The independence of the spanish colonies in america2


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The independence of the spanish colonies in america2

  1. 1. THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE SPANISH COLONIES IN AMERICA Nuria Berdugo Gómez, Livia Fernández Pérez, Alba Jaimez Moreno y Zenaida Muñoz Muñoz 12/11/2013
  2. 2. INDEX Introduction……………………………………………………………………. 3. Background leading to the Independence of the Colonies……………………..4. Independence phases…………………………………………………………...6. Consequences………………………………………………………………….13. The roll of Great Britain………………………………………………………13. Personal Opinion……………………………………………………………...14. Website………………………………………………………………………..15. 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The majority of America had belonged to the Spanish Empire since 1492. Nevertheless, the Spanish colonies in America wanted to be independent. That idea of independence was influenced by many economic and political problems of the Spanish Empire and other external causes: United Kingdom recognized the Independence of the United States (1783), and six years later, the French Revolution started and Napoleon Bonaparte got the power and he proclaimed Emperor (1804). The Spanish colonies in America gained their independence at the beginning of the 18th century, except Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines that had to wait for many years. We are going to talk about the Independence of American Colonies linking them with the situations in Great Britain and Spain, the Independence periods, their consequences and the relation with Great Britain. It was a long and complex process which lasted from 1808-1825: Independence was led by the Creoles, while indigenous and popular masses fought in the Spanish side and Creole. The two oldest Viceroyalties: Nueva España and Peru showed like the regions more conservative and faithful to the metropolis and because of this were the last territories that became independent. By contrast, the viceroys of Nueva Granada and Rio de la Plata were created in the 18th century and they were the engines of independence. Of these viceroys its main leaders emerged: Bolivar and San Martin. 3
  4. 4. BACKGROUND LEADING TO THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE COLONIES The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them and then expelled all royal officials. By 1776 each colony had established a Provincial Congress to govern itself, but still recognized the British Crown and their inclusion in the empire. The North American War and the situation of Spain influenced in the Independence of the Colonies. After the abdications of Bayonne and the ascent to the throne of José I, the Spanish Independence war started. The Spanish Patriots fought against the French and Spanish francized. The abdications of Bayonne had created a vacuum of authority in the occupied Spain. Many Spaniards refused to obey José I, whose authority that could be seen as illegitimate. To fill that void and organize the spontaneous insurrection against the French, many Provincial Boards which took sovereignty were organized. The Provincial Boards felt from the beginning the need to coordinate. Thus, in September 1808, was the Central Board which, in the absence of the legitimate King, took all of the sovereign powers and was established as the governing body. Similar to Spain, the Government Boards were established in America. Result of this new situation, the Central Board convened a meeting of the Extraordinary Courts in Cadiz, act that clearly initiated the revolutionary process. Finally, in January 1810, the Board gave power to the Regency, which has not stalemated the call for Courts. The Government Boards are unaware the Council of Regency, replacing the colonial authorities, others chosen by them (which dismissed the viceroys, General Captains and authorities representing Spain, organizing own armies and seeking the support of England and United States). Taking advantage of the absence of the King started the first bourgeois liberal revolution in Spain, with two objectives: adopt reforms that end the structures of the Ancient Regime and approve a Constitution that would change the political regime in the country. In January 1809, the Central Board requests the territories of America sending members who attend meetings of the coming Courts. However, there is a disproportion between the peninsula members and those arriving from America. The representation of America was intentionally reduced. In addition, were all, less the Puerto Rican Ramón Power, alternate (birth Americans resident in the peninsular provinces not occupied by the French). The work of the American members was arduous and complex, since they did not constitute a whole homogeneous, neither ideological nor regionally (accounted for territories with conflicting interests). Peninsular and American members are divided into four trends: the servile or realists, including American members such as Blas Ostolaza (Peru) and Mario Rodríguez de Olmedo y Valle (Peru); Conservatives, highlighting the uncle of Simón Bolívar: Esteban Palacios (Venezuela); Liberals, moderates like Antonio Larrazábal and Arrivillaga (Guatemala), Francisco Salazar and Carrillo (Peru) or Ramón Power (Puerto Rico); and, finally, the progressive Liberals such as José Mejía Lequerica (Ecuador), José Miguel Ramos Arizpe (Mexico) or José Álvarez de Toledo (Cuba). 4
