Applying Behavior Designor Behavior: you’re soaking in it.Chris Risdon @chrisrisdonSXSW 2012#sxbehavior #behavior Ive been a workaday practitioner for close to 15 years. While Ive done a lot of design research, I dont have a background in academic research. A lot of people, much, much smarter than me, have created the foundation for this topic. What I’ve been motivated to do the past 3–4 years is to understand how all that we’re learning about designing for behavior change and persuasive technology translates practically to my work designing products and services today.
Applying Behavior DesignWhat are we talking about?Why now?Where does it live?How do we apply it? I’m taking a reporter’s angle with this topic - What, Why, Where and How.
What is Behavior Design?What is persuasive technology?
Behavior Design: 2009The next big thing. While this topic is nothing new, 2009 was when it hit a tipping point in our profession, becoming a more prominently discussed, defined and illustrated.
Nine Experiences for 2009“Whether it’s to extend your paycheck or conserve your energy, there’s plenty of reasons for people to change how they behave this year.” —Brandon Shauer
“Behavior is our medium.” —Robert Fabricant, 2009
Every design decisioninfluences the user.(however benevolent the intent) A long standing belief that I’ve held as a designer since I started in the 90s.
“Life as it is.” —Dziga VertovDocumentary filmmaking is an analogy I’ve often used. Long considered the “objective” formof cinema, in contrast to fictional, scripted and reenacted films. However, the moment you“frame” a story with constraints (for example tell a story in 2 hours that played out over 2years), you make decisions; where the filmmaker points the camera, how they edit the story,all these decision affect how the view receives—perceives and understands—the story.Interaction design is no different.
Un off ici al!Behavior Design (short for designing for behavior change)Design with the intent to change someone’s behavioror attitude.Persuasive TechnologyTechnology designed to persuade the user to use asystem or platform in a desired way.(may/may not have intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude) These are unofficial definitions that may differ from academic thinking. This represents my synthesis and understand and how I’ve chosen to make sense of them in the context of my work.
909992004: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s halfway around the world. But the story understandably createssympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the redcross.org.To do this, you may need to take your flight, get home, remember that you wanted to donate, then go through traditional ecommerce funnel,providing billing address and credit card details. Then you also have to think, “how much do I want to donate?”You have to be fairly motivated to follow-through and donate.
909992010: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Yourheart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s in another part of the world. But the story understandably createssympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the Red Cross by texting “Haiti” to 90999. $10 will be added to yourphone bill.You pull out your phone there at the bar (it can even be a feature phone), type 90999, and “Haiti”, hit send, and you’re done. No billing, andit’s just $10. And you feel good about helping out.
Opportune Moments We can see these “triggers” at other opportune moments. How about when you go to the pet store and buy pet supplies? The POS credit card swiper asks if you want to add $1 to your charge to help animal shelters. You’re already spending $50, what’s $51? And you’ll feel good about donating, since you do love animals. Would they be just as successful if they gave you a flyer that made the case to donate and asked you to get online and donate an unspecified amount?
But modeling the relationship between motivation and ability have been around for a while.Reducing friction, making something easier to facilitate moving motivated people forward.Marketers and businesses have been trying to crack this code for a long time.
Robert CialdiniRobert Cialdini wrote Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion in the 90s, and not in thecontext of technology...
ReciprocityCommitment & ConsistencySocial ProofAuthorityLikingScarcity ...yet his “6 weapons of influence” are more pervasive than ever in our digital products and services.
Dan ArielyPredictably IrrationalThe Upsideof Irrationality http://www.flickr.com/photos/ billhr/3266119190/
Let’s say I have a half a box of chocolates open here in front of you. I will give you this half box ofchocolates now, or I will a full box of chocolates in a week. Most people will select the half box ofchocolates now.If you ask if they want a half box of chocolates in a month, or a full box in a month and one week, theywill be able to think rationally and select the full box.
