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Lisya Seloni Week 1 ENGLISH 345: TESOL METHODS AND MATERIALS
Agenda Welcome, TESOLers!/Applied Linguists! Student Introduction: Who are WE? Class Activity: Six words memoir Course Introduction Critical Approaches in TESOL Course Blog Introduction: http://beyondmethodsfall2011.blogspot.com/ Assignments
Six word memoir Can you write a six word story about yourself? It can be related to your passion in TESOL, language/culture, any experience. For sale: baby shoes, never used--Hemingway I love books more than people. I’m not writing another stupid word. grown up, no money, loving life Never too old to climb trees. I recycle everything but my lies. Check out more life stories @ http://www.smithmag.net/sixwords/
Keep in mind that… “ We cannot prepare teachers to tackle so many unpredictable needs, wants and situations; we can only help them develop a capacity to generate varied and situation-specific ideas within a general framework that makes sense in terms of current pedagogical and theoretical knowledge. (Pennycook1992, p. 41)
This course aims to… ….help pre-service teachers develop materials and pedagogical practices that accommodate academic and sociocultural needs of the 21st century’s diverse classroom contexts. Drawing on the principles of critical pedagogy and sociocultural theories of language learning, this course also aims to raise pre-service teachers’ awareness on important language issues such as developing pedagogical choices, being aware and doing something discriminatory language policies, developing culturally relevant material in K-16 and paying attention to first language maintenance of ESL students.
Course Objectives This course aims to: raise pre-service teachers’ awareness on the needs of different types of English language learners (e.g. ESL, EFL, 1.5 generation) in the U.S. school systems; move away from the traditional view of “teacher as knowledge provider” to “teacher as facilitators” and “transformative practitioners”; examine current issues related to language, identity, and culture in relation to ESL methods and material development; help pre-service teachers learn how to maximize learning opportunities; facilitate negotiated interaction, contextualize linguistic input, integrate language skills, promote learner autonomy, and raise cultural consciousness demystify mainstream English language methods and raise awareness that there is no best method out there.
Course Materials Required Materials and Texts: Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Beyond methods. Macrostrategies for language teaching. Yale University Press. 2. An individual blog account 3. Research Articles are available on e-reserve. 4. Richards, J. & Renandya, W. (2002). Methodology in language teaching. An anthology of current practice. Cambridge Press.
Multiple Stories of TESOL: Shifting Perspectives Focusing on Learners: Hybrid identities (ESL, 1.5 generation, adult multilinguals, international scholars etc.) Motivation vs Investment Moving from a product focused learning towards process focused ones. Moving from pre-planned curricula to a flexible, diverse and open-ended curricula From Traditionalist views to Critical Pedagogy
Pedagogy of mainstream vs Critical pedagogy (Paulo Freire) MP
Classroom is separated from the cultural and political context,
Learning is perceived to be a detached and individual activity
Students are blank slates that needs to be filled with new information (transmission/banking model)
Teaching is a value-free, neutral activity. Teachers as technicians.
Classrooms are dynamic contexts as situated in its social, political and historical contexts.
Learning is a socially-situated participatory practice. It is done in collaborative processes.
Students experiences are not only shaped by their past learning but also shaped by the social, political, economic and cultural background and environment in which they have grown up.
Teachings is a dialogic, transformative and reflexive practice.
Shifting Perspectives: Critical Pedagogy Critical Pedagogy: Empowerment, racial discrimination, social injustices, struggle for social change. Critical Pedagogy called for people living under conditions of oppression to develop a new foundation for learning. (Stevens, 2002) Some questions teacher-scholars ask: How do we include marginalized students into mainstream without asking them to assimilate? Do we provide marginalized students access to dominant discourses? How can we move from authoritarian structures to more inclusive and egalitarian ones in TESOL
How to be Critically Conscious? According to Ira Shor (1992) a student can be critically conscious by: Thinking, reading, writing, and speaking while going beneath the surface meaning A student must go beyond: Myths, clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions Amazon, 2008
Overview of Methods in ELT GTM ALM CLL Silent Way Suggestopedia TPR CLT Etc.
A critical look at the Concept of Method Method is a prescriptive concept that articulates positivist, progressivist, and patriarchal understanding of teaching and plays an important role in maintaining inequalities between, on the one hand, predominantly male academics, and on the other hand, female teachers and language classrooms on the international power periphery.
Key ideas: Second Language education is involved in a complex nexus of social, cultural. Economic and political relationships that involve students, teachers, and theorists in different positions of power. Schools as reproduction of social and cultural inequalities—How can schools act as agents of social and cultural reproduction? How do schools question the status quo? Language and language teaching as inscribed in relations of power and therefore political issues.
Fundamental weaknesses of the concept of Method Imposition of technique over theory Language teaching cannot be defined in terms of teaching methods alone. Each method being succeeded by a better one? The promise of even better techniques?
Method is dead! From Method-based to Post-method
GTM, TPR, CLT, Silent Way?—not neutral.
Methods “reflects a particular view of the world and is articulated in the interests of unequal power relationships” (Pennycook, 1998, pp. 589–590),
All methods are interested and there is no best method (Pennycook, 1998)
Postmethod condition (Kuma): This perspective frees teachers and scholars to see their classrooms as they are, not as they should be. We should not envision our classrooms through the lenses of best “approaches“, "methods” and “techniques”
Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning “Language is not only a cognitive phenomenon, the product of the individuals’ brain; it is also fundamentally social phenomenon, acquired and used interactively, in a variety of contexts for myriad practical purposes.” Firth &Wegner, 1997, p.297 Attacks towards Chomsky’s “ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogeneous speech community” Hymes criticized Chomsky for being formalistic and context free. ‘heterogeneous speech community’ (p.57) Language is not only viewed as codes but as ways of speaking, and the structure of language is not grammar but speech act or speech event. Key words: Communicative competence, heterogeneous speech community, speech events.
Assignments Read the syllabus carefully. Ask questions via email or visit me during my office hours. Send me your blog address TODAY! Intro Blog Posting: Please describe the context in which you teach/wish to teach. Feel free to comment on the social, economic and cultural aspects of your teaching environment. Why do you think it is important to be knowledgeable and conscious about TESOL issues? What are your goals as a language educator? What do you hope to gain as a result of this course? Best Wishes for a Productive Year.