and O'Higgins, this "exalted" (independence).
At the beginning of 1813, the realists under the authority of Pareja managed to defeat
Carrera, while O'Higgins got the power. Pareja beat the realists, and from the viceroyalty offer a
pact with O'Higgins by signing the Treaty of Lircay. It recognized the authority of the Courts of
Cadiz; nevertheless the abolition of the Constitution of Cadiz by Ferdinand VII in May 1814
annulled completely the Treaty. Realists released Carrera in order to sow confusion among the
patriots, which happened with the coup in July 1814.
The military confrontation of O’Higgins and Carrera against the realist troops (Disaster of
Rancagua) gave them the power, and the Chilean government fled to Argentina.
Thus ended the period known as the Patria Vieja, not only a military disaster , but a disaster
that ended on the one hand the possibility of an agreement between the colonies and the Spanish
monarchy nineteenth-century , and on the other hand to the political ambitions of the Carrera. That
disaster also buried, even before birth, the possibility of federalism and / or constitutional monarchy
(if anyone’s looking for it) in Chile. It is the beginning of the final phase of independence.
Argentines began their struggle for independence in 1810 and they claimed that Paraguay
remains under their control.
Paraguay leader is Dr. Francia and his intervention on July 1810 in the Assembly of
Notables in Asuncion represented his thinking and those of independence.
‘This Assembly do not waste its time debating whether the coward parent or the timid child
is the king of Spain. The two of them have demonstrated their weak spirit and unfaithful heart.
Neither one nor the other can be the king anywhere. Moreover whether or not one of them is the
King of Spain, what do we mind? None of them is already the king of Paraguay. Paraguay is not
the heritage of Spain, neither the province of Buenos Aires. Paraguay is Independent and it is a
Republic’ and continued saying ‘the only issue to be discussed at this meeting and decided by a
majority of votes is: how should we defend and maintain our independence against Spain, against
Lima, against Buenos Aires and against Brazil; how can we promote public prosperity and welfare
of all the inhabitants of Paraguay; anyway, what form of government should adopt Paraguay?. My
arguments in favour of my ideas are these - and inner pouches of his coat pulled out two small
guns- one is directed against Fernando VII, and the other against Buenos Aires ‘(Speech by Dr.
The social classes that defended Fernando VII, how it could be otherwise, were the
landowners (large landowners) and traders. The speech of Dr. Francia was supported by peasants,
labourers, military officers and farmers. The Argentine Belgrano wanted to conquer Paraguay and
was defeated in Paraguarí and Tacuarí. From now on, the independence gained ground and
proposed a government based on liberal and democratic principles. These were based on national
sovereignty, fundamental freedoms, separation of state powers and the establishment of justice and
the implementation of free trade.
On May 14th and 15th 1811, the revolutionaries Caballero, Iturbe, Yegros and Francia
militarily defeated Governor Velazco. They released political prisoners and so it began
independence. Independence was declared on May 17th 1811.
In 1813 the government that was led by Yegros, Francia and Caballero called elections of
deputies to the General Congress. The importance of this election is that allowed all residents to
vote no matter what personal assets and wealth had them.
In 1814 Dr. Francia was elected Consul of the Republic and later the Supreme Dictator until
his death. He ruled for 26 years until 1840.
There is a film that reflected the independence of Paraguay "Mission".
Second phase (1818-1824)
It occurred the collapse of the Spanish
sovereignty. There were a lot of battles that
helped to South American independence from
Spain like battle of Chacabuco, battle of
Maipú… The most important battle was the
Battle of Ayacucho.
The Battle of Ayacucho was a decisive
military encounter during the Peruvian War of
Independence. It was the battle that secured the
independence of Peru and ensured independence
for the rest of South America. In Peru it is
considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence.
The Battle of Ayacucho took place at Pampa de La Quinua, a few kilometers away from
Ayacucho, in 1824. Independents forces were led by Antonio José de Sucre, Simón Bolívar's
lieutenant. These forces clashed Viceroy José de La Serna against the patriots under Antonio José
de Sucre. The Spanish began the attack from the hill Condorcunca. The Peruvian division
commanded by José de La Mar struggled to contain them and with the help of the Montoneros of
Marcelino Carreño forced to retreat.
