Romanticism

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Romanticism

  1. 1. Romanticism Early Nineteenth Century Hawthorne & Poe
  2. 2. Elements <ul><li>Frontier: vast expanse, freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism: no geographic limits </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation: in science, in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of industry: North becomes industrial, South remains agricultural </li></ul>
  3. 3. Romanticism <ul><li>A literary, artistic, and philosophical movement originating in Europe in the 18th century and lasting until the mid 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>A reaction against the Enlightenment and </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Reason </li></ul>
  4. 4. Romanticism <ul><li>Emphasis is on emotion instead of reason </li></ul><ul><li>Seek reality through intuitive perception </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of self is the most important </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness: Each person should be himself and pursue happiness in his own way </li></ul>
  5. 5. Romanticism <ul><li>Belief in divinity of humans: God is in every person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals have divine power of creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual spirit creates its own world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on feeling, love, the heart, youth </li></ul>
  6. 6. Romanticism <ul><li>Romantic is engaged in a quest for a higher truth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot be found through scientific method, but through emotion and perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poet or writer tries to present ordinary things of life through imagination </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Subject Matter <ul><li>The American Past </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Quest for Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Escapism </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the far-away and non-normal </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs Society </li></ul><ul><li>Nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for its beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>source of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refuge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revelation of God </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Writing Techniques <ul><li>“Willing suspension of disbelief” </li></ul><ul><li>Improbable plots </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely characterization </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective narrator </li></ul><ul><li>Remote settings (time and place) </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation in new forms (short story, detective story) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flowering of American Literature <ul><li>1850 Hawthorne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scarlet Letter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1851 Melville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moby-Dick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1852 Stowe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1853 Douglass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroic Slave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1853 Brown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clotel: Or, The President’s Daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1859 Wilson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sketches from the Life of a Free Black </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hawthorne <ul><li>Born July 4, 1804, in Salem, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Died May 9, 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote historical fiction, mostly 17th c. Puritain life </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the darker side of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Most important work: SL </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hawthorne <ul><li>The Unpardonable Sin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To sin against the human heart by attempting to judge it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement comes from reason: scientists, intellectuals, clergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One should be content to identify and study wickedness in humanity </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Edgar Allen Poe <ul><li>Jan. 19, 1809 to Oct. 7, 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Last words: “God help my poor soul” </li></ul><ul><li>Mother and foster mother died of T.B. </li></ul><ul><li>First publication in 1827 </li></ul><ul><li>1833 story won $50 </li></ul><ul><li>1835 editor of Southern Literary Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>1845 published “The Raven” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Edgar Allen Poe <ul><li>“Father” of the short story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creation of a singular or unique effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1841 “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” begin the genre of the detective story </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession with death and contacting the dead </li></ul>

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