WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:␣ Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. ␣Uses all of the documents. ␣ Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. ␣ Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. ␣ Identiﬁes and explains the need for at least one additional type of document. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.1. Using the documents, Analyze factors that led to the failures of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Document 1 (Book) Source: Bentley, Jerry. Traditional Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd.1st. New York: Mcgraw Hill Company, 2006. 724. Print.“The vigor of early Ming rule did not survive beyond the mid sixteenth century, when aseries of problems weakened the dynasty. From the 1520s to the 1560s, pirates andsmugglers operated almost at will along the east coast of China. (Although Ming officialsreferred to the pirates as Japanese, in fact most of them were Chinese.) BOth the Mingnavy and coastal defenses were ineffective, and conflicts with pirates often led to thedisruption of coastal communities and sometimes even interior regions. In 1555, forexample, a band of sixty-seven pirates went on a three month rampage during whichthey looted a dozen cities in three provinces and killed more than four thousandpeople.” Document 2 (Primary)Source: " M i n g D y n a s t y . " w w w . T r a v e l C h i n a T r a d e . c o m . N . p . ,26/10/2010. Web. 1 Dec 2010. <http://school.nettrekker.com/goExternal?np=/external.ftl&pp=/error.ftl&evlCode=200331&productName=school&HOMEPAGE=H>.The end of the Ming Dynasty started from the last emperor, Emperor Weizongs reign -the reign went by the name Chongzhen. The crisis of the Ming Dynasty was caused bythe corruption of the court officials and the domination of the eunuchs. In that period,both the exploitation from the ruling class and natural disasters in successive yearscaused the people to live in extreme hardship. In 1628, dozens of rebel military forceslaunched battles in the northern area of Shaaxi Province. Among them, one of the
leaders of the rebel army was named Li Zicheng, and he was deeply trusted andsupported by most peasants. In 1644, Li Zicheng captured Xian and founded a newregime called Dashun. In the same year, Emperor Weizong hanged himself in JingshanHill of Beijing, signifying the end of the Ming Dynasty. Document 3Source:"Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)." http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/ming/index.htm. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec 2010. <http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/ming/index.htm>.Zhu Yijun, the next emperor Shenzong, keen for reforms, appointed Zhang Juzheng asminister to bring about change.In spite of the opposition from the nobles, Zhang Juzheng measured the farmland of thewhole state, which increased the financial and tax income. He constructed the waterconservancy of the Yellow River, and practiced One Lash Method (a kind of tax policy)to reduce the burden of the peasants. He reduced the unnecessary government officialsto save the state fiscal expenditures.He constructed more than three thousand defending stations between the ShanhaiPass and the Juyong Pass to reinforce the northern border defense. Through hisreform, Ming Dynasty came toanother prosperousperiod since EmperorYingzong.After Emperor Shenzong, MingDynasty began to decline. In1628, Emperor Sizong, the last
emperor of the Ming Dynasty, came to the throne, when the Ming Dynasty was in civildisorder already. In 1631, Ming Dynasty armies were defeated by the armies of LiZicheng and Zhang Xianzhong in Sichuan and Henan Provinces. In 1644, Li Zichengsarmy captured Beijing, and Emperor Sizong hanged himself in despair. Ming Dynastyended. Document 4Source:"Ming Dynasty." Student Research Center. Web. 9 Dec 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/src/detail?vid=7&hid=105&sid=2aa87340-579c-49ca-a6b5-5a8e7ec2c98a%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9c3JjLWxpdmU%3d#db=mih&authdb=imh&AN=imh71760>. Document 5Source: "Emperor Tai Zu,Zhu Yuanzhang." Emperor Tai Zu,Zhu Yuanzhang, 1368 -- 1398,Ming Dynasty. Web. 11 Dec
Document 6"Qing Dynasty." EMuseum: China. Minnesota State University, 2006. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.Internal rebellions further weakened China. The Tai Ping rebellion is one of the most famous.Its leader also instituted religious changes among his followers. He mixed elements ofChristianity and traditional Chinese religion, along with ideas of his own. He believed incommunal property, and the equality of men and women among other things. Other uprisingswhich greatly affected China were known as the Mohammedan risings, which were moreseparate events than uprisings connected to each other. The problems caused by internalrebellion were further intensiﬁed by Japans Westernization and goal of conquering thesurrounding countries to provide both a buffer against attacks against Japan itself and to providetrading networks. Russia too began to come into contact with China and treaties were signedwhich deﬁned the China/Russia border and allowed for types of trade. Document 7"Ming dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-9052837>.Struggles with tribes of various nationalities continued throughout the Ming period.Clashes with Mongols were nearly incessant. During the first decades of the dynasty,the Mongols were driven north to Outer Mongolia, but the Ming could not claim adecisive victory. From then onward, the Ming were generally able to maintain theirnorthern border, though by the later stages of the dynasty it in effect only reachedthe line of the Great Wall. On the northeast, the Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, orRuzhen), who rose in the northeast around the end of the 16th century, pressed theMing army to withdraw successively southward, and eventually the Ming made the
Document 8"Qing dynasty." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-9082155>.Under the emperor Kangxi (reigned 1661–1722) the Manchus forced the Russians to abandon their fortat Albazin, located along the Manchurian border on the Amur River. In 1689 a treaty was concludedwith Russia at Nerchinsk demarcating the northern extent of the Manchurian boundary at the ArgunRiver. Over the next 40 years the Dzungar Mongols were defeated, and the empire was extended toinclude Outer Mongolia, Tibet, Dzungaria, Turkistan, and Nepal. Under the two emperors Yongzheng(reigned 1722–35) and Qianlong (reigned 1735–96) commerce continued to thrive, handicraft industriesprospered, and Roman Catholic missionaries were tolerated and employed as astronomers and artists.In addition, painting, printmaking, and porcelain manufacture flourished, and scientific methods ofphilology were developed. But subsequent rulers were unable to meet the problems caused byincreased population pressure and concentration of land ownership. The Manchu armies deteriorated,and popular unrest, aggravated by severe floods and famine, resulted in the Taiping (1850–64) andNian (1853–68) rebellions. Efforts at modernization and westernization met opposition fromconservative officials, and bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption became widespread. The firstOpium War (1839–42), the Anglo-French War (1856–58), the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), and theBoxer Rebellion (1900) all resulted in defeats for China and the granting of major concessions to
Document 9Qing dynasty: late Qing dynasty. Map/Still. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.school.eb.com/eb/art-109221>.