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  • Teachers used no textbooks, maybe a few texts in the target language. Use of dictionaries were popular, one or two languages side by side.
  • The downside of this approach is students usually are unable to use language communicatively. They may master grammar ang this could increase ones vocabulary.
  • The emphasis on human cognition (instead of habit formation) led to the development of
  • Approach embodies theoretical principles governing language learning and language teaching


  • 1. ENGLISH 345
    WEEK # 2
  • 2. Announcements
    Great job with your blogs!
    Announcements about Conversation Partner program
    Talking about other opportunities to observe/teach
    Sign-up sheet for the Final Project
    Any other business?
  • 3. Agenda
    Review of acronyms/ideas from last week
    Write and share one concept/idea/teaching perspective you learned from the readings!
    Videos on migration and NCLB
    Presentation by Josh and Hillary
    Language centered vs. learner centered methods
    Video on International student writers
  • 4. Quiz!
    Critical Pedagogy
  • 5. A message from Kasia, the director of the ELI
    An invitation to join the Conversation Partners Program
    The students at the English Language Institute are enrolled in an intensive English program, which prepares them to enter the university. The Conversation Partner Program helps our students become more comfortable speaking in English.
    ISU students are matched with one of our students. (Sorry there are no special requests such as race, sex, Spanish speaker, etc.)
    We ask that they meet once a week for one hour for the semester. We recommend that they meet at Bone or one of the dorms for the first meeting. Later on students also sometimes go shopping, bowling, etc., but this is not necessary. The main point is the conversation.
    We recommend that they think of some topics or bring photos for the first meeting.
    We need their name, phone number, and e-mail address.
    They set up the time and place with their partner.
    If they are not sure if they want to do this, please don’t sign up at this time. They can e-mail me if they want to think about it or have questions. cdkeres@ilstu.edu
  • 6. Views Against No Child Behind
  • 7. Overview of Language Teaching Approaches
  • 8. Pre-20th century
    Teaching classical Greek and Latin
    Language Learning Research: Behaviorism—which is followed by a methodology “which set out to teach “ the basics” before encouraging learners to communicate their thoughts and ideas” (Howatt, 1988)
    Aural and oral techniques dominated the field
    Differences between daily Latin and classical Latin
    GRAMMAR TRANSLATION and DIRECT METHOD developed after this period.
  • 9. 20th centuryapproaches
    Grammar Translation Approaches
    Instruction is given in L1
    Little use of target language
    Focus on grammatical parsing
    Reading classical texts
    Translating sentences from the target language
  • 10. Direct Approach
    No use of mother language
    Actions and pictures are used
    Overreliance to dialogues
    Teacher can only be a NS or have a native-like pronunciation
  • 11. Reading Approach
    Born as a reaction to GTM and DA
    Reading is perceived as the most important skill in language teaching.
    No emphasis on oral proficiency
  • 12. Audiolingualism
    Emphasis on dialogues
    Memorization is used extensively
    Skills are sequenced: listening-speaking, reading, writing
    Emphasis on pronunciation
    Error correction: preventing learners’ errors
  • 13. Cognitive Approach
    Reaction to the behaviorist nature of audiolingual method
    language learning: rule acquisition, not habit formation
    First teach the rules of grammar, then practice
    Errors are inevitable
    Emphasis on reading, writing.
    A number of innovative methods developed out of this approach (e.g. the silent way)
  • 14. The Silent Way
    Caleb Gategno
    Teaching means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it.
    Language learning: babies learning a language
    Teacher does not speak, but engages students in learning
    Subordination of teaching to learning
    Working with color charts to learn pronounciation
    See the demonstration:
  • 15. Communicative Language Teaching
    Language learning: being able to communicate in target language.
    Language content should include social functions of language, not only linguistic functions
    Learners work in groups.
    Learners engage in dialogues and role-plays
  • 16. Adapt; don’t adopt…
  • 17. What constitutes language teaching methods?
    Method is “an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material”—procedural!
    1) method as proposed by theorists
    2) method as practiced by teachers (methodology and pedagogy: what teachers actually do in the classroom)
    Approach is “a set of assumptions/beliefs dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language teaching and learning”—language philosophy!
  • 18. Design a) the content of instruction, the syllabus; b) learner roles’ ; c) teacher roles; d) instructional materials.
    Procedure is “concerned with issues such as the types of teaching and learning techniques, the types of exercises and activities”
  • 19. Language Centered Methods
    Theory of Language: structural linguists view language as a system consisting of several hierarchically linked building blocks: morphemes, phonemes, phrases, clauses and sentences.
    Each block/structure can be analyzed, described and systematized and graded.
    Theory of Language learning: derived from behaviorism (50s and 60s)
  • 20. Language centered methods cont.
    Theory of Language learning: Behaviorist scientists analyzed human behavior and observed that behaviors can be reduced to a series of stimuli that trigger a series of corresponding responses.
    Learning: stimulus—response—reinforcement
    Learning to speak a language is similar to learning how to ride a bike
    Learning is mechanical habit formation
    Key concepts: audio-lingual, structural, selection, gradation and presentation
    See the grammar example!
  • 21. Lerner-Centered Methods
    Theory of Language: Chomskyan formal linguistics, Hallidayan functional linguistics, Hymsian sociolinguistics
    60s and 70s : teachers and scholars became skeptical about teaching language as isolated linguistic items.
    “ Languages do not constitute a hierarchical structure as viewed by structuralists, but a network of transformations.”
    Sociolinguistic features of language become salient (e.g. relationships, roles, meanings)
    Language as communication
    Key concepts: communication, communicative functions, communicative approach
  • 22. Learner-Centered Methods
    Broad principles:
    Language is a system of expressing meaning
    The central purpose of language is communication.
    Communication is based on sociocultural norms
    Basic units of language are not merely grammatical and structural, but also notional and functional.
  • 23. Lerner-centered methods cont.
    Theory of language learning and teaching
    Using authentic language
    Emphasizing contextualization rather than decontextualization
    Introducing language at discoursal level
    Tolerating errors and seeing them as a part of language learning
    Designing information gap activities
  • 24. Blog entry
    Blog Prompt: What language approaches have you personally experienced as a language learner/teacher? Which approach have you felt more comfortable? Is there “one best method” that fits for all your students’ needs?
    Write your reactions to the class readings
    Week 3 readings