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Education Studies
Play and
Exploration

Session Four
Semester One 2013
Play
Today we are thinking about…..
Play – types of play and characteristics of
play
Learning through play
The role of the a...
Responding to the Reading
Parker-Rees, R. (2010) ‘Active playing and learning’ in Parker-Rees, R. and
Leeson, C. (eds) Ear...
Types of Early Play
• Babies are born ready to learn.
• Young babies and children learn through
active exploration.
• Thro...
Types of Symbolic play
• Symbolic play. Pretend play. Objects take on personalities and
symbolic meaning (i.e. A clothes p...
Other Types of Play....
• Rough-and-tumble play. Chasing, catching, pretend
fights. Free-flowing and physical.
• Play with...
Free-flow play
Tina Bruce’s 12 features of play can be used as a method
of evaluating the quality of free-flow play experi...
Early Years Foundation Stage
“Play is essential for children’s
development, building their
confidence as they learn to
exp...
But what happens to play…
“As children grow older…it is expected that the
balance will gradually shift towards more
activi...
Why is play important?
• Play is a vital tool for children to use to support their emotional,
cognitive and physical devel...
Piaget and play
• He saw the child as a lone
scientist embarking on
discovery learning
• Play is not the same as
learning ...
Vygotsky and play
• Vygotsky believed play has a
central role in the transmission of
culture through social interaction
an...
“In play a child always behaves
beyond his average age, above his
daily behaviour; in play it is as
though he were a head ...
What Might Quality Play
Provision Look Like?
•
•
•
•
•
•

Child-led
Open-ended
Exploratory
Indoors and outdoors
Based on c...
The Role of Adults in Play
• Supportive, not domineering.
• Observing. Noticing
children’s emerging abilities.
• Creating ...
Play….what do the experts say?
Play to Learn: Discussion
As you watch, think about:
What strikes you as
important in the v...
Discussing Play
•
•
•
•
•

Work in 3’s.
Pick a card
Read the statement/questions
What does it mean?
What is your response?...
For Next Time….
Focus:
Creativity in the Classroom
Reading: Craft, A. (2000) Creativity across the
primary curriculum: fra...
Session 4 - Play
Session 4 - Play
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Session 4 - Play

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Session 4 - Play

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  • Use the lolly sticks to select partners. Partners to discuss their responses to the two questions and note down discussions. Then number each pair 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7 (I have 28 in my group so this would then create opportunities for 2 pairs to come together to form a 4 – you may need to adjust if your group is smaller). Each pair to find another pair with the same number. Revisit the two questions in the larger group and note down discussions.Share ideas in larger group.
  • Return to your own seat. Working on your own. Think about a time in your own childhood when you can remember playing:what you were playing with whom or were you alonewhat skills you needed in order to playwhat benefit this might have been to you in your learning and developmentwhy you remember this? Now share your memory with the people at your table. Are there any similarities in the memories that you have shared? Any differences? What was the range of types of play you had all remembered? What skills were you learning through that play? Now share with wider class group. We will then look at some different types of play.
  • This just tells us that play is developmental and like any other skill progresses with age and develops. At the sensori motor stage of development, babies are ‘playing’ through exploration – finding out about things and the world through the use of their senses.
  • This slide illustrates the different types of symbolic play and the importance and sophistication that accompanies children need many hours in this type of playYou may get a discussion about whether superhero play should be allowed so refer them to Penny Holland book here.But I ask them to put themselves in the 4 year old child’s shoes who comes to school passionate about a superhero (ok let go for the stereo type and let him be a boy). This superhero is in his thoughts day and night and is really important and inspirational to him. How might he feel if told No we don’t do that here. How might that affect his self esteem? How might he feel about things that are really important to him not being valued at school? What might that make him do (Go into a corner and secretly play it? Feel depressed and that the learning here is not for him? Etc)
  • There are many different views of play and definitions of play. Theorists have been trying to define play for centuries – link to the reading (“Perspectives on Play” – page 203 in reader provides an overview of the different perspectives on play that have been put forward. Tina Bruce provides one view of play, which is linked to the ideas in the EYFS. Practitioners/teachers can use the 12 features of play as way of assessing the quality of play provision. Think back to your memories of play in your own childhood. Can you recognise any of the 12 features of play in your own experiences?
  • The revised EYFS supports the aims of the first EYFS, which promoted play based learning. The EYFS sets out the key characteristics of effective learning and identifies play as a central theme. Hand out of the characteristics of effective learning.
  • This quote is from the statutory guidance for the EYFS (2012). It suggests that child-initiated play will become less prevalent as ‘formal learning’ becomes a focus. What are our thoughts about this? Is play relevant for older children? Why?
  • Discuss what is meant by child-led and adult-led. Research tells us that in early years there should be an equal balance of child and adult initiated activities. What might child-led mean? What would the role be of adults? In groups, share experiences they have had on placement in schools and/or nursery. How was play used to support learning?
  • Watch the EYFS film about play (this is hyperlinked on the slide – just click on the title of the film, or find it here: http://archive.teachfind.com/ttv/www.teachers.tv/videos/play-to-learn-discussion.html). Students to make notes in response to the questions;What strikes you as important in the video?What do you agree with?Was there anything you do not agree with?. Share responses to the video in your group.
  • Transcript of "Session 4 - Play"

