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Logical fallacies 1
Logical LoopholesIdentifying fallacies and loopy logic
Successful strategies to handling objections.1) show how the objection is flawed• a logical fallacy• question the facts• question the values2) concede some truth to the objection3) offer compromisesPersuasion
Logical FallaciesAn error in reasoningDiffers from a factual error (being wrongabout the facts)An "argument" in which the premises givenfor the conclusion do not provide the neededdegree of support
Kinds of Logical Fallacies1) hasty generalization2) red herring3) slippery slope4) one-after-the-other/cause and effect5) tradition6) endorsement7) disconnected and circular8) either...or9) sentimentality/motherhood10) character attacks11) bandwagon
Hasty GeneralizationGenerally an error in inductive generalizingBase a conclusion or claim on too fewexamples or oversimplified evidenceEx. Bucket of marbles.
Red HerringIrrelevant topic presented to divert attention fromoriginal issue (often an appeal to pathos)Changing topic rather than reasoningExample:Of course Native people were promised certainlands and payments, but wouldn’t they like tostand on their own feet?
Slippery SlopeSome event (usually dire) inevitably follows from another eventwithout explanation of how or why1.Event X has occurred2.Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.Examples:You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they’ll walk allover you.We have to stop the tuition increase! Next thing you know,they’ll be charging $40,000 a semester.
One-After-The-OtherFaulty Cause And EffectClaiming one thing causes another when theonly relationship between the two things is thatone preceded the other.Example:The family has deteriorated in the past 20 years—since feminism became strong. That proveshow harmful feminism has been to America.
Tradition“It’s always been done this way...”“My parents taught me to think...”Cop-outStanding behind tradition instead ofproviding an argumentExample:Men should always pay for dates becausemen have always paid for dates.
EndorsementStatement is seen as correctbecause the person saying it is seento have some sort of authority.Common in advertising.Source A says that p.Source A is authoritative.Therefore, p is true.
Disconnected and Circular•Unclear or unproven connection between“A” and “B.”•Premises and conclusions are the same•We couldn’t believe our neighbour was acigarette smuggler: he was always friendly,hard-working, and punctual.The soap opera is great because it is soexciting.
Either...OrFallacy that suggests there are onlytwo possibilitiesPresents issues in black and white (nogrey area)We should either marry or break up.Either we enact the president’s plan orthe economy will not recover.
SentimentalityMotherhood Appeal•Pleading a cause based on feelings rather than merits•Manipulating emotional responses to symbols, values, orideas valued by a particular group•“country,” “family values,” “prosperity,” “decency,” “freedom”Examples:•You’ve got to give me a “C” in this course or I won’t graduate.•This singer should would win the award because of herstrong family values.
Character AttacksAttacking OpponentName-callingMudslingingInnuendoExample:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PikszBkfTHM
BandwagonEveryone else is doing itFear of exclusionConformity rather than reasoningMob mentalityExamples?