A new realistic attack was rejected by the division of José Maria Córdoba. Then, the same
Viceroy La Serna, entered the fight with his troops, but in the violent clash was wounded and was
taken prisoner. This demoralized the Spanish, leading many to undertake the flight. General Jose de
Canterac tried to regroup, but were thwarted by the men of Jacinto Lara and William Miller. Seeing
the disaster, Canterac agreed to negotiate with Sucre and signed the Capitulation of Ayacucho,
document that sealed the independence of Peru and South America. The fight for Argentine
Independence was led by José de San Martín, and the fight for Northern Latin America was led by
Francisco de Miranda and Simon Bolivar.
Now we are going to show the most important things that they make in the independence of
José de San Martín
José de San Martín was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part
of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. He left his
mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. Their campaigns were decisive
for independence's Argentina, Peru and Chile, because he started the conquest of Peru, in 1821. He
took Lima and proclaimed the Independence so he got dictatorial powers. Nevertheless, Spaniards
recovered half of Peru, so the forces of San Martin and Bolivar were
joined. At the same time, the Independence of Gran Colombia
(Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador) was carrying out.
The fight for Argentine Independence was led by José de San
Martín. In 1817, he crossed the Andes into Chile, where Bernardo
O'Higgins and his rebel army had been fighting the Spanish to a draw
since 1810. Joining forces, the Chileans and Argentines soundly
defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Maipú (near Santiago, Chile) on
April 5, 1818, effectively ending Spanish control over the southern part
of South America.
Simon Bolivar was a military and political leader. Bolívar played a key
role in Latin
America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and today he is
considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas. Bolívar is regarded
as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator in Hispanic-America. He carried out the
Independence of Colombia (Nueva Granada in 1819). He crossed the Andes and seeped through
(penetrar) in Colombia, in a great feat similar to San Martín before 2 years ago. And he won in
Bovacá( in 1819). In the Congress of Angostura (in 1819) where he participated in the foundation
of the first union of independent nations in Hispanic- America, now known as the Republic of Gran
Colombia (made up Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador). Too Bolivar freed Venezuela with victory
of Carabobo. Where he was president from 1819 to 1830.
Bolivar was born in Caracas (present-day
Venezuela) in 1783 to an extremely wealthy family. At
that time, a handful of families owned most of the land in
Venezuela, and the Bolivar family was among the
wealthiest in the colony. Both of his parents died while
Simon was still young, so he had no memory of his father,
Juan Vicente, and his mother Concepcion Palacios died
when he was nine years old. Orphaned, Simon went to
live with his grandfather and was raised by his uncles and
his nurse Hipólita, for whom he had great affection. He
was schooled at the finest schools in Caracas. From 1804 to 1807 he went to Europe, where he
toured around in the manner of a wealthy New World Creole. He died in 1830 in Santa Marta,
Colombia because he had an advanced pneumonia.
Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre was born in 1795, in Cumaná,
New Granada (now is Venezuela) and he died in 1830,
Berruecos, Gran Colombia, now in Colombia. At the age of 15
Sucre entered the struggles for independence in Venezuela and
Colombia. He displayed great skill at military tactics, and by
1820 he had become chief of staff to the Venezuelan leader.
Liberator of Ecuador and Peru, and one of the most respected
leaders of the Latin American wars for independence from
Spain. He served as Simón Bolívar’s chief lieutenant and
eventually became the first constitutionally elected leader of
Bolivia. He and Bolivar helped to the Independence of
Ecuador, after the battle of Pichincha, in 1822. As a curiosity,
he was known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho".
Francisco de Miranda
Francisco de Miranda was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the
independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón
Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast
portion of South America. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of
Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America
ended in 1812.
The independence struggle in northern Latin America began
in 1806, when Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda first attempted to
liberate his homeland with British help. This attempt failed, but
Miranda returned in 1810 to head up the First Venezuelan Republic
with Simón Bolívar and others.Bolívar fought the Spanish in
Venezuela, Ecuador and Colombia for several years, decisively
beating them several times. By 1822, those countries were free, and
Bolívar set his sights on Peru, the last and mightiest Spanish
holdout on the continent.
