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Logical fallacies 1


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  • Morgan Freeman and Visa (More people go with Visa.)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Logical LoopholesIdentifying fallacies and loopy logic
    • 2. Successful strategies to handling objections.1) show how the objection is flawed• a logical fallacy• question the facts• question the values2) concede some truth to the objection3) offer compromisesPersuasion
    • 3. Logical FallaciesAn error in reasoningDiffers from a factual error (being wrongabout the facts)An "argument" in which the premises givenfor the conclusion do not provide the neededdegree of support
    • 4. Kinds of Logical Fallacies1) hasty generalization2) red herring3) slippery slope4) one-after-the-other/cause and effect5) tradition6) endorsement7) disconnected and circular8) either...or9) sentimentality/motherhood10) character attacks11) bandwagon
    • 5. Hasty GeneralizationGenerally an error in inductive generalizingBase a conclusion or claim on too fewexamples or oversimplified evidenceEx. Bucket of marbles.
    • 6. Red HerringIrrelevant topic presented to divert attention fromoriginal issue (often an appeal to pathos)Changing topic rather than reasoningExample:Of course Native people were promised certainlands and payments, but wouldn’t they like tostand on their own feet?
    • 7. Slippery SlopeSome event (usually dire) inevitably follows from another eventwithout explanation of how or why1.Event X has occurred2.Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.Examples:You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they’ll walk allover you.We have to stop the tuition increase! Next thing you know,they’ll be charging $40,000 a semester.
    • 8. One-After-The-OtherFaulty Cause And EffectClaiming one thing causes another when theonly relationship between the two things is thatone preceded the other.Example:The family has deteriorated in the past 20 years—since feminism became strong. That proveshow harmful feminism has been to America.
    • 9. Tradition“It’s always been done this way...”“My parents taught me to think...”Cop-outStanding behind tradition instead ofproviding an argumentExample:Men should always pay for dates becausemen have always paid for dates.
    • 10. EndorsementStatement is seen as correctbecause the person saying it is seento have some sort of authority.Common in advertising.Source A says that p.Source A is authoritative.Therefore, p is true.
    • 11. Endorsement
    • 12. Disconnected and Circular•Unclear or unproven connection between“A” and “B.”•Premises and conclusions are the same•We couldn’t believe our neighbour was acigarette smuggler: he was always friendly,hard-working, and punctual.The soap opera is great because it is soexciting.
    • 13. Either...OrFallacy that suggests there are onlytwo possibilitiesPresents issues in black and white (nogrey area)We should either marry or break up.Either we enact the president’s plan orthe economy will not recover.
    • 14. SentimentalityMotherhood Appeal•Pleading a cause based on feelings rather than merits•Manipulating emotional responses to symbols, values, orideas valued by a particular group•“country,” “family values,” “prosperity,” “decency,” “freedom”Examples:•You’ve got to give me a “C” in this course or I won’t graduate.•This singer should would win the award because of herstrong family values.
    • 15. Character AttacksAttacking OpponentName-callingMudslingingInnuendoExample:
    • 16. BandwagonEveryone else is doing itFear of exclusionConformity rather than reasoningMob mentalityExamples?