    1. 1. Education Studies Play and Exploration Session Four Semester One 2013 Play
    2. 2. Today we are thinking about….. Play – types of play and characteristics of play Learning through play The role of the adult in supporting playbased learning How does play link to key learning theories?
    3. 3. Responding to the Reading Parker-Rees, R. (2010) ‘Active playing and learning’ in Parker-Rees, R. and Leeson, C. (eds) Early Childhood Studies: An introduction to the study of children’s worlds and children’s lives (3rdEd), Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd Consider the questions: • What does play look like? • Why is play considered to be important for learning?
    4. 4. Types of Early Play • Babies are born ready to learn. • Young babies and children learn through active exploration. • Through exploration, young babies and children use all of their senses; Sight (vision), Hearing, Taste (gustatory), Smell (olfactory), Touch . • Exploratory plays helps the development of neural pathways.
    5. 5. Types of Symbolic play • Symbolic play. Pretend play. Objects take on personalities and symbolic meaning (i.e. A clothes peg becomes a key for a door) • Role play. Occurs when pretend symbols are used together. Children take on roles and act out their understanding of those roles. • Socio-dramatic play. Interaction and communication with other children in role play/pretend play situations. • Fantasy play. A form of role play where children experiment with roles they may not know about. For example, pretending to get married or fly to the moon. • Superhero play. Children role play unreal events using characters from tv/film. Usually a war theme. (We Don't Play with Guns Here By Penny Holland)
    6. 6. Other Types of Play.... • Rough-and-tumble play. Chasing, catching, pretend fights. Free-flowing and physical. • Play with props (constructive play). A form of symbolic play where children construct props to use in pretend situations. • Games with rules. Children make up their own rules. Develops cooperation, logical thinking, teamwork.
    7. 7. Free-flow play Tina Bruce’s 12 features of play can be used as a method of evaluating the quality of free-flow play experiences. Bruce described play as a process which flows – not an event with an end product or outcome. “Play is a process...It keeps flowing along. It keeps the learning open and flexible...Children at play are able to stay flexible, respond to events and changing situations, be sensitive to people, to adapt, think on their feet...” (Bruce,T. (2001) Learning Through Play, London: Hodder Arnold)
    8. 8. Early Years Foundation Stage “Play is essential for children’s development, building their confidence as they learn to explore, to think about problems, and relate to others. Children learn by leading their own play, and by taking part in play which is guided by adults” (Early Education, 2012, p.6) Early Education (2012) Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Early Education
    9. 9. But what happens to play… “As children grow older…it is expected that the balance will gradually shift towards more activities led by adults, to help children prepare for more formal learning, ready for Year 1” (DfE 2012 p.6) Is child-initiated play worthwhile in key stage one and beyond? Department For Education (2012) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage [online], DfE, Available: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publicationDe tail/Page1/DFE-00023-2012, [accessed: 23/10/13)
    10. 10. Why is play important? • Play is a vital tool for children to use to support their emotional, cognitive and physical development. • Through play, children can use the skills they have already mastered to extend their knowledge and understanding of the world. • Children feel comfortable and confident when they are playing and consequently feel able to experiment, take risks, question and explore. • Through their exploration, children are making connections and building up ideas, concepts and skills. • Through play children can gain a sense of achievement, thereby developing self-esteem.
    11. 11. Piaget and play • He saw the child as a lone scientist embarking on discovery learning • Play is not the same as learning but facilitates learning; development determines learning • The role of the educator is to enable and facilitate, responding to children’s initiatives • The educator does not seek to impart knowledge - the child constructs this for themselves
    12. 12. Vygotsky and play • Vygotsky believed play has a central role in the transmission of culture through social interaction and communication • He saw learning in early childhood as a complex process • Unlike Piaget he believed learning determines development • Learning takes place through internalisation moving from experience to understanding • Interaction with more knowledgeable others enables children to understand themselves and the world they live in
    13. 13. “In play a child always behaves beyond his average age, above his daily behaviour; in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself. As in the focus of a magnifying glass, play contains all developmental tendencies in a condensed form and is itself a major source of development.” [Vygotsky 1978] Play as leading factor in child development Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    14. 14. What Might Quality Play Provision Look Like? • • • • • • Child-led Open-ended Exploratory Indoors and outdoors Based on children’s interests Supporting children’s emerging abilities • Opportunities to practice skills and test theories • Thoughtful resources
    15. 15. The Role of Adults in Play • Supportive, not domineering. • Observing. Noticing children’s emerging abilities. • Creating relaxed atmosphere. • Providing quality resources. • Placing a value on play.
    16. 16. Play….what do the experts say? Play to Learn: Discussion As you watch, think about: What strikes you as important in the video? What do you agree with? Was there anything you do not agree with?
    17. 17. Discussing Play • • • • • Work in 3’s. Pick a card Read the statement/questions What does it mean? What is your response? Do you agree? Why? Why not?
    18. 18. For Next Time…. Focus: Creativity in the Classroom Reading: Craft, A. (2000) Creativity across the primary curriculum: framing and developing practice, London: Routledge. (Please read Part 1, chapter 1, ‘What is creativity?’) Questions: • What do you understand by ‘possibility thinking’ • What are Roger’s conditions for fostering Creativity and how do you interpret them?
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