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  • John didn’t want to reach out to his neighbors, the Smiths (Amish) because he was afraid of offending them. He assumed that they wouldn’t want to watch the broadcast of Princess Diana’s funeral. However, when John invited them over to his house to watch the procession, they were greatly pleased.
  • Jeremy an Australian lecturer is excited to be supervising Jabu, a black student from South Africa. Previously, Jeremy had been involved in an education project in South Africa for three years. Jeremy introduces Jabu to the rest of the class on the first day and states that he knows her “context” very well. In their private meetings, Jeremy talks in a slow tone of voice and tells her that he will be able to help her understand concepts that might be alien to her. This greatly offends Jabu because she knows that Jeremy is also supervising a German student and he does not treat him the same way.
  • We still see linguisitic assimilation largely in langaugepolicioes and the ESL classrooms. Nativism philosophy unfortunately still shapes the American psyche.—Rhhetoric of nativism?

Transcript

  • 1.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I_43IeRtr8
  • 2.  Discussion of your identity narrative Unpacking our stereotypes Your voices on this week’s readings Panel Discussion by Lisa and ChrisKumar Chapter 5Kumar article on stereotyping Interview with Edward Said on OrientalismP.S: PLEASE WATCH YOUR EMAILS FOR NEXT WEEK’SREADING SET. I MAY CHANGE A FEW THINGS.
  • 3.  Take about 10 minutes to discuss what you found out about yourself as a language educator as you worked on your identity narrative. What are some of the cross- cultural concepts you have mentioned in your narrative?
  • 4.  We all fall into the culturist trap of reducing people. It is important that we are aware of our stereotypes and can monitor how we let them influence our teacher behaviors (e.g. assessing L2 student writing, evaluating classroom participation, creating culturally relevant assignments). With this in mind, comment on the followings:1. What are some of the stereotypes you bring to your profession? Be specific.2. How do you/did you pass through this stereotype and look for a deeper understanding/full complexity of a group of people (or, have you?)
  • 5.  In what ways our expectations of stigmatized social group’s (e.g. stereotypes)lead to inferior service or disadvantage?
  • 6. Discussion based on learning logs
  • 7.  When do people have enough? When does othering go too far and when is it appropriate to act on or claim that someone is othering you?
  • 8.  What is the fine line between stereotyping and gathering information to make an informed opinion about a person from a particular culture?
  • 9.  In my opinion, people tend to judge foreigners based on the stereotypes. Is it really their culture? Or is it the fact that the students feel uncomfortable in the classrooms that make them passive?
  • 10.  Further on, the author talks about historical accounts from Confucius which do not support the Asian stereotype of complete and unconditional obedience to authority. So where does this generalization come from?
  • 11.  Even though I’ve based my assumptions on working with East Asian students and interacting with Asian friends, they may still be faulty ideas and would not prove true in every case. Even though it’s good to have a frame of reference for relating to students, I agree with Kumaravadivelu that I must more fully develop a “critical awareness of the complex nature of cultural understanding” (717).Question: I wonder what kind of cultural stereotypesAsian students might have about North Americanteachers…
  • 12.  The smith familySummarize the scenario. What does this example showabout prescribed stereotypes? What mistake did Johnmake with the the Smiths?
  • 13.  A religious culture characterized by-- clothing--disdain for modernityThese stereotypes led John’s behaviours and explainedwhatever the Smiths do from this “filter” He fell intovarious culturist traps.Any similar situations you experienced?
  • 14.  Stereotyping: Ideal characterization of the Other Prejudice: Judgment made on the basis of interest rather than emergent evidence Culturism: Reducing the members of a group to the pre-defined characteristics of a cultural label.
  • 15.  An understanding supervisor?Summarize the case. What are some of the culturistlanguage/behavior Jeremy displays? How does Jeremythink he is acting? How does Jabu interprets Jerremy’sbehavior? How could Jeremy appropriate his languageand behaviors not to fall into culturist trap? What wouldyou do if you were in Jabu’s shoes?
