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Chemistry Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Powerpoint 2

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All things are made up of matter but what exactly is matter?

All things are made up of matter but what exactly is matter?

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  • 1. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Preview• Lesson Starter• Objectives• Matter• Basic Building Blocks of Matter• Properties and Changes in Matter• Properties of Matter• Physical Properties and Physical Changes• Water in Three States• Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes• Evidence of a Chemical Change
  • 2. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Lesson Starter• Mass of deflated balloon _______________• Mass of inflated balloon ________________• The matter in the balloon must have a mass.
  • 3. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Objectives, continued• Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to changes of matter.• Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
  • 4. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Matter• Volume is the amount of three dimensional space an object occupies.• Mass is a measure of the amount of matter.• Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • 5. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Basic Building Blocks of Matter• An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.• An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom.• A compound is a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
  • 6. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Basic Building Blocks of Matter, continued
  • 7. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Properties and Changes in Matter• Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. • volume • mass • the amount of energy in a substance.
  • 8. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Properties and Changes in Matter• Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present. • melting point • boiling point • density • ability to conduct electricity • ability to transfer energy as heat
  • 9. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Properties of Matter
  • 10. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Properties of Matter
  • 11. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Physical Properties and Physical Changes• A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. • melting point and boiling point• A physical change is a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. • grinding, cutting, melting, and boiling
  • 12. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Physical Properties and Physical Changes, continued• A change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.• states of matter—solid state, liquid state, gas state, plasma• In the solid state, matter has definite volume and definite shape.• In the liquid state, matter has a definite volume but an indefinite shape.
  • 13. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Physical Properties and Physical Changes, continued• In the gas state, matter has neither definite volume nor definite shape.• Plasma is a high-temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms.
  • 14. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Water in Three States
  • 15. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes• A chemical property relates to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances• A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
  • 16. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Chemical Properties and Chemical Changes, continued • The reactants are the substances that react in a chemical change. • The products are the substances that are formed by the chemical change. reactants product Carbon plus oxygen yields (or forms) carbon dioxide. carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide
  • 17. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Evidence of a Chemical Change
  • 18. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Electrolysisof Water
  • 19. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties
  • 20. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Energy and Changes in Matter• Energy is always involved when physical or chemical changes occur.• Energy can be in various forms. • heat • light• Energy can be absorbed or released in a change, it is not destroyed or created. • law of conservation of energy
  • 21. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Classification of Matter
  • 22. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Classifying Matter
  • 23. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Classification of Matter• A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties. • mixed together physically • can usually be separated• Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions • uniform in composition (salt-water solution)• Heterogeneous mixtures • not uniform throughout (clay-water mixture)
  • 24. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Types of Mixtures
  • 25. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Pure Substances• A pure substance has a fixed composition.• Pure substances are either compounds or elements.• A pure substance differs from a mixture in the following ways: • Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties. • Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition. • Water is always 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass.
  • 26. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Laboratory Chemicals and Purity
  • 27. Section 2 Matter and Its Properties Chapter 1Examples of Mixtures