  5. 5. The Courts enacted: national sovereignty, division of powers, the recognition of Fernando VII, equality between Spaniards and Americans, the creation of local councils, abolition of colonial rights (the mandates, the mita, the indigenous tribute, the divisions...)... But the best known result of these Courts was the Constitution of 1812. In America, the Constitution of 1812 was sworn in most of the populations which still remained within the monarchical orbit, which caused the abolition of the viceroyalties as holders of absolute power with the establishment of the provincial councils and local councils. Therefore, next to the viceroys ruling elites displayed his disgust and opposition, because they lost their privileges as well. The Constitution says that "the Spanish nation is the meeting of all the Spaniards of both hemispheres". Moreover, the American territories cease being colonies to become provinces, with equal rights to the Peninsular. Sovereignty left for the King to become national sovereignty. In America are concerned, the royal opposition to the Constitution is that you deprived him of his territories and subjects. While most of the Peninsular Liberals advocated a State monarchist and centralist, Americans thought of a divisible and shared sovereignty. Hence the importance attributed to constitutional institutions, as the provincial councils, which were to be the basis of economic self-determination and political sovereignty. Therefore, although equal in rights to the Spaniards of both hemispheres or declare that there were no more colonies, it's not over with the Empire. Since 1811 peninsular Liberals proposed recovery by the weapons of the most wayward colonies. Despite all the difficulties, the 1812 Constitution allowed in Spanish America will begin to talk about democracy and citizenship, began to vote and settle Republican systems of Government long before that in other vast parts of the planet. All this led to the Spanish colonies in America to start their own independence processes. Ignoring the authority of the metropolis, through Fernando VII, the viceroy, maximum authority colonial, had no hierarchical superior who obey his orders, therefore, the Americans were left outside the domain of his metropolis and with power to decide their own fate and choose their authorities. But these were not the only causes that led to the revolution of the colonies. The discomfort of the Creoles was a major cause of the American release. The Spanish American independence starred Creole minority. The Creoles were the descendants of the old Spanish immigrant, but they born in America. They represented 10-15% of the population. 5
  6. 6. They owned large plantations (coffee, sugar and snuff), merchants and intellectuals enriched by the rise in prices. This bourgeoisie aspires to conquer the state. But Carlos III were excluded from power and public officials, therefore want to follow the example of American Independence in 1776. These groups are influenced by the philosophy of enlightenment through various means: 1. Dissemination of the principles of the French Revolution of 1789, as the ideas of Locke (theory of the English Revolution of the seventeenth century) and the texts of the French Enlightenment: Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau. 2. The pacifist theory of Francisco Suárez (Spanish theologian and jurist of the 2nd half of the century). INDEPENDENCE PHASES The reasons we have talked before caused the American Colonies Independences. The War was divided in two phases: First Phase (1808-1818) Venezuela Miranda had just returned from Haiti, where he got his independence but also participated in the United States many years before. He returned to Venezuela with army men supported by Britain. On the first time, Miranda couldn't get the independence but a few months later (19 de Julio de 1810) expelled Viceroy and Captain General (Vicente Emparan). This led to the Supreme Province of Caracas (self-government). The July 7, 1811 was signed the Act of the Declaration of Independence of Venezuela. La Provincia de la Plata o Argentina The Argentina Independence counted on the help of the British navy. During the process of the independence, the realists who supported metropolis were against independence and faced with the independence. However, between the independences there was a lack of a single thought having many divisions among them. We must also consider that the independence of Argentina is linked to the history of Paraguay and Uruguay. Characters who had a major role in its independence were José Manuel Belgrano and San Martin. In 1813 he convened the Constituent Assembly assumed sovereignty and representation of the United Provinces of Río del Plata. 6