Along with his close friend and subordinate Antonio José de
Sucre, Bolívar won two important victories in 1824: at Junín, on August 6, and at Ayacucho on
December 9. Their forces routed, the Spanish signed a peace agreement shortly after the battle of
Effects of independence of the Spanish colonies in America were economics, society and
Government and politics. Trade monopoly disappeared causing the impoverishment of many Latin
American regions could not compete with the industries of Europe and, for America, Bolivar's
dream of creating a United States of South America failed in the Congress of Panama (1826).
However, the opinion of some American is very different, as they claim that their countries
independence allowed the opportunity to develop according to needs and gave themselves more
equitable justice among its ethnic components. So the colonies depended economically of France
and England. After independence this was divided into many countries but none of them succeeded
to a good economy, politics, social organization ... so these have lagged behind not only Spain but
also in many other countries of the world.
In the first 25 years, of the creation the new countries in the South of America, there were
many characteristics that can be synthesized in four points:
Simon Bolivar try to create a union between the new countries, but after his death it was
eliminated the Federation Grancolombiana (1930) giving rise to Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia
and Peru. In 1821, the Federation of Central America was dispersed in Guatemala,
Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama. In 1830, the South was dispersed in
Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile.
Disaster in the social stability: Criollos monopolised the power and the wealth, and they
didn't pay taxes. So a lot of peasant created riots.
The political independence didn't determined the economic independence
Spain kept Cuba, Filipina, Puerto Rico and Pacific archipelagos until 1898 with the Paris’ Treatise.
The roll of Great Britain
During the 18th century, Great Britain was the great enemy of Spain in America, because
the British wanted to expand their land possessions and above all they wanted to break the Spanish
trade monopoly with the colonies.
Great Britain had colonies in North America and some enclaves in Central America. In
addition, Britain had obtained major business benefits in South America with the Treaty of Utrecht,
and thanks to its naval superiority boats, they traded with certain ease with the ports of the Spanish
Spain and France, allies, fought against Great Britain in several conflicts such as the Seven
Years War or the Independence War of the United States (1775-1783). Spain, like France,
supported the rebel colonists against the British metropolis. This support, although hesitant at the
beginning by the Spanish, was fundamental to the British were defeated. In fact, some battle
decisive in this race had an important Spanish participation.
After the first Treaty of San Ildefonso (1796) Spain allied itself with France. Britain comes
immediately lead to the lifting of the Spanish colonies, but it was only heard by Venezuela, whose
insurrectional movement failed.
Later, after the Spanish defeat of Trafalgar (1805), the American colonies were isolated
from Spain and began to trade with neutral countries, which contributed to strengthening their quest
In addition, the failed attempts of the British Empire to occupy South American mainland
territories directly as the British attack on Cuba and Cartagena de Indias in the War of Jenkins's Ear
(1741) or the British invasions in the Rio de la Plata in 1806 and 1807, which led to generate
awareness and capabilities Hispano own powers and the creation of several local military bodies
such as the Patricios Regiment.
Years later, during the Spanish Independence War (1808-1813), Britain maintained a double
game: while the armies of Wellington helped to fight against the troops of Napoleon, the British
extend commercially by new world markets and thus face the Continental blockade decreed by
Great Britain wanted to establish a free trade with the American independent countries,
which gave support in their territory to the formation of the lodges that would support the
independence of America and its leaders, which ended up being the leaders of the independence of
America, such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.
Britain also supported the logistics of the independence forces. They handled the transfer
and armed of the pro-independence troops, as the more than 5,000 Polish infantry. Both England
and USA sold guns and warships to the American insurgents.
The essay about ‘the Independence of colonies’ has been a simple topic to talk because we
have seen the situation of Spain in class. Nevertheless, search information was quite difficult
because there were a lot of pages very long which we had to sum up in a only paragraph.
In conclusion, the independence of colonies had a great importance in 19th century in Spain.
The lose of honor was a principal point in the Spanish literature (the generation of 98). The
pessimistic and unfortunate situation in Spain was also an important issue, such us Antonio