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Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio
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Pp chapter 28_part_1_audio

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  • •Iatrogenic infection is a type of HAI that results from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. For example, procedures such as bronchoscopy and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics have been shown to increase the risk for certain infections.•Health care–associated infections may be exogenous or endogenous. An exogenous infection comes from microorganisms found outside the individual such as Salmonella. They do not exist as normal floras. Endogenous infection occurs when part of the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results, as with streptococci. This often happens when a patient receives broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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    • 1. Chapter 28 – Infection Prevention & Control Scientific Knowledge Base  Nature of infection  Infection is the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.  Entry and multiplication of organisms result in disease  Colonization occurs when a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1
    • 2. Nature of Infection Communicable disease is the infectious process transmitted from one person to another. If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms, the infection is symptomatic. If clinical signs and symptoms are not present, the illness is termed asymptomatic. Hand hygiene is the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
    • 3. Chain of Infection Infectious agent or pathogen Reservoir or source for pathogen growth Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
    • 4. Infectious Process Four stages: Incubation period Prodromal stage Illness stage Convalescence Localized versus systemic infection Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
    • 5. Defenses Against Infection Normal flora  Microorganisms  Normal body flora helps to resist infection by releasing antibacterial substances and inhibiting multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms. Body system defenses  Organs Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
    • 6. Defenses Against Infection (cont’d) Inflammation  Vascular and cellular responses  Exudates (serous, sanguineous, or purulent)  Tissue repair Signs of local inflammation and infection are identical. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
    • 7. Health Care–Associated Infections Results from delivery of health services in a health care facility Patients at greater risk for health-care associated infections (HAIs)  Multiple illnesses  Older adults  Poorly nourished  Lowered resistance to infection Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
    • 8. Health Care–Associated Infection (cont’d) Types of HAI infection: Iatrogenic—from a procedure Exogenous—from microorganisms outside the individual Endogenous—when the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
    • 9. Health Care–Associated Infection (cont’d) Risk factors  Number of health care employees with direct contact with the patient  Types and numbers of invasive procedures  Therapy received  Length of hospitalization Major sites for HAI infection  Surgical or traumatic wounds  Urinary and respiratory tracts  Bloodstream Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
    • 10. Nursing Knowledge Base Factors influencing infection prevention and control:  Age  Nutritional status  Stress  Disease process  Treatments or conditions that compromise the immune response Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
    • 11. Nursing Process: Assessment Assessment includes a thorough investigation:  Review of systems, travel history  Immunizations and vaccinations Early recognition of risk factors Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
    • 12. Nursing Process: Assessment (cont’d) See through the patient’s eyes. Status of defense mechanisms Patient susceptibility  Medical therapy Clinical appearance  Signs and symptoms of infection Laboratory data Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
    • 13. Nursing Process: Nursing Diagnosis Nursing diagnoses for infection:Risk for infectionImbalanced nutrition: less than bodyrequirementsImpaired oral mucous membraneRisk for impaired skin integritySocial isolationImpaired tissue integrityReadiness for enhanced immunization status Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
    • 14. Nursing Process: Planning Goals and outcomes Common goals of care applicable to patients with infection often include the following:  Preventing exposure to infectious organisms  Controlling or reducing the extent of infection  Maintaining resistance to infection  Verbalizing understanding of infection prevention and control techniques (e.g., hand hygiene) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
    • 15. Nursing Process: Planning (cont’d) Setting priorities  Establish priorities for each diagnosis and for related goals of care. Teamwork and collaboration  Remember to plan care and include other disciplines as necessary. GO TO : CH 28 Audio Part 2 Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15

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