Language learning situations is unpredictable, fluid, and multiple….
I would like to briefly discuss the models of reproduction in TESOL and the models of resistance that comes with critical pedagogy. While as languafge teacher educator I try to promote a pedagogy of possibility which emphasizes the inclusive and diverse education practices, I find myself and I se that my studesnt also find themselves in the middle of competing pedagogiesClassrooms– dynamic contexts in which learners are provided with opportunities to explore issues that are important to them and their communities.Learning--CP locates learning in a nexus of political, social, economic conditions defining the communities within which learners live.
Many scholars after 90s, argues that there is no best method in TESOL. Methods usually shaped and contributed to the unequal power relationships. Research and practice in the globalized word show that methods only have limiting impact on language teaching and learning. Methods do not help when teachers face with a wide range of complex classroom practices.
Contrary to Chomskian cognitive theories, this view implies that language is socially constructed rather than linguistically intrinsic. As discussed above, the linguistic theory of Chomsky, which asserts an “ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogenous speech community”(Chomsky, 1965, p.3), brought the terms such as ‘language acquisition devise’, ‘universal grammar’ and ‘transformational generative grammar’ to the field of SLA. However, Hymes criticized Chomsky as being ‘formalistic and context-free’ (Hymes, 1972).
English 345 slide 1
ENGLISH 345: TESOL METHODS AND MATERIALS Dr. Lisya Seloni Week 1: Course Introduction
AgendaWelcome, TESOLers/Applied Linguists/LanguageEducators! Student Introduction: Who are WE? Class Activity: Six words memoir Course Introduction Critical Approaches in TESOL Course Blog Introduction:http://beyindmethodsfall2012.blogspot.com/
Six word memoirCan you write a six word story about yourself? Itcan be related to your passion in TESOL,language/culture, any experience. For sale: baby shoes, never used--Hemingway I love books more than people. Grown up, no money, loving life Never too old to climb trees. I recycle everything but my lies.Check out more life stories @http://www.smithmag.net/sixwords/
Group Work: Unpacking ourbeliefs What are some of the good language-teaching characteristics? Write down your description of top three-four characteristics, and discuss why you think they are important. How can we achieve our goals as language educators?
Keep in mind that…“ We cannot prepare teachers to tackle so many unpredictable needs, wants and situations; we can only help them develop a capacity to generate varied and situation-specific ideas within a general framework that makes sense in terms of current pedagogical and theoretical knowledge. (Pennycook, 1992, p. 41)
This course aims to… This course aims to help pre-service teachers advance their knowledge on how to develop pedagogical practices that accommodate academic and sociocultural needs of the 21st century‘s diverse classroom contexts. Drawing on the principles of postmethod pedagogy and socioculturally oriented language education, the primary goal of this course is to prepare pre- service teachers to develop context-specific and culturally appropriate pedagogical spaces and artifacts for diverse student population.
Course ObjectivesThis course aims to: raise pre-service teachers‘ awareness on the needs of different types of English language learners (e.g. ESL, EFL, 1.5 generation) in the U.S. school systems; move away from the traditional view of ―teacher as knowledge provider‖ to ―teacher as facilitators‖ and ―transformative practitioners‖; examine current issues related to language, identity, and culture in relation to ESL methods and material development; help pre-service teachers learn how to maximize language learning opportunities for diverse student population; learn how to facilitate negotiated interaction, contextualize linguistic input, integrate language skills, and raise cultural consciousness in classroom.
Course MaterialsRequired Materials and Texts:1. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Beyond methods. Macrostrategies for language teaching. Yale University Press.2. Brown, D. (2007). Teaching by principles. Aninteractive approach to language pedagogy. PearsonLongman.2. An individual blog account/personal diary3. Research Articles are available on e-reserve
Overview of Course Projects Panel Discussion: 10 % Learning logs: 20% Midterm exam: 25 % Unit plan and teaching Demonstration: 15% Final term paper 30 %
Class Policies and Civility To create a safe learning environment for all, we must be mindful of some important classroom policies. Please carefully read this section from the syllabus.
