WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:␣ Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. ␣Uses all of the documents. ␣ Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. ␣ Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. ␣ Identiﬁes and explains the need for at least one additional type of document. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.1. Using the documents, Analyze factors that led to the failures of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
"Qing Dynasty." EMuseum: China. Minnesota State University, 2006. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.Internal rebellions further weakened China. The Tai Ping rebellion is one of the most famous. Itsleader also instituted religious changes among his followers. He mixed elements of Christianity andtraditional Chinese religion, along with ideas of his own. He believed in communal property, and theequality of men and women among other things. Other uprisings which greatly affected China wereknown as the Mohammedan risings, which were more separate events than uprisings connected toeach other. The problems caused by internal rebellion were further intensiﬁed by JapansWesternization and goal of conquering the surrounding countries to provide both a buffer againstattacks against Japan itself and to provide trading networks. Russia too began to come into contactwith China and treaties were signed which deﬁned the China/Russia border and allowed for types oftrade."Ming dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-9052837>.Struggles with tribes of various nationalities continued throughout the Ming period. Clasheswith Mongols were nearly incessant. During the first decades of the dynasty, the Mongolswere driven north to Outer Mongolia, but the Ming could not claim a decisive victory. Fromthen onward, the Ming were generally able to maintain their northern border, though bythe later stages of the dynasty it in effect only reached the line of the Great Wall. On thenortheast, the Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen), who rose in the northeast around theend of the 16th century, pressed the Ming army to withdraw successively southward, andeventually the Ming made the east end of the Great Wall their last line of defense."Qing dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-9082155>.Under the emperor Kangxi (reigned 1661–1722) the Manchus forced the Russians to abandon their fort atAlbazin, located along the Manchurian border on the Amur River. In 1689 a treaty was concluded withRussia at Nerchinsk demarcating the northern extent of the Manchurian boundary at the Argun River. Overthe next 40 years the Dzungar Mongols were defeated, and the empire was extended to include OuterMongolia, Tibet, Dzungaria, Turkistan, and Nepal. Under the two emperors Yongzheng (reigned 1722–35)and Qianlong (reigned 1735–96) commerce continued to thrive, handicraft industries prospered, and RomanCatholic missionaries were tolerated and employed as astronomers and artists. In addition, painting,printmaking, and porcelain manufacture flourished, and scientific methods of philology were developed.But subsequent rulers were unable to meet the problems caused by increased population pressure andconcentration of land ownership. The Manchu armies deteriorated, and popular unrest, aggravated bysevere floods and famine, resulted in the Taiping (1850–64) and Nian (1853–68) rebellions. Efforts atmodernization and westernization met opposition from conservative officials, and bureaucratic inefficiencyand corruption became widespread. The first Opium War (1839–42), the Anglo-French War (1856–58), theSino-Japanese War (1894–95), and the Boxer Rebellion (1900) all resulted in defeats for China and thegranting of major concessions to Western powers. By 1900 revolutionary groups had begun to formthroughout the country. The Oct. 10, 1911, Republican Revolution led to the abdication of the boy emperorXuantong (better known as Puyi) and the transfer of authority to the provisional government under YuanShikai.
Qing dynasty: late Qing dynasty. Map/Still. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.school.eb.com/eb/art-109221>.Subhuti, Dharmananda. Kangxi, 2nd Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (1662-1722 A.D.). Institutionfor Additional Medicine, Portland, OR. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.itmonline.org/arts/dynasties.htm>.
Source: Bentley, Jerry. Traditional Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd.1st. New York: Mcgraw Hill Company, 2006. 724. Print.“The vigor of early Ming rule did not survive beyond the mid sixteenth century, when aseries of problems weakened the dynasty. From the 1520s to the 1560s, pirates andsmugglers operated almost at will along the east coast of China. (Although Ming officialsreferred to the pirates as Japanese, in fact most of them were Chinese.) BOth the Mingnavy and coastal defenses were ineffective, and conflicts with pirates often led to thedisruption of coastal communities and sometimes even interior regions. In 1555, forexample, a band of sixty-seven pirates went on a three month rampage during whichthey looted a dozen cities in three provinces and killed more than four thousandpeople.” Document 2 (Primary)Source: " M i n g D y n a s t y . " w w w . T r a v e l C h i n a T r a d e . c o m . N . p . ,26/10/2010. Web. 1 Dec 2010. <http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=200331&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H>.The end of the Ming Dynasty started from the last emperor, Emperor Weizongs reign -the reign went by the name Chongzhen. The crisis of the Ming Dynasty was caused bythe corruption of the court officials and the domination of the eunuchs. In that period,both the exploitation from the ruling class and natural disasters in successive yearscaused the people to live in extreme hardship. In 1628, dozens of rebel military forceslaunched battles in the northern area of Shaaxi Province. Among them, one of theleaders of the rebel army was named Li Zicheng, and he was deeply trusted andsupported by most peasants. In 1644, Li Zicheng captured Xian and founded a newregime called Dashun. In the same year, Emperor Weizong hanged himself in JingshanHill of Beijing, signifying the end of the Ming Dynasty.
Document 3Source:"Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)." http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/ming/index.htm. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec 2010. <http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/ming/index.htm>.Zhu Yijun, the next emperor Shenzong, keen for reforms, appointed Zhang Juzheng asminister to bring about change.In spite of the opposition from the nobles, Zhang Juzheng measured the farmland of thewhole state, which increased the financial and tax income. He constructed the waterconservancy of the Yellow River, and practiced One Lash Method (a kind of tax policy)to reduce the burden of the peasants. He reduced the unnecessary government officialsto save the state fiscal expenditures.He constructed more than three thousand defending stations between the ShanhaiPass and the Juyong Pass to reinforce the northern border defense. Through hisreform, Ming Dynasty came to another prosperous period since Emperor Yingzong.After Emperor Shenzong, Ming Dynasty began to decline. In 1628, Emperor Sizong, thelast emperor of the Ming Dynasty, came to the throne, when the Ming Dynasty was incivil disorder already. In 1631, Ming Dynasty armies were defeated by the armies of LiZicheng and Zhang Xianzhong in Sichuan and Henan Provinces. In 1644, Li Zichengsarmy captured Beijing, and Emperor Sizong hanged himself in despair. Ming Dynastyended. Document 4
Source:"Ming Dynasty." Student Research Center. Web. 9 Dec 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/src/detail?vid=7&hid=105&sid=2aa87340-579c-49ca-a6b5-5a8e7ec2c98a%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9c3JjLWxpdmU%3d#db=mih&authdb=imh&AN=imh71760>. Document 5Source: "Emperor Tai Zu, Zhu Yuanzhang." Emperor Tai Zu, Zhu Yuanzhang, 1368 --1398, Ming Dynasty. Web. 11 Dec 2010. <http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/Ming-1368-Tai-Zu.html>.