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Mammals
 

Mammals

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    Mammals Mammals Presentation Transcript

    • evaluation
      • Very good
      • You are corect
    • Mammalia
    • Mammal Evolution
      • Mammals are believed to have evolved from Reptiles during the late Jurassic period
    • Mammal Evolution
      • The first true mammal was a small, shrew-like organism that coexisted with Dinosaurs
        • Ex. Hadrocodium fossil found in Northern China in 2002
    • Mammal Evolution
      • Mammal’s inner-ear bones probably evolved from modified ancestral reptile jaw bones
    • 3 Major Reproductive Categories
      • Monotremes
        • Egg-laying mammals (Ex. Echidna + Platypus)
    • 3 Major Reproductive Categories
      • Marsupials
        • Embryos born very early and nurse from inside mother’s pouch (Ex. Kangaroo, Koala)
    • 3 Major Reproductive Categories
      • Placentals
        • Embryos develop inside the womb, receiving nutrients and O 2 from the mother via the Placenta
        • Newborns fed milk from mammary glands.
    • Mammal Characteristics
      • Characterized by hair and mammary glands
      • Whales have very little hair
    • Mammal Characteristics
      • Mammalian brains are more developed and specialized (cephalized) than any other class of animals
    • Mammal Characteristics
      • All mammals have special sweat glands that are modified for producing milk, called Mammary glands
    • Mammal Characteristics
      • Mammals are Heterodontic
        • Teeth are differentiated
        • Used for biting, grinding, tearing and crushing
        • Ex. Incisors, molars, canines, etc.
    • Mammal Orders
      • There are 19 orders of mammals
      • We will look at the characteristics of 14 of them
      • Order: Monotremata
        • Lay Eggs (Ex. Echidna, Platypus)
      • Order: Marsupiala
        • Young grow in pouch (Ex. Koala)
    • Order: Insectivora
      • Small pointed teeth, adapted mainly for eating insects
        • Ex. Moles, Shrews, Hedgehogs
    • Order: Rodentia
      • Nearly 50% of mammals are rodents
      • Have no canine teeth, but two very larger incisors
      • Almost all are herbivores
        • Ex. Mice, Squirrels, Beavers
    • Order: Edentata
      • Have no teeth
        • Ex. Armadillos, Sloths, Anteaters
    • Order: Carnivora
      • Very diverse group,
      • Meat eaters
      • Canine teeth highly developed
        • Ex. Wolves, Bears, Raccoons, Otters, Skunks, Mongoose, Cats
    • Order: Serenia
      • Aquatic mammals that breathe through their mouth and nose
      • Herbivores
        • Ex. Manatees and Dugongs
    • Order: Chiroptera
      • Forelimbs adapted for flight
      • May find prey by echolocation
        • Ex. Insectivorous Bats, Old World Fruit Bats
    • Order: Lagomorpha
      • Large incisor teeth
      • Hindlimbs larger than forelimbs
        • Ex. Rabbits and Pikas
    • Order: Cetacea
      • Fully aquatic mammals
      • Vestigial pelvic bones
      • Evolved from a wolf/bear-like land mammal
    • Order: Cetacea
      • Highly developed brain
      • Have a dorsal blow-hole
        • Ex. Toothed Whales, Baleen Whales
    • Order: Proboscidea
      • Nose and top lip are highly enlarged into a muscular trunk for grasping items
        • Ex. Elephants
    • Order: Primata
      • Highly developed brains
      • Often bipedal
        • Ex. Lemurs, Monkeys, Apes, Humans
    • Order: Primata
      • Humans are relatively new primates
      • We appear to share a recent common ancestor with chimpanzees
    • Order: Artiodactyla
      • Hooves with even-numbered toes
      • Many of them are ruminants with a 4-chambered stomach
        • Ex. Deer, Giraffe, Cattle, Pig, Camel, Hippo
    • Order: Perissodactyla
      • Have odd-numbered toes
        • Ex. Horses, Tapirs, Rhinoceroses
    •  
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