  7. 7. Mexico Its independence begins in 1810, with the Conspiracy of Querétaro and “El Grito de Dolores”- Dolores’ Shouting. His protagonists are Miguel Hidalgo, Allende and Aldama, who were persecuted and defeated by the royalists. The protagonists were arrested and subsequently executed. Their heads were exposed in Granaditas as a warning of what it would happen to whoever participates or promotes independence. The highlights of independence are Querétaro, Dolores, Coahuila, Chihuahua and Guanajuato. The Conspiracy of Querétaro was planned to dismiss the political and administrative positions of the Viceroyalty of Nueva España. Miguel Hidalgo, Allende and Aldama were reported and discovered by a traitor among the conspirators. Thanks to a woman, who was called Josefa Ortiz, they were not caught, they did not fall. They fled to the town of Dolores. There they got the support of the people denouncing Spanish misruling. This popular uprising is known as “el Grito de Dolores” on September 16th 1810. Miguel Hidalgo along with Allende toured the cities and counties forming an army of 20,000 insurgents, most of them were miners and labourers. In a few days they turned up in the city of Celaya, and as it was known that the insurgents had sacked the city of Atotonilco, middle and upper classes moved away their support for the rebel army. This provoked differences between Miguel Hidalgo and Allende (military). They conquered the city of Granaditas and this time Hidalgo punished looters severely. Meanwhile the royalists began a relentless pursuit of the insurgents. On the other hand the realists offered bounties on the heads of the insurgents and the Catholic Church excommunicated all participants and those who support them. A month later "El Grito de Dolores” had 60,000 men so they could conquer the city of Michoacán. In this town Hidalgo was named Generalissimo and Allende was named General Captain of the insurgent army. Finally the royalist troops could defeat the insurgents. The leaders of the insurgency, Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama and Jimenez were defeated, captured and defeated, and their heads were exposed in Granaditas from 1811-1821. The insurgency had great support from the peasants because of ongoing famine and drought and rising prices of food during the previous 30 years. Therefore, not only was a nationalist insurgency, but also social. Between 1811 and 1815 the independence movement continued to act, and sought to give it a legal and political structure. The social and political composition of the insurgents was very diverse. Morelos was supported by blacks; Indian from Bajío supported Rayon and also realistic 7
  8. 8. army defectors soldiers and peasants supported him, until they get the support of the urban middle classes. Until 1814 Morelos controlled Oaxaca City when he was defeated by the royalists. Anyway it will be here when the basic elements of a new constitution for Mexico, the Constitutional Elements, are written. The 1812 Constitution of Cadiz abolished the viceroys, and thus changed the political structure in the colonies. But the insurgents continued with Mexico’s independent project. In 1813 it was read the ‘Acta de Independencia de América Septentrional’, which rejected the Ferdinand VII sovereignty. With the return of Ferdinand VII it was restored the Inquisition in Mexico. Traders and middle classes from Mexico rejected the repeal of 1812 Cadiz Constitution and this meant a greater social support of the insurgents. Despite the setbacks and losses occurred between 1815 and 1820 such as the death of Morelos, it was the time when the rebel army is reorganized practicing guerrilla warfare. Chile As precedents are marked inequalities in all Latin America, also in Chile. It was a society breeding because only Spaniard (neither her children born in Chile) could access to institutional powers. The Chilean society was dominated by Spaniard and colonist they subdued natives. The creoles, mixed races and the rest of the social classes (peasants, worker) were in a lower position. In favor of the Independence of Chile had occurred conspiracy since 1808-1810, so they had confronted with troops of viceroyship of Peru. José Miguel Carrera (they supported a constitutional monarchy regime) and Bernardo O’Higgins (they supported a republic regime) were important. Phase of Patria Vieja: it is the period known for Chileans between 1810-1814. For the time being, they accepted the sovereignty of Spanish monarch and they managed in him name, recognized Supreme Board of Cadiz. During that time hadn’t recognized rights for creoles and mixed races, were Spanish and civil servant of Local Administration who unlawfully hold the power. A Creole, Juan Martínez de Rozas, get the union of all his class and he get to have a better appearance in the politic life of Chile’s life, where up to the date they only were electors the Spanish’ Nobility, asking military helping the United Province of the Rio de la Plata. Elections were promoted to a National Congress where Creoles participate. This was considered by the realists an anti-monarchist conspiracy, leading to the first military confrontation known as "The Mutiny of Figueroa". Here begins the independence of Chile. Subsequently elections were held and the moderates triumphed, being remained loyal to the monarchy. This did not satisfy all the people. In September 1811, there are movements for independence by Race and Rozas. Here begin the clashes between Carrera and O'Higgins, this "exalted" (independence). At the beginning of 1813, the realists under the authority of Pareja managed to defeat Carrera, while O'Higgins got the power. Pareja beat the realists, and from the viceroyalty offer a pact with O'Higgins by signing the Treaty of Lircay. It recognized the authority of the Courts of Cadiz; nevertheless the abolition of the Constitution of Cadiz by Ferdinand VII in May 1814 8
