Data is legally not reusable! A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, andredistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share- alike. http://opendefinition.org/
Workflows are distributed! Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Bibliotheksverbund Gemeinsamer Bayern Bibliotheksverbund Kooperativer Hessisches Bibliotheksverbund Hochschulbibliotheks Bibliotheks- Berlin-Brandenburg - informationssystem zentrum NRW Südwestdeutscher Bibliotheksverbund University Libraries Public Libraries
Data maps naturally to graphs! author Fact, Fiction, and Forecast Nelson Goodman author Indianapolis Languages publisher of Art location Hackett Publishing Catherine author Z. Elgin With publisher reference to reference
First stepsJan. 2010 The CERN Library publishes its book catalog under CC0Mar. 2010 First German libraries publish bibliographic data under CC0May 2010 German National Library launches Linked Data Service for authority filesJun. 2010 Mannheim University Library launches Linked Data Service for bibliographic dataJul. 2010 hbz launches Linked Data Service for institutional data
First signs of an emerging pathAug. 2010 SWB publishes Open DataAug. 2010 hbz extends Linked Data Service to include bibliographic dataNov. 2010 DNB & hbz launch a hub for Linked Data in cultural heritage institutionsNov. 2011 DINI-AG KIM recommends open data practices for library dataDec. 2011 BVB & KOBV release catalogue dataJan. 2012 DNB adds bibliographic data to their Linkd Data Service and switches to CC0
d-nb.info● Linked Open Data for ○ Name Authority ○ Subject Headings ○ Corporation Authority ○ National Bibliography● Fully integrated into the website● Provides dumps of the entire datasets● No SPARQL endpoint so far
lobid.org for Organisations● Assign HTTP URIs to identify libraries and related institutions.● Deliver information about the institutions in HTML/RDFa and RDF● Aggregate up-to-date information such as opening-hours directly from the libraries● Provide editing capabilties to generate RDF (pre-alpha)
Linked Data Hub for cultural heritage institutions
culturegraph.org● Identification of manifestations by shared URIs● Resolving of these URIs, returning all associated URIs● Lookup of URIs by search over other identifiying properties● Publication of the cross-linkage as Linked Open Data
Licencing and Linking● CC0 is emerging as the default licence● Data is being reused, e.g. by Wikipedia● The German National Library and four out of six library networks have begun to publish (Linked) Open Data● Linkage is increasing, e.g. inbetween the individual services and to DBpedia● Those Services are more or less experimental and mostly still evolving
Content and Models● So far, predominantely bibliographic & authority data has been published● Vocabularies used are not library specific (DC, BIBO, SKOS, ...)● More specialized vocabularies such as ISBD are gaining traction due to increasing efforts by e.g. the IFLA● Additional aspects such as holding and availability information are being modelled in DAIA by GBV.
International context● International trend towards LOD ○ Library of Congress ○ National Library of Sweden ○ British Library ○ National Library of Spain● System Vendors seem to keep working on Walled Gardens ○ WorldShare (OCLC) ○ Alma (Ex Libris)
New research policyIn January 2012 the German Research Foundationissued a funding programme for the realignment ofregional information services. At the core, thisprogramme is calling for● Web Integration,● Open Interfaces, ● Vendor Independence ● and Open Licencingin order to enable interoperability with Web-basedapplications for researchers.
Possible outcomeThe Linked Open Data paradigm couldbecome the central organizational andarchitectural principle of the futureGerman information infrastructure; itputs data "on" the Web, makes itlegally reusable, employs standardsknown beyond the library domain andenables distributed workflows.