MATTER: "anything that has mass and volume"  3 PhasesSolid / Liquid /Gas  Elements: can not be separated naturally into sm...
An atom contains an electron cloud surrounding a  nucleus composed of a proton and neutron.Electrons have a (e-) chargePro...
The number of Protons is equal to the number of ElectronsThe atomic number =  The number of protons in a nucleus.  It dete...
Covalent “Sharing” BondsMr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
Ionic “Borrowing” BondsAfter                          Before    Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
There are seven orbital paths that               an electron can travel in.The 1 st orbital path can only hold two electro...
Most minerals crystallize                 from MAGMA or LAVA,                Molten material is a liquid                 m...
The type of mineral formed depends on two factors.          1. Types of element in the magma….          2. The melting poi...
Slow cooling promotes large crystalsFast cooling promotes fine grained or small crystals        Mr. Thompsons Earth Scienc...
Minerals and RocksA. Minerals "The building blocks of rocks”    1. Defined as…        a.   Naturally Occurring            ...
3. Rocks can be…    a.  Polyminerallic: Composed of two or more minerals     ex. Granite       Mica     Quartz     Feldspa...
B . Minerals can be identified on physical or chemical    properties   “Determined by their specific arrangement of atoms....
b.    Streak "powdered form of mineral true color"       streak or no streak         Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
c.     Hardness   "Scratch Test" Used to Identify                  minerals by the process of elimination.    Mohs Scale ...
d.     Luster: Looks like a metal or not.MetallicNonmetallic (Glassy Pearly Earthy)            Mr. Thompsons Earth Science...
e. Crystal Structure: Minerals that grow in ideal   conditions have a crystalline shape that is   determined by their I.A....
Geometric Figure w/ 4Silicon Tetrahedron                                   faces. Silicon at theSilicon =      Atoms      ...
3. ESRT Common Minerals & Elements Most abounded elementsin the lithosphere    -Oxygen        -Silicon           Mr. Thomp...
Combine to form chains or sheets.           Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
F. Cleavage: Mineral will split along a flat surface of weakness        – Due to internal arrangement of atoms - Halite   ...
Mica       Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
Conchoidal Fracture: Breaks into a chunk.       Opal       Quartz           Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
g. Specific Gravity (Density)-Arrangement of atoms and packing determines the density              Mr. Thompsons Earth Sci...
2. Chemical & Special PropertiesAcid Test: Minerals Bubble (Calcite)Taste (Halite)•Double Refraction: (Calcite)Magnetism (...
Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
SummaryThe Chemical and Physical Properties of a mineral  are determined by the internal arrangement of  atoms.      Revie...
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Minerals and Formation

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Minerals and Formation

  1. 1. MATTER: "anything that has mass and volume" 3 PhasesSolid / Liquid /Gas Elements: can not be separated naturally into smaller parts C carbon N nitrogen O Oxygen Compounds: a chemical substance formed from 2 or more elements. Water (H2O) Halite (NaCl) Chemical Formulas Calcite (CaCo3) Atoms to Minerals Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  2. 2. An atom contains an electron cloud surrounding a nucleus composed of a proton and neutron.Electrons have a (e-) chargeProtons have a (+) chargeNeutrons have a (Ø) neutral charge Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  3. 3. The number of Protons is equal to the number of ElectronsThe atomic number = The number of protons in a nucleus. It determines the chemical properties of an elementThe mass number= Number of protons + number of neutrons Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  4. 4. Covalent “Sharing” BondsMr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  5. 5. Ionic “Borrowing” BondsAfter Before Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  6. 6. There are seven orbital paths that an electron can travel in.The 1 st orbital path can only hold two electrons.The 2nd can hold 8 eThe 3rd can hold 18eThe 4th can hold 32 eThe 5th can hold 21 eThe 6th can hold 9 eThe 7th can hold 2 e Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  7. 7. Most minerals crystallize from MAGMA or LAVA, Molten material is a liquid mixture of freely moving crystals. As molten material cools crystalline solids form. Water can also produce minerals by evaporation and chemical precipitation.Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  8. 8. The type of mineral formed depends on two factors. 1. Types of element in the magma…. 2. The melting point of each mineral….Minerals with high melting point will crystallize first. Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  9. 9. Slow cooling promotes large crystalsFast cooling promotes fine grained or small crystals Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  10. 10. Minerals and RocksA. Minerals "The building blocks of rocks”  1. Defined as… a.   Naturally Occurring b.   Crystal Structure c.   Inorganic (nonliving) d.   Have a specific internal arrangement of atoms 2. Chemical composition of Minerals a. can be a single element ex. (Au) Gold (Ag) Silver b. can be a compound ex. Calcite CaCo3 Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  11. 11. 3. Rocks can be… a.  Polyminerallic: Composed of two or more minerals ex. Granite   Mica Quartz Feldsparb.  Monominerallic: Composed of one mineral                ex. Quartzite Quartz Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  12. 12. B . Minerals can be identified on physical or chemical properties “Determined by their specific arrangement of atoms.”1. Physical Characteristics a. Colo e. Cleavage b. Streak f. Specific Gravityc. Hardness g. Crystal Structure d. Lustera.     Color "outside color of mineral" Impurities discolor a mineral  Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  13. 13. b.    Streak "powdered form of mineral true color" streak or no streak Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  14. 14. c.     Hardness "Scratch Test" Used to Identify minerals by the process of elimination.  Mohs Scale of Hardness Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  15. 15. d.     Luster: Looks like a metal or not.MetallicNonmetallic (Glassy Pearly Earthy) Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  16. 16. e. Crystal Structure: Minerals that grow in ideal conditions have a crystalline shape that is determined by their I.A.A.’s Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  17. 17. Geometric Figure w/ 4Silicon Tetrahedron faces. Silicon at theSilicon = Atoms center oxygen on theOxygen = corners. Crystals with Tetrahedrons are called Silicates. Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  18. 18. 3. ESRT Common Minerals & Elements Most abounded elementsin the lithosphere -Oxygen -Silicon Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  19. 19. Combine to form chains or sheets. Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  20. 20. Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  21. 21. F. Cleavage: Mineral will split along a flat surface of weakness – Due to internal arrangement of atoms - Halite Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  22. 22. Mica Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  23. 23. Conchoidal Fracture: Breaks into a chunk.  Opal  Quartz Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  24. 24. g. Specific Gravity (Density)-Arrangement of atoms and packing determines the density   Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  25. 25. 2. Chemical & Special PropertiesAcid Test: Minerals Bubble (Calcite)Taste (Halite)•Double Refraction: (Calcite)Magnetism (Magnetite) Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  26. 26. Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
  27. 27. SummaryThe Chemical and Physical Properties of a mineral are determined by the internal arrangement of atoms. Review at www.ScienceByThompson.com Mr. Thompsons Earth Science Class
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