  9. 9. annulled completely the Treaty. Realists released Carrera in order to sow confusion among the patriots, which happened with the coup in July 1814. The military confrontation of O’Higgins and Carrera against the realist troops (Disaster of Rancagua) gave them the power, and the Chilean government fled to Argentina. Thus ended the period known as the Patria Vieja, not only a military disaster , but a disaster that ended on the one hand the possibility of an agreement between the colonies and the Spanish monarchy nineteenth-century , and on the other hand to the political ambitions of the Carrera. That disaster also buried, even before birth, the possibility of federalism and / or constitutional monarchy (if anyone’s looking for it) in Chile. It is the beginning of the final phase of independence. Paraguay Argentines began their struggle for independence in 1810 and they claimed that Paraguay remains under their control. Paraguay leader is Dr. Francia and his intervention on July 1810 in the Assembly of Notables in Asuncion represented his thinking and those of independence. ‘This Assembly do not waste its time debating whether the coward parent or the timid child is the king of Spain. The two of them have demonstrated their weak spirit and unfaithful heart. Neither one nor the other can be the king anywhere. Moreover whether or not one of them is the King of Spain, what do we mind? None of them is already the king of Paraguay. Paraguay is not the heritage of Spain, neither the province of Buenos Aires. Paraguay is Independent and it is a Republic’ and continued saying ‘the only issue to be discussed at this meeting and decided by a majority of votes is: how should we defend and maintain our independence against Spain, against Lima, against Buenos Aires and against Brazil; how can we promote public prosperity and welfare of all the inhabitants of Paraguay; anyway, what form of government should adopt Paraguay?. My arguments in favour of my ideas are these - and inner pouches of his coat pulled out two small guns- one is directed against Fernando VII, and the other against Buenos Aires ‘(Speech by Dr. Francia). The social classes that defended Fernando VII, how it could be otherwise, were the landowners (large landowners) and traders. The speech of Dr. Francia was supported by peasants, labourers, military officers and farmers. The Argentine Belgrano wanted to conquer Paraguay and was defeated in Paraguarí and Tacuarí. From now on, the independence gained ground and proposed a government based on liberal and democratic principles. These were based on national sovereignty, fundamental freedoms, separation of state powers and the establishment of justice and the implementation of free trade. On May 14th and 15th 1811, the revolutionaries Caballero, Iturbe, Yegros and Francia militarily defeated Governor Velazco. They released political prisoners and so it began independence. Independence was declared on May 17th 1811. In 1813 the government that was led by Yegros, Francia and Caballero called elections of deputies to the General Congress. The importance of this election is that allowed all residents to vote no matter what personal assets and wealth had them. 9
  10. 10. In 1814 Dr. Francia was elected Consul of the Republic and later the Supreme Dictator until his death. He ruled for 26 years until 1840. There is a film that reflected the independence of Paraguay "Mission". Second phase (1818-1824) It occurred the collapse of the Spanish sovereignty. There were a lot of battles that helped to South American independence from Spain like battle of Chacabuco, battle of Maipú… The most important battle was the Battle of Ayacucho. The Battle of Ayacucho was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America. In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence. The Battle of Ayacucho took place at Pampa de La Quinua, a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, in 1824. Independents forces were led by Antonio José de Sucre, Simón Bolívar's lieutenant. These forces clashed Viceroy José de La Serna against the patriots under Antonio José de Sucre. The Spanish began the attack from the hill Condorcunca. The Peruvian division commanded by José de La Mar struggled to contain them and with the help of the Montoneros of Marcelino Carreño forced to retreat. A new realistic attack was rejected by the