Active Design “ Active Design is the idea that we can design...buildings to encourage people to get more exercise... By attacking obesity through urban design and architecture, governments are beginning to realize that designers might be their best warriors in the battle against obesity and its costs.Active Design are guidelines by the city in conjunctionwith architects and urban planning academics. ” —Fast Company
Active Design “ This strategy recognizes that the public’s underlying motivations are not about health, but rather, about what is ” convenient and enjoyable.These examples reinforce the fact that we, asdesigners, are not simply designing for cognition – —Fast Companyor to support behavior.
Lots of patterns and heuristics that can be used for idiation. This has just been thetip of the iceberg, we could spend the whole talk as a survey of behavior designthinking. But this is just meant to make things more concrete so we have a common Dan Locktonframe of reference. Design with Intent Stephen Anderson Mental Note Cards Fabrique Insights
Data The utility and pervasiveness of data has grown. When considering products and services that are utilized to change personal behavior, data is the raw material that everything is based on.
Feedback Loops The feedback loop, the response or feedback someone gets when they interact with a system—a core interaction design principle. The idea that as people ‘interact’ with a system through tracking their behaviors, it’s the feedback loop, they response they get from the system (cue’s, visualizations, etc.) with the data that tells the story.
Data > Information > Knowledge The “Knowledge Hierarchy”
Data > Visualization > Story Another way to look at it, in the context of our new products and features.
Passive data collection (or reduced to a few taps—i.e. the check-in), enablesthe feedback loop. The cycle of data collection to feedback is realtime -which didn’t exist in a mass produced scale prior to circa 2007.
Our behaviors write the story. Our actions create data, that data is visualizedover time to tell a story. We have an emotional response to this story thatinfluences how we will continue to ‘write the story’ with future behaviors.
http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/postersWe’ve been mapping data over time to visualize information and tell storiesfor a long time. But now technology has opened a floodgate in it’s ability tocollect the data at a mass scale for consumers/individuals, and the ability toprovide the feedback loop enables people to act on that information.
20 years ago, you had to manually enter your transactions. Scanning and looking atyour purchases was the feedback loop. Manual entry was the collection of the data.You had to be highly motivated to maintain this and use it to influence yourspending behavior (remember the Fogg model)
Spreadsheets came along, made it easier to scan over time, sort for differentinformation, but the “story” was still not easily digestible and you had to behighly motivated to do this.
In the 90s we got Microsoft Money and Quicken. You still had to manuallyenter your data (still needed high motivation), but now the software did theheavy lifting, providing visualized feedback of your spending habits over time.You could now more easily see the story of your behavior and respond to it.
And now today, once we had over access to our financial institutions, thedata is collected completely passively, and turned into feedback(visualizations, alerts) that give insight and cues regarding our behavior.
Most of the new wave of products is based on thedata/feedback loop model.
Usability/Utility PersuasionIn some camps, certain techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a means to aidcognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product, the user will be morelikely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But others, such as an informationarchitect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition, allowing the user to better complete theactivity, or understand how to use the product.
Usability/Utility PersuasionAmazon One Click is a persuasive tool designed to prompt more impulsepurchases (think: reduce friction, increase ability).But it’s not a binary proposition only in Amazon’s interest. The feature has value tothe user, it makes purchasing an item easier.
Usability/Utility Persuasion Good Defaults (AKA Smart Defaults) are intended to aid in completing forms or wizards easily and correctly. But it also persuades the user’s actions. People will be less likely to consider their options. This ‘cognitive shortcut’ persuades the user to go with the system defaults.
Clearly intent and purpose are key. Defaults can be pushed within thespectrum, like in the case of defaulting to “yes” in selecting organ donationwhen applying for a driver’s license, and needing to opt out.Countries that require opt-out have very high organ donation volunteerism,and countries that require you to opt in are much lower. Usability/Utility Persuasion Example: Organ Donation Opt-in vs. Opt-out
Let’s take the scale and add a second axis. This is the user’s awareness of your intent as a designer. (or as a product/service) High Awareness (of your intent) Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
We’ve seen where features like good defaults and one-click are. We can plot other design patterns, such as progress indicators. These don’t “declare” their intent, yet they don’t deliberately conceal it either. High Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Manipulation: all persuasion with no value to the user Deception: covert in intentions Stay away from this ethically mucky area. This is where you see products High and services that hide their true (deception) and involve you in a service that you were not aware of or didn’t explicitly approve (manipulation). Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Generally, ‘features’ (micro persuasion) will be lower in intent. While we’ll see products and services (macro persuasion) up top as they have a clearly stated value proposition (creating explicit awareness of their intent). High Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Applications with high utility (iTunes, Gmail, Basecamp, etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value proposition. A product like Basecamp deliberately constrains features, as part of their value proposition, so they may move slightly to the right of the scale, as High the product’s features will influence how you manage your projects with the tool. Gmail iTunes Basecamp Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
We now have an influx of products and services, enabled by technology, that are designed with the intent of influencing our behavior. Intent is made clear, usually in value proposition (reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.) High Gmail Nike+ Nest Weight iTunes Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Behavior change as value proposition. High Gmail Nike+ Nest Weight iTunes Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion Usability AwarenessMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Behavior Changeas Value PropositionValue proposition is directly related to behavior.System makes recommendations or guidance.Data collection is primary featureBehavior is measurable. (feedback loop)Scaling self-determination(some products you have to use as prescribed)Personal(health, environment, finances, personal habits)
UtilityWhat areas are do you want toaffect change/apply persuasion?Onboarding !Sign-upsProfile completion ? ? ?Transaction funnels
Behavior ChangeWhat is the behavior change?How is that story told(data/feedback) ? ?What is the value prop?(customer value with business value)Implicit?Explicit?
ResearchStrategy drives questions you want tohave answered.MotivationKnowledge (i.e. awareness and understanding)Doubts/Barriers (i.e. security issues)Ability (drives how story is told)-Mental model with behavior profile-Thinking, feeling, doing
Behavior Heuristics“ Rules (of thumb) that people might follow when ” interacting with a system. —Dan Lockton“ Asking users questions about how and why they behaved in certain ways with technology led to answers which were ” resolvable into something like rules. http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior HeuristicsPeel back layersSimilar to “5 Whys”“Let’s look in more detail at ‘People will do what theysee other people doing’: Why? Why will people dowhat they see other people doing? If we break thisdown, asking ‘Why?’ a couple of times, we get totease out some slightly different possible factors.” http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior Heuristics ▶ If lots of people are doing it, do itCreate heuristics or principles Show directly how many (or what proportion of) people are choosing an option ▶ If people like me are doing it, do it Show the user that his or her peers, or people in a similar situation, make a particular choice ▶ If people that I aspire to be like are doing it, do it Show the user that aspirational figures are making a particular choice ▶ If something worked before, do it again Remind the user what worked last time ▶ If an expert recommends it, do it Show the user that expert figures are making a particular choice http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Design PrinciplesExamplesLearn while doingSuggestions, not choicesProvide conceptual anchors.Treat every visit like it’s their secondto last visit. Not too specific Can design against, matching patterns to principles
