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Eng 345 week 2


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  • Teachers used no textbooks, maybe a few texts in the target language. Use of dictionaries were popular, one or two languages side by side.
  • The downside of this approach is students usually are unable to use language communicatively. They may master grammar ang this could increase ones vocabulary.
  • The emphasis on human cognition (instead of habit formation) led to the development of
  • Approach embodies theoretical principles governing language learning and language teaching
  • Transcript

    • 1. ENGLISH 345
      WEEK # 2
    • 2. Announcements
      Great job with your blogs!
      Announcements about Conversation Partner program
      Talking about other opportunities to observe/teach
      Sign-up sheet for the Final Project
      Any other business?
    • 3. Agenda
      Review of acronyms/ideas from last week
      Write and share one concept/idea/teaching perspective you learned from the readings!
      Videos on migration and NCLB
      Presentation by Josh and Hillary
      Language centered vs. learner centered methods
      Video on International student writers
    • 4. Quiz!
      Critical Pedagogy
    • 5. A message from Kasia, the director of the ELI
      An invitation to join the Conversation Partners Program
      The students at the English Language Institute are enrolled in an intensive English program, which prepares them to enter the university. The Conversation Partner Program helps our students become more comfortable speaking in English.
      ISU students are matched with one of our students. (Sorry there are no special requests such as race, sex, Spanish speaker, etc.)
      We ask that they meet once a week for one hour for the semester. We recommend that they meet at Bone or one of the dorms for the first meeting. Later on students also sometimes go shopping, bowling, etc., but this is not necessary. The main point is the conversation.
      We recommend that they think of some topics or bring photos for the first meeting.
      We need their name, phone number, and e-mail address.
      They set up the time and place with their partner.
      If they are not sure if they want to do this, please don’t sign up at this time. They can e-mail me if they want to think about it or have questions.
    • 6. Views Against No Child Behind
    • 7. Overview of Language Teaching Approaches
    • 8. Pre-20th century
      Teaching classical Greek and Latin
      Language Learning Research: Behaviorism—which is followed by a methodology “which set out to teach “ the basics” before encouraging learners to communicate their thoughts and ideas” (Howatt, 1988)
      Aural and oral techniques dominated the field
      Differences between daily Latin and classical Latin
      GRAMMAR TRANSLATION and DIRECT METHOD developed after this period.
    • 9. 20th centuryapproaches
      Grammar Translation Approaches
      Instruction is given in L1
      Little use of target language
      Focus on grammatical parsing
      Reading classical texts
      Translating sentences from the target language
    • 10. Direct Approach
      No use of mother language
      Actions and pictures are used
      Overreliance to dialogues
      Teacher can only be a NS or have a native-like pronunciation
    • 11. Reading Approach
      Born as a reaction to GTM and DA
      Reading is perceived as the most important skill in language teaching.
      No emphasis on oral proficiency
    • 12. Audiolingualism
      Emphasis on dialogues
      Memorization is used extensively
      Skills are sequenced: listening-speaking, reading, writing
      Emphasis on pronunciation
      Error correction: preventing learners’ errors
    • 13. Cognitive Approach
      Reaction to the behaviorist nature of audiolingual method
      language learning: rule acquisition, not habit formation
      First teach the rules of grammar, then practice
      Errors are inevitable
      Emphasis on reading, writing.
      A number of innovative methods developed out of this approach (e.g. the silent way)
    • 14. The Silent Way
      Caleb Gategno
      Teaching means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it.
      Language learning: babies learning a language
      Teacher does not speak, but engages students in learning
      Subordination of teaching to learning
      Working with color charts to learn pronounciation
      See the demonstration:
    • 15. Communicative Language Teaching
      Language learning: being able to communicate in target language.
      Language content should include social functions of language, not only linguistic functions
      Learners work in groups.
      Learners engage in dialogues and role-plays
    • 16. Adapt; don’t adopt…
    • 17. What constitutes language teaching methods?
      Method is “an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material”—procedural!
      1) method as proposed by theorists
      2) method as practiced by teachers (methodology and pedagogy: what teachers actually do in the classroom)
      Approach is “a set of assumptions/beliefs dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language teaching and learning”—language philosophy!
    • 18. Design a) the content of instruction, the syllabus; b) learner roles’ ; c) teacher roles; d) instructional materials.
      Procedure is “concerned with issues such as the types of teaching and learning techniques, the types of exercises and activities”
    • 19. Language Centered Methods
      Theory of Language: structural linguists view language as a system consisting of several hierarchically linked building blocks: morphemes, phonemes, phrases, clauses and sentences.
      Each block/structure can be analyzed, described and systematized and graded.
      Theory of Language learning: derived from behaviorism (50s and 60s)
    • 20. Language centered methods cont.
      Theory of Language learning: Behaviorist scientists analyzed human behavior and observed that behaviors can be reduced to a series of stimuli that trigger a series of corresponding responses.
      Learning: stimulus—response—reinforcement
      Learning to speak a language is similar to learning how to ride a bike
      Learning is mechanical habit formation
      Key concepts: audio-lingual, structural, selection, gradation and presentation
      See the grammar example!
    • 21. Lerner-Centered Methods
      Theory of Language: Chomskyan formal linguistics, Hallidayan functional linguistics, Hymsian sociolinguistics
      60s and 70s : teachers and scholars became skeptical about teaching language as isolated linguistic items.
      “ Languages do not constitute a hierarchical structure as viewed by structuralists, but a network of transformations.”
      Sociolinguistic features of language become salient (e.g. relationships, roles, meanings)
      Language as communication
      Key concepts: communication, communicative functions, communicative approach
    • 22. Learner-Centered Methods
      Broad principles:
      Language is a system of expressing meaning
      The central purpose of language is communication.
      Communication is based on sociocultural norms
      Basic units of language are not merely grammatical and structural, but also notional and functional.
    • 23. Lerner-centered methods cont.
      Theory of language learning and teaching
      Using authentic language
      Emphasizing contextualization rather than decontextualization
      Introducing language at discoursal level
      Tolerating errors and seeing them as a part of language learning
      Designing information gap activities
    • 24. Blog entry
      Blog Prompt: What language approaches have you personally experienced as a language learner/teacher? Which approach have you felt more comfortable? Is there “one best method” that fits for all your students’ needs?
      Write your reactions to the class readings
      Week 3 readings