Introduction For my presentation Ihave chosen the topic of "the transport of wine over long distances" I used the library and internet to do my research. base all my work from the research .and I will going to use the PowerPoint slide to do the flowing presentation. First I will discuss the methods that were used for transporting wine by Romans and Greeks in ancient times. than I will discuss the methods that used by the modern wine industry for transporting wine. next I will compare these ancient and modern methods and the environmental impact. and talking about the advantage and disadvantage for each modern methods. also I will discuss the influences transporting wine has had on the overall industry. finally I will talk about the challenges for the future of transporting wine. with a spical focrs on environmental impact.
Transport wine in history The earthenware Greeks and Romans were Commonly used for transport wine in the past. Amphorae neck amphorae one-piece amphora Dolia Barrel
Amphora The ancient Greeks and Romans used amphorae to transport their wine and store their wine and grapes. They transported wine with amphorae in the Mediterranean until round about 7th century CE.(wikipdia. n.d.) They packed them together, with ropes passed through their handles to prevent breaking or toppling during rough Mediterranean seas. Around the 7th century BCE they change to using the one-piece amphora. On the top right hand side is the neck amphora. And on the bottom right hand side is the one-piece amphora. Why they changed may be that the neck amphora neck and body is the sharp angle. It can’t stand up and is easily to broken or toppling so will be hard for transport. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphora http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphora
Dolia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolium Dolia are much larger than amphorae. western in Europeanwere used to transport wine and store wine and grapes. It is so risky for using these dolia in the ancient time. because it is big and heavy. At that times so many shipwrecks happened for carrying the dolia.(wikipedia. n.d.) Barrel Barrels have been used by Europeansround about 2000 years ago. (wikipedia. n.d.)Even now we still use them. it is very useful for making wine. It can effect the wine’s color, flavor and tannin to became better wine. low level exposure to oxyen.and control the temperature well. also can be used them totransport wine . To compare the European barrel to the American barrel .American oak tends to be more intensely flavoured with more sweet and vanilla. Most winemakers will use the American oak barrel.
Transporting wine in Modern times Example the materials they currently use for transport wine. -Flexi tanks -Bottles -Cardboard casks
Flexi tank Transporting wine with flexi tanks will be cheaper than the bottles also cost less energy and carbon emissions. but high levels CO2 sparing. more risk than transporting with bottles. If just a small problem happens will be possible to lose all the wine. and spoilage, oxidation due to defective a seal on tank. http://eitonline.eit.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=87087
Transporting with bottlesThere are many packing options to protect the wine during the transportexample are Corrugated cardboard , Molded pulp , Molded PET plastic , EPS Tinney, MC. (2009).Transport with bottle will be expensive than using a flexi tank and costs too much energy. Also more carbon emissions .expensive to recycling. spoilage oxidation reduction due to temperature fluctuations during transport. But it is more safe than the flexi tank for example if the wine bottles break spoilage oxidation during the transport may be just the few bottles lost. I think changing glass bottles to plastic will be better or lower the glass bottle’s weight. so can save more energy. and cut the carbon emissions downTransportation wine in cardboard casksAdvantage for using the cardboard casks are not so easy to break during the transportation. cheaper. and get ready for sale when is arrived. convenient for the winery and the purchaser. easy to be recycling. save a lot of energy than the bottles .and less carbon emissions . Disadvantage for use cardboard cask not clean, less people will buy because it appears to not high class enough.
To compare the methods used for transporting wine between ancient and modernthe ancient methods are riskier then the modern methods. The wine will be easy to lose during thetransporting eventheir lives too. Also the earthenware their used not control the temperature as well as the modern transport methods.If we compare with the environmental impact .the ancient methods better than the modern methods .because the ancient methods haven’t left any carbon foot print in each transportation.Influences transporting wine has had on the overall industryThe wine transportation is successin New Zealand as they just need to have a good land for growing grapes and making wines. All the wine make from one place and then can export to over seas. The more people the wine industry hire allows more people buying their wines. Also can providethe local people withwork to do. In the early times people were just drinking the local wine. At that time there was no export wine to over seas or from over seas. the people want to try some new variety of the wine. which is from other country. They don’t want just stay on one Variety.
In the future the most important challenge for the wine industry is the carbon emissions. The carbon emissions can change the climate. When the climate change can be impact the growing. Also a lot of people may die because ofthe carbon emissions. TheGovernmentwill charge more tax on the product that come from over sea. So the product will be become more expensive. There are some ways to reduce the carbon emissions, like the Maersk transport company whowill change the bigger size ships, or the wine industry can lower the wine bottles weight or change the glass bottle to plastic bottles. Also the Government politicsa challenge in the future too. For example the world war .If they are not friendly to each other can impact the export . Conclusion While I was doing this presentation I learned how wine was transport by the ancient Greeks and Romans. What methods they used, and also how the modern industry transports wine. And the impact transporting has had on the overall wine industry. I learned that the carbon emissions will become the biggest challenge for the futuru. The challenges for wine transport over long distances in future
References:Boehmer, A. (2008). Why Good Wines Go Bad. Retrieved fromhttp://www.suite101.com/content/why-good-wines-go-bad-a66614Carbon emissions from shipping come under scrutiny. (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://www.globe-net.com/articles/2011/february/23/carbon-emissions-from-shipping-come-under-scrutiny.aspx?sub=15Evans, A. (2008). The shipping sector’s carbon footprint. Retrieved fromhttp://www.globaldashboard.org/2008/01/15/the-shipping-sectors-carbon-footprint/Packaging roundup. (2011). Retrieve from http://www.winebusiness.com/wbm/?go=getArticle&dataId=88152Steele, C. (n.d.). Week 13:Trans Ocean Australia [Letter]. Retrieved form Eastern Institute of Technology EIT Online Web site: http://eitonline.eit.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?inpopup=true&id=87087Tinney, MC. (2009). Product review: wine shippers. Retrieve from http://www.winebusiness.com/wbm/?go=getArticle&dataId=62877Wine Oak. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak_(wine)Amphora container. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AmphoraDlium. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolium