Comprehension: A Guide Based on Kelly Stricklin‟s,“Hands-On Reciprocal Teaching: A Comprehension Technique”. By: Carrie, Liz, Jillian and Tammy
Hands-on Reciprocal TeachingThe teacher has 3 important jobs in thisapproach:1. BEFORE READING: Ask students to activate prior knowledge2. DURING READING: Monitor and guide students in their use ofthe „Fab Four” techniques3. AFTER READING: Ask students to reflect on the techniquesused to share their learning experiences and what strategies helpedthem to learn best
“Fab Four” Techniques“Paula Predictor”: Prior to reading, get students thinking about the text and what it might be about. Havethem look at the cover, think about the title, and get them started with a statement of thought about the book.For example: “I see the book we are reading next is called, Of Mice and Men. I predict this book will beabout male characters. What do you think?” (With younger grades, the teacher can dress in costume andreally get into character).“Clarence Clarifier”: During reading, look over words with students and help them to understand meaningsfurther. For example: “I see here in chapter 1 it says the word, “Brusquely”. This means: quickly, abruptly orrudely. (With younger grades, this character could be dressed as a detective and look the chapter or sectionover with a magnifying glass)“Quinn the Questioner”: This character asks students questions about the reading. This can be done after aparticular section, number of chapters, or the entire novel or text. This character is like a game show hostand this can even be turned into a game with students. For example: “Welcome to Of Mice and Men Mania!This first question is worth 100 dollars: Can anyone tell me what happened to Curly‟s hand?”“Sammy the Summarizer”: This character summarizes information for students. With younger grades, thischaracter is designed to dress like a cowboy and talk in southern “twang”. For example: “Hey Yal! Themost important part of this chapter was on page 93, when the text mentioned that Lennie likes to pet softthings. This is foreshadowing events to come”. (The information should be short and to the point).Ideally, students work in groups when completing the “Fab Four” tasks. It‟s important to make sure eachstudents gets a chance to work with each “character” or strategy.
Important Elements to RememberTo make each strategy more fun, colorful and visual tools can be incorporated suchas: Charts, Graphs, Bookmarks, and Sticky Notes.Documentation: These techniques can be used with both formal and informalassessments by asking students to show what they know by creating door charts,sequence strips or timelines, writing a thorough summary, or having students createquiz like questions for a neighbor or fellow group members.Benefits1. Can be used with any grade level2. When used correctly and often, student reading levels can increase 1-2 gradelevels within 3-6 months3. Very successful with students with disabilities By Tammy Hilton
Using the strategy of reciprocal teaching found in the article “ Hands-On Reciprocal Teaching: A Comprehension Technique” by Kelley Stricklin, the second grade students will be introduced to what is called the Fab Four. Preparation for this lesson will include the following: •Props-four sets of indicator cards. Predicting Questioning •Kids shoes on display Clarifying • Copies of Reader’s Theater “Which Shoes Do You Choose?” By Aaron Shepard. Divide the class into groups of four. Summarizing Assign each students a part in the reading. Give each group a set of indicator cards. Each student will choose one indicator card. Model for the class what each card is for and how it is used. * First, have students holding the light bulb card make their predictions within their group. * Next, have the student with the magnifying glass clarify any thing they don’t understand or a word they might not know. * Third, the student holding the question mark asks questions of the reading for their group. Now have the students in their groups practice reading their lines for just a few minutes. Walk around, listening to where guidance is needed. Bring all groups together sitting/standing in a circle, props of shoes displayed in the middle of the circle, ready to read the poem in theater. Follow author’s guidelines for best effect . Enjoy the reader’s theater, sharing in the learning by being their audience. After performance, go back to groups to have student with the rope summarize what they learned from their predictions, clarifying, and questions.References:Stricklin, Kelley. (2011). Hands-On Reciprocal Teaching: A Comprehension Technique. The Reading Teacher, 64,(8),pp. 620-625. doi:10.1598/RT.64.8.8
• After a picture walk of the book, students (in groups of four) take turns predicting what will happen in the story. Each student agrees and extends or makes a new prediction. • During reading, the Clarifier points out words or ideas that he/she does not understand. The group discusses/searches for meaning. If unsuccessful, teacher is summoned. • At pre-determined points in the story, each group creates a thinking question for that section. (Students already know what a Using thinking question is…. HOTS) THE FAB FOUR • At pre-determined points in the story, each in group writes a one-sentence summary to Social Studies show understanding. • Upon finishing the story, each student uses The Battles of their group’s section summaries to write one summary of the book.Lexington and Concord
• If the students are not yet comfortable with the Fab Four, this lesson could be done with the book on the overhead with the teacher talking the students through the steps. • To take this lesson further, I would integrate it with the Advanced Story Map from www.interventioncentral.org • This would take about four days and would introduce/reinforce the following major story components: – Important characters Using • Motivations THE FAB FOUR • Personalities in – Main problem and significant plot developments Social Studies – Characters’ attempts to solve problems – Identify overarching theme The Battles ofLexington and Concord By: Carolyn Nissi
Learning The “Fab Four”ChartsElementary Sticky Notes Book MarksHigh SchoolWorksheet Sentence Starters DiscussionProps /Roles •Snow Globe •Microphone •Magic Stick •Tie •Crystal Ball •Funny Glasses •Scarf •Cowboy Hat •Magnifying Glass •Lasso •Bubble Pipe •Wheat/Long Grass •Detective Hat •Belt Buckle
Showing What We KnowFour Door Chart/1-2-3-4 Four Door Charts and 1-2-3-4 charts, use construction paper with simple fold and cuts to have students independently show what they know about applying the Fab Four to any subject area that requires comprehension of a concept.Sequencing Strips •Students state the main idea/supporting details on a piece of paper •In a group, students synergize to put statements in correct orderA “Clear” Summary Using a transparency, students write their concise summary in under 25 wordsQuestion Books •Students write down different questions for each page that they read •After they have finished reading they can answer their questions, or find a classmate to help them answer the questions they still have unanswered. By Jillian Niebergall
Kindergarteners Can Do It, Too! Comprehension Strategies for Early Readers. By: Anne E. Gregory, Mary Ann Cahill Summary Strategies Comprehension skills taught wereMrs. Hope asks her Kindergarteners to schema, making connections (Velcro raise their hands and share their theory), Visualization (mind movies), schema for alligators. When young Questions (I wonders), and Inferring students are given literature they can (using our brains). construct their own meaning from it. Students in Mrs. Hopes class were Students use hand signals as a way taught the comprehension strategies of communicating about a text. They explicitly. Each skill was modeled and form a letter “c” for connection, “v” for anchor charts were created. Once visualization, and a wiggling finger for each strategy was taught the students a question. used all of them to create meaning. Students are taught each skill Younger students are taught the explicitly through modeling and strategies differently, they are more anchor charts. active and visual. Students are engaged and able to use the Strategies are taught visually and strategies to create meaning just as active. older students do. By Ida Beal
Kindergarten Comprehension Strategies- Meaning ConstructionAs you are reading to If the student has ayour students, show question, they canthem how to make make a squigglyhand signals that give symbol with theiryou an idea on what finger.they are thinking. It will prevent constantStudents can make a disruption when the“C” when they are able students haveto make a connection. something to share.Students can make a Students will be“V” to show they are engaged but they willvisualizing what you not be called on whenare reading. they are uncomfortable By Stefanie Veileux
Making Inferences Before After• Before you read the text write down any • After you are finished reading the text, questions or thoughts that you have about discuss all of the questions and thoughts in the story. a group.• Place all of the questions and thoughts that • Remember to discuss if the answer was you have developed on an anchor chart. found in the text or if you needed to think about it and discuss a possible answer.• As you read the text, you can think about the answers to all of your questions by viewing the anchor chart. References Gregory, A., & Cahill, M. (2010). kindergartners can do it, too! comprehension strategies for early readers. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 515-520. By Natalie Ferland
High 5! Strategies to Enhance Comprehension of Expository Text Dymock and Nicholson (2010) used researched evidence to synthesize 5 comprehension strategies to successfully teach students to use when reading expository text. Lessons are taught both systematically and explicitly and include the following strategies: Strategy 1: Activating Background Knowledge Teachers use initial questioning and discussion to build background knowledge on a particular subject. “Activating relevant background knowledge helps readers make connections between what they know and what they are reading” (Dymock & Nicholson, 2010, p.167). Strategy 2: Questioning Teachers encourage students to use questions to assist with comprehension before and during reading. Types of questions include right there, think and search, and beyond the text questions. Strategy 3: Analyzing Text Structure Students are taught awareness of text structure and cue/signal words, as well as non-fiction text components to help navigate successfully through the text. Structures include descriptive structures (list, web, matrix), and sequential structures (string, cause-effect, problem-solution). Strategy 4: Creating Mental Images Teachers assist students in creating and using structural text images to enhance comprehension Strategy 5: Summarizing “The ability to delete irrelevant details, combine similar ideas, condense main ideas, and connect major themes into concise statements that capture the purpose of a reading for the reader” (Dymock & Nicholson, 2010, p. 172). After reading the text, student learn to discard identify the text structure and diagram, discard irrelevant information, and circle important information for the summary. REFERENCES: Dymock, S., & Nicholson, T. (2010). "High 5!" Strategies to Enhance Comprehension of Expository Text. Reading Teacher, 64(3), 166-178 By: Darryl Loring
“High 5!” Strategies and Science The following is an example of how I may use the High 5 strategies during a biology unit on Mendelian Genetics. -Rachel Roberge Strategy 1: Activating Background Knowledge Strategy 2: Questioning• Making connections to • Generate questions and background knowledge. answer questions before• To do this, the class has a discussion regarding what they and during reading. already know about genetics by • Students will: determining if statements such as the following are true or false: – Come up with three – You receive half of your genetic questions that they still information from your mother and the other half from your father. have about genetics. – The male determines the sex of a child. – Fraternal twins are more closely related than identical twins.
Strategy 3: Analyzing Text Structure• How are the ideas interrelated to convey a message?• Students will read a passage from Modern Biology and create a web of what they read by thinking about some of the following questions and using cues in the text. – What is the main focus of the article? – What are some of the ideas Mendel came up with? (Look at the headings.) – What are some of the details about these ideas? (Look at the words in bold.) – Remember to look at the pictures and captions for any other details!
Strategy 4: Creating Mental Images Strategy 5: Summarizing• This strategy helps students • Know how to summarize create a mental image of the main ideas. what is being discussed in • Students will: the text. – Write a summary of what you• Students will: learned in the text. The – Create a cartoon of what summary should be written Mendel discovered through so that a seventh grade experimentation with garden student would peas to come up with his laws understand what you of genetics. read about.
Amy Simoneau Using “High 5” in Grade 3 Social Studies Reading About Our Country’s Early History Using the Grade 3 Text 1. Activate prior knowledge Who can tell me what “history” means? What does anyone know about our country’s early history? 2. Questioning As you read, ask yourself why these things happened. 3. Analyze text structure How is the text organized? (Sequentially—they are telling a story.) What other text features are there to help you understand? (map, timeline, pictures with captions) 4.Create mental images Picture how the information is organized and diagram it to help you remember later. (sequential diagrams: string, cause/effect) 5. Summarize What were the main events of this lesson? (colonies, revolution, Constitution, civil war)
High Five! Comprehension Intervention Strategies By Chelsie CremonaThis is an example of a lesson that I would use in my classroom based on the“High Five!” Comprehension Strategies to Enhance Non-Fiction Texts article byDymock and Nicholson. References Dymock, S., & Nicholson, T. (2010). "High 5!" Strategies to Enhance Comprehension of Expository Text. Reading Teacher, 64(3), 166-178
Strategy 1: Activating Background Knowledge Anticipatory Set: Students complete the organizer below to initiate background knowledge for a unit about Sacajawea and Lewis and Clark. This organizer helps initiate background knowledge, and can be used with any non- fiction text to see what children already know.Before Reading After Reading (write(write agree or agree or disagree)disagree) Sacajawea was a Shoshone Indian. Thomas Jefferson wanted to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis and Clark headed the expedition. Lewis and Clark‟s expedition was named the Corpse of Discovery. The expedition started in St. Louis Missouri. Sacajawea grew up in the Rocky Mountains. Seaman was the name of Lewis‟ dog. Lewis and Clark traveled by foot, horseback, and canoe.
Strategy 2: Questioning Next, the teacher tells students that theyare going to be history detectives, and that they need to write down three questions they have. What are three questions you have about the Lewis and Clark expedition ? 1. 2. 3.
Strategy 3: Analyzing Text StructuresNext, the teacher will read aportion of the text “Sacajawea”with students to determine the textstructure. Pointing out sequencing Organizers like the one below canwords like: first, in the beginning, be generated for the different textetc. Then the teacher will read the structures associated with non-remainder of the story, and the fiction texts.students will use a SequentialString Structure (below) tosequence the events in the story. First Next Then After Finally
Strategy 4: Creating Mental ImagesNext students will create illustrations to help them visualize events from the text. Draw what you think Sacajawea and Lewis and Clark saw as they travelled through rivers, over mountain ranges, and when they first saw the Pacific Ocean. Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clarke Lewis and Clark travelling across the viewing the Pacific traveling down rivers. Rocky Mountains. Ocean for the first time. Note: This organizer could be modified to work with any non-fiction text.
Strategy 5: Summarizing After reading students will answer the following questions about the book “Sacajawea: Her True Story” in order to summarize the most important information from the story. The Lewis and Clark ExpeditionWho?What?Where?Why?When?How? This organizer could be used after reading to summarize key facts. It can be modified to work with both social studies and science non-fiction texts.