division of José Maria Córdoba. Then, the same Viceroy La Serna, entered the fight with his troops, but in the violent clash was wounded and was taken prisoner. This demoralized the Spanish, leading many to undertake the flight. General Jose de Canterac tried to regroup, but were thwarted by the men of Jacinto Lara and William Miller. Seeing the disaster, Canterac agreed to negotiate with Sucre and signed the Capitulation of Ayacucho, document that sealed the independence of Peru and South America. The fight for Argentine Independence was led by José de San Martín, and the fight for Northern Latin America was led by Francisco de Miranda and Simon Bolivar. Now we are going to show the most important things that they make in the independence of colonies:  José de San Martín José de San Martín was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. He left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. Their campaigns were decisive for independence's Argentina, Peru and Chile, because he started the conquest of Peru, in 1821. He took Lima and proclaimed the Independence so he got dictatorial powers. Nevertheless, Spaniards 10
  11. 11. recovered half of Peru, so the forces of San Martin and Bolivar were joined. At the same time, the Independence of Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador) was carrying out. The fight for Argentine Independence was led by José de San Martín. In 1817, he crossed the Andes into Chile, where Bernardo O'Higgins and his rebel army had been fighting the Spanish to a draw since 1810. Joining forces, the Chileans and Argentines soundly defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Maipú (near Santiago, Chile) on April 5, 1818, effectively ending Spanish control over the southern part of South America.  Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar was a military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and today he is considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas. Bolívar is regarded as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator in Hispanic-America. He carried out the Independence of Colombia (Nueva Granada in 1819). He crossed the Andes and seeped through (penetrar) in Colombia, in a great feat similar to San Martín before 2 years ago. And he won in Bovacá( in 1819). In the Congress of Angostura (in 1819) where he participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Hispanic- America, now known as the Republic of Gran Colombia (made up Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador). Too Bolivar freed Venezuela with victory of Carabobo. Where he was president from 1819 to 1830. Bolivar was born in Caracas (present-day Venezuela) in 1783 to an extremely wealthy family. At that time, a handful of families owned most of the land in Venezuela, and the Bolivar family was among the wealthiest in the colony. Both of his parents died while Simon was still young, so he had no memory of his father, Juan Vicente, and his mother Concepcion Palacios died when he was nine years old. Orphaned, Simon went to live with his grandfather and was raised by his uncles and his nurse Hipólita, for whom he had great affection. He was schooled at the finest schools in Caracas. From 1804 to 1807 he went to Europe, where he toured around in the manner of a wealthy New World Creole. He died in 1830 in Santa Marta, Colombia because he had an advanced pneumonia. 11
  12. 12.  Antonio José de Sucre Antonio José de Sucre was born in 1795, in Cumaná, New Granada (now is Venezuela) and he died in 1830, Berruecos, Gran Colombia, now in Colombia. At the age of 15 Sucre entered the struggles for independence in Venezuela and Colombia. He displayed great skill at military tactics, and by 1820 he had become chief of staff to the Venezuelan leader. Liberator of Ecuador and Peru, and one of the most respected leaders of the Latin American wars for independence from Spain. He served as Simón Bolívar’s chief lieutenant and eventually became the first constitutionally elected leader of Bolivia. He and Bolivar helped to the Independence of Ecuador, after the battle of Pichincha, in 1822. As a curiosity, he was known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho".  Francisco de Miranda Francisco de Miranda was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. The independence struggle in northern Latin America began in 1806, when Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda first attempted to liberate his homeland with British help. This attempt failed, but Miranda returned in 1810 to head up the First Venezuelan Republic with Simón Bolívar and others.Bolívar fought the Spanish in Venezuela, Ecuador and Colombia for several years, decisively beating them several times. By 1822, those countries were free, and Bolívar set his sights on Peru, the last and mightiest Spanish holdout on the continent. Along with his close friend and subordinate Antonio José de Sucre, Bolívar won two important victories in 1824: at Junín, on August 6, and at Ayacucho on December 9. Their forces routed, the Spanish signed a peace agreement shortly after the battle of Ayacucho. 12