Pedagogy of mainstream vs Critical pedagogy(Paulo Freire)MP CP Classroom is separated from Classrooms are dynamic the cultural and political contexts as situated in its context, social, political and historical contexts. Learning is perceived to be Learning is a socially- a detached and individual situated participatory activity practice. It is done in collaborative processes. Students experiences are Students are blank slates not only shaped by their past that needs to be filled with learning but also shaped by new information the (transmission/banking social, political, economic model) and cultural background and environment in which they Teaching is a value- have grown up. free, neutral activity. Teachings is a Teachers as technicians. dialogic, transformative and
Shifting Perspectives in TESOL:Emphasis on Critical Pedagogy ― Critical pedagogy is charged with empowering individuals, through education and critical reflection to realize how they are situated and situate themselves in broader context of power relations, and , more importantly with giving them the tools with which to attempt to escape and fight oppression‖ (Reis, 2006, p. 32) Critical Pedagogy: Empowerment, racial, linguistic discrimination, social injustices, struggle for social change. Critical Pedagogy called for people living under conditions of oppression to develop a new
Some questions we will beasking: How do we include linguistically marginalized students into mainstream without asking them to assimilate? How do we provide diverse students with an access to dominant discourses while creating spaces for their home discourses? How can we move from authoritarian structures to more inclusive and egalitarian ones in TESOL? What are the most affective pedagogical practices to achieve an inclusive classroom context?
How to be criticallyconscious? According to Ira Shor (1992) a student can be critically conscious by: Thinking, reading, writing, and speaking while going beneath the surface meaning A student must go beyond: Myths, clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions Amazon, 2008
Important terminology (Brown, 2007)Methodology: Pedagogical practices ―an umbrellaterm for the specifications and interrelation oftheory and practice‖ (Richards & Rogers, 1982, p.82)Approach: theoretically informed positions andbeliefs about the nature of language, the nature oflanguage earning, and the applicability of both topedagogical settings.Method: a generalized set of classroom proceduresfor accomplishing goals (e.g. rhetorical, linguistic).Concerned with teacher and student roles.Curriculum/Syllabus: Designs for carrying out aparticular language program.
Some methods that raised and declinedthroughout language teaching history GTM ALM CLL Silent Way Suggestopedia TPR CLT Task-based Etc.
Fundamental weaknesses of theconcept of ―method‖ Imposition of technique over theory Language teaching cannot be defined in terms of teaching methods alone. Each method being succeeded by a better one? The promise of even better techniques? There‘s no one best method
Key ideas: Second Language education is involved in a complex nexus of social, cultural. Economic and political relationships that involve students, teachers, and theorists in different positions of power. Schools as reproduction of social and cultural inequalities—How can schools act as agents of social and cultural reproduction? How do schools question the status quo? Language and language teaching as inscribed in relations of power and therefore political issues.
Method is dead? From Method-based to Post-method GTM, TPR, CLT, Silent Way—not neutral? Methods ―reflects a particular view of the world and is articulated in the interests of unequal power relationships‖ (Pennycook, 1998, pp. 589– 590),Postmethod condition (Kumar): This perspectivefrees teachers and scholars to see their classroomsas they are, not as they should be. We should notenvision our classrooms through the lenses of best―approaches―, "methods‖ and ―techniques‖
Sociocultural Theory and SecondLanguage Learning “Language is not only a cognitive phenomenon, the product of the individuals’ brain; it is also fundamentally social phenomenon, acquired and used interactively, in a variety of contexts for myriad practical purposes.” Firth &Wegner, 1997, p.297 Attacks towards Chomsky‘s ―ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogeneous speech community‖ Dell Hymes criticized Chomsky for being formalistic and context free: ‗heterogeneous speech community‘ (p.57) Language is not only viewed as linguistic codes but as ways of speakingKey words: Communicativecompetence, heterogeneous speech community, World
Assignments Read the syllabus carefully. Ask questions via email or visit me during my office hours. Intro Blog Posting:Please describe the context in which you teach/wish to teach. Feel free to comment on the social, economic and cultural aspects of your teaching environment.What are your goals as a language educator? What do you hope to gain as a result of this course?