Mapping e Map Rail Europe Experienc t is respectful, effective People value service tha plans over time. Guiding Principles People build their travel and personable. part of people’s larger Rail booking is only one because it is People choose rail travel travel process. ﬂexible. convenient, easy, and Post Travel vel Travel Post-Booking, Pre-Tra Customer Journey Booking Share experience Shopping STAGES Research & Planning Activities, unexpected chan ges Follow-up on refunds for booking changes arrive Delivery Payment Review & Wait for paper tickets to Enter trips Review fares Conﬁrm conﬁrm options options itinerary Share routes and products Select pass(es) Research destinations, photos RAIL EUROPE Change Check ticket E-ticket Print plans status at Station Get stamp Web Destination Look up for refund pages time tables Share Live chat for experience raileurope.com questions (reviews) Buy additional Map itinerary Plan with tickets (ﬁnding pass) interactive map May call if difﬁculties View occur web/ maps apps DOING Print e-tickets Plan/ Kayak, Paper tickets Mail tickets Blogs & at home Look up conﬁrm Request compare arrive in mail for refund Travel sites airfare timetables Arrange activities refunds travel Web Talk with Google Research I was not able to use. Not searches hotels • Trying to return ticket friends grab a train but there are sure if I’ll get a refund or not. • I just ﬁgured we could these photos! need? can we do now? • People are going to love routes and availability s • Do I have everything I not more trains. What s, passes and reservation easy and friendly, but on the right train? If not, what next? Next time, we will explo re but I’m willing to pay a • Do I have all the ticket I don’t pay more • Rail Europe website was n’t get help. • Am I travel plans. How do I • • I want to get the best price, I need in this booking so when an issue came up, I could • I want to make more more carefully. way to get around Europe? little more for ﬁrst class. ts don’t arrive in time? do that? • What is the easiest trip cost me? What are my shipping? ering the phone. How • What will I do if my ticke • Where do I want to go? • How much will my whole • Rail Europe is not answ answered? in each • How much time should I/we spend trade-offs? ies I can add to my plan? else can I get my ques tion tion story with THINKING place for site seeing and activities? • Are there other activit be in an unknown place in • Excited to share my vaca to • I am feeling vulnerable my friends. t to leave the country the middle of the night. ng with ticket refund • Stressed that I’m abou arrive on time for my • A bit annoyed to be deali . is easy and friendly! answer the phone. • Stressed that the train won’t issues when I just got home • Website experience and Rail Europe won’t Advisor. Everyone is sooner about which pe won’t ship tickets connection. d is fun, • It’s hard to trust Trip • Frustrated to not know which are paper tickets. • Frustrated that Rail Euro • Meeting people who want to show us aroun e! • I’m excited to go to Europthing I can? so negative. tickets are eTickets and to Europe. serendipitous, and speci al. different products arrive in time. ts in the mail! • Will I be able to see every • Keeping track of all the Not sure my tickets will • Happy to receive my ticke this? is confusing. • What if I can’t afford trip I want to take? Enjoyability FEELING the wrong choice. • Am I sure this is the • I don’t want to make Enjoyability e Enjoyability Relevance of Rail Europ e Enjoyability Relevance of Rail Europ e Relev ance of Rail Europe Helpfulness of Rail Europ Enjoyability e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ Enjoyability e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ EXPERIENCE e Helpfulness of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ POST-TRAVEL POST-BOOK, TRAVEL, and t Accommodate planning G, BOOKING Improve the paper ticke booking in Europe too. PLANNING, SHOPPIN Arm customers with information Opportunities over time. Visualize the trip for planning for making decisions. experience. ting their Enable people to plan and booking. , Travel, Post-Travel STAGE: Traveling GLOBAL help they Support people in crea STAGES: Post-Booking Help people get the ng STAGES: Shopping, Booki r value own solutions. clearly at Communicate a clea need. ing STAG ES: Planning, Shopping ple deal Communicate status proposition. STAGES: Planning, Shopp Proactively help peo all times. STAGES: Global STAGES: Global with a with change. ping and Aggregate shipping , Post Travel STAGE: Initial visit Connect planning, shop reasonable timeline. , Traveling STAGES: Post-Booking STAGES: Post-Booking Engage in social med ia with booking on the web. into better, Make your customers explicit purposes. ing, Booking STAGE: Booking Non-linear, but STAGES: Planning, Shopp more savvy travelers. Ongoing, Linear process time based Survey STAGES: Global Customer Experience non-linear Stakeholder interviews mentation STAGES: Global Information Existing Rail Europe Docu Cognitive walkthroughs Euro pe | August 2011 sources Experience Map for Rail
MappingAdds ContextAbility (drives how story is told)Map touchpoints to motivation,knowledge, doubts/barriersIdentify trigger opportunitiesReveal how story is told(data collected, feedback given, opportunities, etc.)
Target a behavior goal1-3 discreet behaviorsKeep it simpleUse less laundry detergentvs. reduce your carbon footprintCreate a storyMay be literal, or metaphorical (data)Tie to emotionUnderstand how people make decisions
“ We should look at what kind of impact people’s behavior ” should have on design. —Paola Antonelli