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3 D Printing / Additive Manufacturing

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  • Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital model.3D printing is achieved using additive processes, where laying down successive layers of material creates an object.The technology also finds use in the fields of jewellery, footwear, industrial design, architecture, engineering and construction (AEC), automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education, geographic information systems, civil engineering, and many others.Three-dimensional printing from digital designs will transform manufacturing and allow more people to start making things.
  • General Principles The use of additive manufacturing takes virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD), animation modeling software or even scanning using special techniques, transforms them into thin, virtual, horizontal cross-sections and then creates successive layers until the model is complete. It is a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You get) process where the virtual model and the physical model are almost identical. The primary advantage to additive fabrication is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature.
  • There are several technologies differing mainly in the way layers are built to create parts. Some melt or soften material to produce layers (SLS, FDM), while others lay liquid materials thermosets that are cured with different technologies. Lamination systems cut thin layers to shape and join them together.
  • FDM works using a plastic filament or metal wire which is unwound from a coil and supplies material to an extrusion nozzle which can turn the flow on and off. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism, directly controlled by a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software package. The model or part is produced by extruding small beads of thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle. Stepper motors or servo motors are typically employed to move the extrusion head. The molten polymer used is often Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polycarbonate (PC), Polylactic acid (PLA), PC/ABS, Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), Ultem 9085 etc.
  • FDM works using a plastic filament or metal wire which is unwound from a coil and supplies material to an extrusion nozzle which can turn the flow on and off. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism, directly controlled by a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software package. The model or part is produced by extruding small beads of thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle. Stepper motors or servo motors are typically employed to move the extrusion head. The molten polymer used is often Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polycarbonate (PC), Polylactic acid (PLA), PC/ABS, Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), Ultem 9085 etc.
  • Ultra-small features may be made by the 3D microfabrication technique of multiphotonphotopolymerization. In this approach, the desired 3D object is traced out in a block of gel by a focused laser. The gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused, because of the nonlinear nature of photoexcitation, and then the remaining gel is washed away. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures such as moving and interlocked parts.
  • IIT Delhi has it….
  • A proof-of-principle project at the University of Glasgow, UK, in 2012 has shown that it is possible to use 3D printing techniques to create chemical compounds, including new ones. Even a smartphone can be used as 3D scanner: at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show, Sculpteo unveiled a mobile app that allows a 3D file to be generated directly with a smartphone.
  • Institutions for reseach prototypes
  • This rapid development of open source 3D printers is gaining interest in both the developed as well as the developing world as it enables both hyper-customization and the use of designs in the public domain to fabricate open source appropriate technology through conduits such as Thingiverse.
  • 3D printing will soon allow digital object storage and transportation, as well as personal manufacturing and very high levels of product customization.
  • During the 2011 London Design Festival, an installation, curated by Murray Moss and focused on 3D Printing, took place in the Victoria and Albert Museum (the V&A). The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2.0:
  • It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did....Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or The Printing Press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.
  • Transcript

    • 1. - Rishabh SardanaBE ECE (5th Semester)UE105079
    • 2. Imagine a future in which a device connected toyour computer can print a solid object.
    • 3.  Additive manufacturing or 3Dprinting is a process of makingthree-dimensional solid objectsfrom a digital model. Additive processes - laying downsuccessive layers of materialcreates an object.3 D Printers
    • 4. General Principle Virtual designs from Computer Aided Design (CAD) Animation modeling software Scanning using special techniques Creates successive layers until the model is complete WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) process The primary advantage to additive fabrication - ability to createalmost any shape or geometric feature
    • 5. Selective Laser Sintering Thermoplastics, metalspowders, ceramic powdersDirect metal laser sintering (DMLS) Almost any alloy metalFused deposition modeling (FDM) Thermoplastics, eutectic metalsStereo lithography (SLA) PhotopolymerLaminated objectmanufacturing (LOM)Paper, foil, plastic filmElectron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloysPowder bed and inkjet head 3dprintingPlaster-based 3D printing (PP)Plaster, Colored PlasterVarious Technologies
    • 6.  Uses melting or softening material to produce the layers• Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)• Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Lay liquid materials that are cured with different technologies• Stereo Lithography (SLA) Thin layers are cut to shape and joined together (i.e. paper, polymer,metal)• Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)Methods Used In TheseTechnologies
    • 7. Criteria For UsageThe main considerations :- Speed Cost of the printed prototype Cost of the 3D Printer Choice and Cost of materials used Color Capabilities
    • 8. Molten Polymer Deposition Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) wasdeveloped in the late 1980s andcommercialized in 1990. Controlled by a Computer-AidedManufacturing (CAM) software package. Stepper motors or servo motors aretypically employed to move the extrusionhead. The molten polymer used is oftenAcrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),Polycarbonate (PC), Polylactic acid (PLA),PC/ABS, Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), Ultem9085 etc.
    • 9. Molten Polymer DepositionWORKING MECHANISM: A plastic filament or metal wire isunwound from a coil & supplies materialto an extrusion nozzle which can turnthe flow on and off. Nozzle is heated to melt the material. The model or part is produced byextruding small beads of thermoplasticmaterial to form layers as the materialhardens immediately after extrusionfrom the nozzle.
    • 10. Photo Polymerization Used to produce a solid part froma liquid in Stereo Lithography(SLA). The Objet PolyJet system uses aninkjet printer to sprayphotopolymer materials in ultra-thin layers (16 micron) layer bylayer onto a build tray until thepart is completed.
    • 11. Granular Materials Binding Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), usingmetals as well as polymers (i.e. PA,PA-GF, Rigid GF, PEEK, PS, Alumide,Carbonmide, elastomers), Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is asimilar type of additivemanufacturing technology for metalparts (i.e. titanium alloys).
    • 12.  Jewellery Footwear Industrial design Architecture Engineering andConstruction (AEC) Automotive Aerospace Dental and Medical Industries Education Geographic Information Systems Civil EngineeringApplicationThe technology finds use in the fields of :-and many others
    • 13.  Reconstructing fossils in paleontology Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology Reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology To create chemical compounds, including new ones Smartphone as 3D scanner using mobile appApplication
    • 14.  Industrial uses Rapid prototyping Rapid manufacturing Domestic and hobbyist usesApplicationAs far as we can imagine anddesign
    • 15. Printers for domesticuse Airwolf 3D Fabbster MakerBot Industries Thing-O-Matic Ultimaker Solidoodle 2 Shapercube Mosaic Prusa Huxley Afinia 3D printersRapid development of Open Source 3D printersThese printers include:-
    • 16. Research Prospective Space manufacturing Architecture Online product purchase3D printing will soon allow digital object storage andtransportation,as well as personal manufacturing and very high levels of productcustomization.
    • 17.  Astronauts will use 3d printing machines that can make anyobject that astronauts need – even metal machine parts NASA is already testing additive manufacturing machines - 3Dprinters that create objects layer by layer - in low-gravity parabolicflights on EarthSpace Manufacturing
    • 18. Industrial Revolution 2.0• London Design in the Victoria and Albert Museum• The installation was calledIndustrial Revolution 2.0: How the Material Worldwill Newly Materialize
    • 19. ADVANTAGES Digital object storage Digital object delivery More local manufacturing Reduced Materials wastage Increased customization
    • 20. Conclusion Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as itis to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of sale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of thefactory did. Nobody could have predicted the impact of the Printing Press in 1450 Steam Engine in 1750 Transistor in 1950The technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.