Structural approach because the focus is on linguistic structures, including syntax or word order, and morphology or word formationThe structures studied are NOT necessarily related to frequency of use
1886 Dr. Otto JespersenTeaching structures of the target language“spoken language is essential to foreign language teaching” (Jespersen)ALSO structural – but related to frequency of use in target language, rather than being selected from classical textsDirect Method never dominant in U.S. but gave way to reading approach
“The Coleman Report of 1929 set reading as the major goal for foreign language instruction in the United States based on a number of factors” Few teachers had native-like competency, couldn’t use the language without a textbook to help them teach, Coleman report said that students who would never go abroad didn’t need to study communicative skills
My mom learned French this way – doing drills, instant correction, etc.- this method was dominant in the U.s.
“Usage is the learner’s ability to demonstrate his or her knowledge of the properties of formal linguistic rules, but use is the learner’s ability to apply knowledge of linguistic rules in effective communication” Communicative language teachers were interested in the latter – communicative approach shifted emphasis from structural to functional perspectives on language – influenced by the work of Del Hymes (later)
Silent period – first 21 hours of instruction, students didn’t speak – put this into a classroom context – for the first month, the students would not produce language. Krashen had explained that this was helpful for babies – and then students are more motivated because they feel less forced… affective filter if it’s high and students are worried about making mistakes, they will not naturally acquire the language so easily
Definition of biliterate; Do you have L2 students do the same thing as L1 students or not…?
“Field linguists such as Elinor Ochs (1988) tell us that it was not possible to merely tell their linguistic informants to ‘be themselves’ in trying to get samples f informal as opposed to more formal registers. Sociolinguists need to observe, hypothesize, and work with a variety of informants within various cultural, economic, and social roles to be able to recognize kinship patterns and characterize various registers of language from polite to informal, or how language is gendered.