  13. 13. CONSEQUENCES Effects of independence of the Spanish colonies in America were economics, society and Government and politics. Trade monopoly disappeared causing the impoverishment of many Latin American regions could not compete with the industries of Europe and, for America, Bolivar's dream of creating a United States of South America failed in the Congress of Panama (1826). However, the opinion of some American is very different, as they claim that their countries independence allowed the opportunity to develop according to needs and gave themselves more equitable justice among its ethnic components. So the colonies depended economically of France and England. After independence this was divided into many countries but none of them succeeded to a good economy, politics, social organization ... so these have lagged behind not only Spain but also in many other countries of the world. In the first 25 years, of the creation the new countries in the South of America, there were many characteristics that can be synthesized in four points:  Simon Bolivar try to create a union between the new countries, but after his death it was eliminated the Federation Grancolombiana (1930) giving rise to Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. In 1821, the Federation of Central America was dispersed in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama. In 1830, the South was dispersed in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile.  Disaster in the social stability: Criollos monopolised the power and the wealth, and they didn't pay taxes. So a lot of peasant created riots. The political independence didn't determined the economic independence  Spain kept Cuba, Filipina, Puerto Rico and Pacific archipelagos until 1898 with the Paris’ Treatise. The roll of Great Britain During the 18th century, Great Britain was the great enemy of Spain in America, because the British wanted to expand their land possessions and above all they wanted to break the Spanish trade monopoly with the colonies. Great Britain had colonies in North America and some enclaves in Central America. In addition, Britain had obtained major business benefits in South America with the Treaty of Utrecht, and thanks to its naval superiority boats, they traded with certain ease with the ports of the Spanish America. Spain and France, allies, fought against Great Britain in several conflicts such as the Seven Years War or the Independence War of the United States (1775-1783). Spain, like France, supported the rebel colonists against the British metropolis. This support, although hesitant at the beginning by the Spanish, was fundamental to the British were defeated. In fact, some battle decisive in this race had an important Spanish participation. After the first Treaty of San Ildefonso (1796) Spain allied itself with France. Britain comes immediately lead to the lifting of the Spanish colonies, but it was only heard by Venezuela, whose insurrectional movement failed. 13
  14. 14. Later, after the Spanish defeat of Trafalgar (1805), the American colonies were isolated from Spain and began to trade with neutral countries, which contributed to strengthening their quest for autonomy. In addition, the failed attempts of the British Empire to occupy South American mainland territories directly as the British attack on Cuba and Cartagena de Indias in the War of Jenkins's Ear (1741) or the British invasions in the Rio de la Plata in 1806 and 1807, which led to generate awareness and capabilities Hispano own powers and the creation of several local military bodies such as the Patricios Regiment. Years later, during the Spanish Independence War (1808-1813), Britain maintained a double game: while the armies of Wellington helped to fight against the troops of Napoleon, the British extend commercially by new world markets and thus face the Continental blockade decreed by Napoleon. Great Britain wanted to establish a free trade with the American independent countries, which gave support in their territory to the formation of the lodges that would support the independence of America and its leaders, which ended up being the leaders of the independence of America, such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín. Britain also supported the logistics of the independence forces. They handled the transfer and armed of the pro-independence troops, as the more than 5,000 Polish infantry. Both England and USA sold guns and warships to the American insurgents. Personal Opinion The essay about ‘the Independence of colonies’ has been a simple topic to talk because we have seen the situation of Spain in class. Nevertheless, search information was quite difficult because there were a lot of pages very long which we had to sum up in a only paragraph. In conclusion, the independence of colonies had a great importance in 19th century in Spain. The lose of honor was a principal point in the Spanish literature (the generation of 98). The pessimistic and unfortunate situation in Spain was also an important issue, such us Antonio Machado 14
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