  • 16.  Culturism: Jerremy assumes that he is being supportive and understanding when in fact he is being patronizing according to Jabu False Sharing: Jeremy is sharing an image of Jabu which he constructed based on his previous experiences.*** Avoid being seduced by previous experience of the exotic.*** Monitor your own language and be aware of thedestructive, culturist discourse we might be conforming to orperpetuating (p. 38)
  • 17.  Is it natural to form stereotypes?“Many argue that it is natural to form stereotypes, andthat they indeed help us to understand “foreigncultures”—that they act as a template, or as an idealtype, against with we can measure the unknown”—Doyou agree with this? Is stereotyping a natural act?
  • 18. 1. Averse RacismStereotypes are ingrained in the racist system and areperpetuated in popular culture2. Social IdentityWe stereotype, when we see others as a threat to our self-esteem. A need to maintain a positive distinction betweenour own group and others. We might be biased in favor ofour own group3. Orientalism: Western representation of Other. Legitimizedby power relationships/colonialism“colonized people are stereotyped and treated not ascommunities of individuals but as an indistinguishable mass”
  • 19.  Read the interviews by Mallison and Brewster on page 149. In your groups, write an analysis of what strategies of “othering” Nate uses when he talks about Blacks, Latinos and rednecks. How does he create a “discourse of difference” (Wodak, 1997 see p. 152) in his narrative? Then, compare your analysis with Mallinson and Brewster’s analysis. Do you agree with their analysis? Why? Why not?
  • 20.  Avoid being seduced by the previous experience of the exotic. Monitor of our own language and be aware of the destructive, culturist, sexist, racist discourse we might be conforming to or perpetuating Know that maintenance of students ethnic language and culture is a fundamental right of all members of the community. Be sensitive to subtle cultural meanings that children with a different view of social reality bring to the class Move beyond taken-for-granted assumptions when interpreting student behavior.
  • 21.  …should be performed through the practice of everyday life rather than through the practice of merely reading texts or including “culture celebrations”—Avoid “boutique multiculturalism” (Stanley Fish) ALL students should be encouraged and enabled to engage critically with various ethnic and cultural backgrounds so that they can recognize and explore complex interconnections, gaps that occur between their own and other ethnic and cultural identities and how these identities are situated in the wider framework of power relations
  • 22.  Assimilation vs acculturation (p. 68) What’s wrong with the melting pot theory?
  • 23.  In Hungtington’s words all immigrants should commit themselves to Anglo-Protestant culture of the founding settlers—which is the center of the American Identity. Key elements of American identity according to him: The English language Christianity Religious commitment Protestant values of individualism The work ethnic
  • 24.  Salin says immigrants would be welcome as full members of American family if they accept English as their primary language, take pride in American identity, and live by protestant ethic
  • 25.  Assimilation: Newcomers leaving their their ethnic backgrounds and cultural resources behind and embrace the host societies’ values (characterized by the mainstream segment of the adopted society) Acculturation: newcomers adaptation of the culture- the behaviors, norms, practices, symbols, rules of the target/host culture.
  • 26. NATIVISM (19th and earlyIDEALISM 20th century) The fusion of all races  “Early Americans” Religious amalgamation  Core culture should be: WASPs  Native language and cultural Shedding previous ethnic traits are seen as impediments to identities and construct an the construction of American American identity. identity Emerging American  Cultural assimilation was a one- identity can be “blend of way process. sociocultural beliefs and  Linguistic assimilation is practices drawn from many essential by discarding the home languages: Monolingualism and different ethnic groups”(p. monoculturalism. 77)
  • 27.  Who is doing the assimilation? From what to what? For what? What does it make to people?
