SOCIOLINGUISTICS

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SPEECH FUNCTION, POLITENESS, and CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

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SOCIOLINGUISTICS

  1. 1. Bitalika Nita (125110501111037) Dina Tri (125110507111052)
  2. 2.       Expressive utterances, express the speaker’s feeling Directive utterances attempt to get someone to do something Referential utterances provide information Metalinguistic utterances comment on language itself Poetic utterances focus on aesthetic features of language Phatic utterances, express solidarity and empathy with others
  3. 3.   Directives are intended linguistic utterances to get someone to do something Directives divided into three: -imperative (orders and commands) -interrogative (polite attempts) -declarative (polite attempts) - hints (polite attempts)
  4. 4.    the social distance between participants Their relative status, And, the formality of the context
  5. 5.  Imperatives -close friends -teachers  pupils (use clear-cut) *clear-cut are the rules for classroom behaviour that it has been suggested that pupils operate with a very general ruleof the form scan every utterance of the teacher for directive intent* -Superiors subordinate -Family -higher status  lower status
  6. 6.  Imperatives -close friends -teachers  pupils (use clear-cut) *clear-cut are the rules for classroom behaviour that it has been suggested that pupils operate with a very general ruleof the form scan every utterance of the teacher for directive intent* -Superiors subordinate -Family -higher status  lower status
  7. 7.    Interogative, declarative, and hints -subordinate  superiors -female  male -superiors subordinate (in special context) -lower status  higher status Imperatives are used between people who knows each other well or subordinates Interrogatives and declarations, including hints tend to be used between those who are less familiar each other, or where there is some reason to feel the task being requested is not routine.
  8. 8.    Speaking politeness involves taking account of the feelings of others Speaking politeness is understanding not just the language, but also the social and cultural values of the community Somehow, a great deal of speaking politeness depends on intonation and tone of voice
  9. 9. Positive politeness is solidarity oriented. It emphasises shared attitudes and values. *positive politeness move, expressing solidarity and minimising status differences. 2. Negative politeness pays people respect and avoids intruding on them. negative politeness involves expressing oneself appropriately in terms of social distance and respecting status differences. 1.
  10. 10.   Anyone who has travelled outside their on speech is likely to have had some experience of miscommunication based on differences. We automaticly make many unconcious sociolinguistics assumption about what people mean when they ask a particular question or make a statement.
  11. 11.   there are sociolinguistics rules for polite acceptance and refusal which differ crossculturally. The ways of expressing the same speech act may differ quite markedly from one culture to another.
  12. 12.        example : How are you? Where are you going? Have you eaten? Where do you come from? Are you married? How much do you earn? What do you weight?
  13. 13.  in different cultures each of these question is perfectly acceptable as part of a normal greeting routine. They are formulas, and the expected answer is ritualistic. Example: A : How are you? B : I’m fine
  14. 14.   Greeting formulas universally serve an affective function of establishing non-threating contact and rapport, but their precise content is clearly culture specific. The sociolinguistics rules governing more formal meeting are ussually equally culturally prescribed.
  15. 15. So when we want to make utterances, greetings, or doing something to other people, we have to know the politeness and the cross cultural communication.

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