  • 28. Finding traces of nativism in second language theoryconstruction and language policies in the U.S. Examples: The legacy of nativist philosophy: ENGLISH-ONLY POLICIES Theory Construction:1) Robert Kaplan’s Cultural thought patterns2) Schumanns acculturation model of second language acquisition
  • 29.  Contrastive Rhetoric: Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education (Kaplan, 1966; the doodle article) Explored the links between the culturally specific logic/thought patterns and paragraph structures in English essays written by NNES students. “The patterns of paragraphs in other languages are not so well established, or perhaps only not so well known to speakers of English” Came up with five lingua-cultural groups in rhetorical structures of a piece of writing in students’ cultures. 31
  • 30.  Essays were collected as class exercise, students did nto have comparable language skills Rhetorical deviations he found in NNES students were similar to the rhetorical errors made by NS students The generalizations about student’s culture based on the rhetorical and cultural through patterns has been contested by many scholars. Kaplan did not take into account linguistic and cultural variations in each group. Faulty argumentations: making assertions about one’s L1 writing rhetoric and thought patterns based on a general L2 essay structure. Other factors such as topic knowledge, language proficiency, educational background also influences students paragraph development Considering standard English speaking NSs as the norm- overlooks the plurality within language groups! Native English speakers do not all write in linear, straight line paragraph development. Members of different discourse communities write in different genres.
  • 31. Ethnocentric view of culture: The worldview of a group of people using the same language is determined by that single language and culture? (strong version of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) Even though he himself modified some of his arguments two decades after he wrote the original 1966 article, some English teachers still associate the rhetorical deviations in NNES students’ English essays to their linguistic and cultural traits (see pg. 88)
  • 32.  Ten-month longitudinal study to investigate untutored English acquisition by Spanish speaking adults. Alberto makes little progress. Schuman connects this to the social distance between him and the members of the mainstream community. According to Schumann psychological and social contact with the TL group “is the essential component in acculturation” (1978, p. 29) The greater one’s cultural integration with the mainstream group, the more successful would be one’s attempt to learn the target language“Any learner can be placed on a continuum that ranges from socialand psychological distance to social and psychological proximitywith speakers of the target language, and that the learner willacquire the language only to the extent that he acculturates” (p.29)—this argument dismisses various outside factors.
  • 33.  Inequitable power relations between the second language speakers and the target language speakers.Norton (2000) says “It may be because the dominant powerstructures within the society had relegated Alberto to amarginalized status and then blamed him for his inability toacculturate” Target language community’s responsibility to maximize opportunities for cultural assimilation Schumann’s social distance theory carries traces of nativist philosophy as it minimizes the importance of the immigrants own language and culture. More recent studies argue that “maintenance of the mother tongue among immigrant children can in fact facilitate their successful learning of the target language” (Cummins, 2000)
  • 34.  Be aware of the dominant discourses which are easily perpetuated by the media, and which lead us to “think-as- usual” that familiar images of the foreign Other as normal Seek a deeper and a complex understanding of the representation of the foreign Other which are perpetuated by society Monitor your language and be aware of the destructive, culturist discourses we might be perpetuating. Avoid readily explaining student behavior in terms of culture and cultural stereotypes—avoid binary categories such as NS-NNS
  • 35. 1. Averse RacismStereotypes are ingrained in the racist system and areperpetuated in popular culture2. Social IdentityWe stereotype, when we see others as a threat to our self-esteem. A need to maintain a positive distinction betweenour own group and others. We might be biased in favor ofour own group3. Orientalism: Western representation of Other. Legitimizedby power relationships/colonialism“colonized people are stereotyped and treated not ascommunities of individuals but as an indistinguishable mass”
  • 36. Otherization Reductive process that ascribe an imagined superior identity to the Self and an imagined inferior identity to the Other. “Colonizers systematically devalue the colonized and how develuation expends to every aspect of life. See Memi’s The Colonizer and the colonized.Orientalism (coined by Edward Said) Western representation of the Other (i.e. East). “Orientalism is a systematically constructed discourse by which the West “ was able to manage—and produce—the Orient politically, sociologically, ideologically, scientifically, and imaginatively” (Said, 1978). Eg. Accents of Arabs in Aladdin. Aladdin is also Arab bur speaks English in Standard English. Produces an essentialist and static Other. Cultures, just like people, are not islands by themselves. They are all interconnected, making every culture, in effect, a hybrid culture.
  • 37.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwCOSkXR_CwTake notes when you see examples on the notions wehave been studying/discussing: “othering” “culturist”and “racist”