Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Accessible Web
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The Accessible Web

1,477
views

Published on

Talk on "The Accessible Web" given at the Museums and the Web 2007 conference. …

Talk on "The Accessible Web" given at the Museums and the Web 2007 conference.
See http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/conferences/museums-web-2007/

Published in: Technology, Design

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,477
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Accessible Web Accessibility 2.0: A Holistic And User-Centred Approach To Web Accessibility Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath Email [email_address] UKOLN is supported by: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/conferences/museums-web-2007/ This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) Resources bookmarked using ‘ ukmw07 ' tag Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised.
  • 2. Contents
      • Reflections on today’s themes
      • Web accessibility & innovation
      • Revisiting Web accessibility:
      • Contextualising Web accessibility:
      • What Next?
  • 3. Today’s Talks
    • What have we heard about today:
      • Museums 2.0: just do it
      • How tagging can help
      • Potential of Second Life
      • Maybe Semantic Web has a role
      • The challenges of the personalised Web and the ethical Web
    • What do you think:
      • Toys for the boys?
      • Or not?
  • 4. Accessibility and Innovation
    • “ I’m looking at Web 2.0 / Museum Mashups / Facebook / Second Life /…. What do people think about these technologies? ”
    • Common responses:
      • We are committed to complying with accessibility guidelines; we won’t be driven by new technologies
    • But might this actually mean:
        • We can’t be bothered
        • We’re threatened
        • We’re scared
    • What if new technologies actually enhance accessibility?
    • What if the accessibility guidelines are out-of-date?
  • 5. Where Does Accessibility Fit In?
    • What is your view?
      • Web innovations typically add to the accessibility barriers people with disabilities face:
        • Need for caution and delaying innovation until accessibility features are developed
      • Can’t decide; it’s too complicated
      • Web innovations often enhance accessibility:
        • Opportunity to exploit innovations and gain experiences
  • 6. My Views
    • My thoughts on this:
      • We’ve interpreted accessibility incorrectly
      • It’s not about:
        • Control  Rules
        • Universal solutions  An IT Problem
        • A worry  Avoiding being sued
      • It is not about:
        • Empowering people  Widening participation
        • Contextual solutions  Blended solutions
        • A great opportunity  Being appreciated
  • 7. Background: W3C WAI & WCAG
    • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium):
      • Body responsible for coordinating development of Web standards
    • WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative):
      • W3C group responsible for developing guidelines which will ensure Web resources are widely accessible
    • WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines):
      • One of three sets of WAI guidelines. WCAG provides advice of accessibility on Web content (e.g. HTML pages)
      • Other two WAI guidelines cover accessible user agents (UAAG) and accessible authoring tools (ATAG)
    Review: WAI Approach
  • 8. The WAI Model
    • The WAI model for Web accessibility is based on three components:
      • Content
      • Authoring Tools
      • Browsers
    • Assumption: do three right  universal accessibility
    • But:
      • We have no control over browsers & authoring tools
      • The browsers and authoring tools aren't great
      • The content guidelines are flawed
      • What if users are happy with their existing browser?
    Review: WAI Approach
  • 9. Interpretation of WAI WCAG
    • How do you interpret WAI WCAG (must use ALT tags for images; HTML must be valid; must use style sheets for presentation; …):
      • Mandatory, with following characteristics:
        • Clearly defined rules  Objective
        • Checking mostly objective
        • Penalties for non-compliance
        • Similar to checking that HTML complies with the standard
      • Advisory, with following characteristics:
        • Useful guidelines, to be interpreted in context
        • It's about providing useful, usable resources
        • It's contextual
        • Checking mostly subjective
        • It's similar to checking that a Web site is well-designed
    BK Review: WAI Approach Which reflects your organisations’ view most closely?
  • 10. Limitations of the WAI Model
    • WAI approach has shortcomings:
      • WAI model relies on conformant Web sites, conformant authoring tools, conformant user agents
      • … and conformant users!
      • WCAG guidelines have flaws ("must use W3C formats; must use latest versions; …")
      • Has a Web-only view of the world:
        • What about other IT solutions?
        • What about blended (real world) solutions?
      • Has a belief in a single universal solution:
        • But isn't accessibility a very complex issue
        • Is it reasonable to expect an ideal solution to be developed at the first attempt?
    Limitations
  • 11. What do we mean by Web accessibility?
    • Can we provide accessible Web services without a clear understanding of what we mean by this?
    • Small group exercise:
      • What do we mean by Web accessibility?
      • Where does usability fit in?
      • Where does interoperability fit in?
    E
  • 12. Usability & Interoperability
    • What about:
      • Usability
      • Interoperability
    http://www.rnib.org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/documents/code/InternetHome.hcsp
    • Example:
      • Long, application-specific URLs can cause accessibility/usability and interoperability problems
    • Addition Problems:
      • We’ve got WCAG AA (and checked with users)
        • We don’t need to do anymore (it’s costly)
        • We don’t need to address usability
    • The focus on priority levels can limit what’s done
  • 13. Diversity – Content
    • WAI guidelines focus on informational Web sites:
      • Here’s the train timetable – I want the information and I want it now
      • This is reasonable and desirable
    • But is this approach always relevant to learning and cultural contexts:
      • Here’s something – you must interpret it (and being wrong can be part of the learning process)
    Context
  • 14. Universal Accessibility?
  • 15. Holistic Approach
    • Q How do you make highly interactive e-learning services universally accessibility (e.g. 3D model of molecules)?
    • A If this would be unreasonable, make the learning outcomes (rather than e-learning resources) accessible.
    Our Work Can we apply this approach to cultural resources, with an emphasis on providing a diversity of cultural experiences? See Developing A Holistic Approach For E-Learning Accessibility by Kelly, Phipps & Swift
  • 16. Articulating the Approach
    • The "Tangram Metaphor" developed to avoid checklist / automated approach:
      • W3C model has limitations
      • Jigsaw model implies single solution
      • Tangram model seeks to avoid such problems
    • This approach:
      • Encourages developers to think about a diversity of solutions
      • Focus on 'pleasure' it provides to user
    Our Work
  • 17. Tangram Model & Testability
    • "WCAG 2.0 success criteria are written as testable statements …" (nb. automated & human testing  )
    • Issues:
      • What about WCAG principles that don't have defined success criteria (e.g. "content must be understandable")?
      • What about 'baselines' – context only known locally
      • What about differing models or / definitions of 'accessibility'?
    • Note vendors of accessibility testing services will market WCAG tools e.g. see posting on BSI PAS 78
    • Tangram model can be used within WCAG
      • Distinguish between testable (ALT tags) and subjective (content understandable)
      • Supports baselines
    Baseline 1 Testable Our Work
  • 18. Accessibility 2.0 Paper
    • Paper presented at W4A 2007 conference:
      • “ I don’t disagree – but WAI focusses on accessibility of Web resources”
    • Our misunderstanding of WAI’s role:
      • Decide on the services you wish to provide, then look at accessibility
    • not:
      • Look at accessibility guidelines to see what is allowed
    Note this ties in with Seb Chan’s talk on the processes for selecting technologies
  • 19. WCAG 2.0
    • Latest WCAG 2.0 draft is much improved
    • Focus on four key principles (POUR):
      • Perceivable : Information and user interface components must be perceivable by users
      • Operable : User interface components must be operable by users
      • Understandable : Information and operation of user interface must be understandable by users
      • Robust : Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies
    Note WCAG 2.0 draft removes some of the flawed guidelines – and HTML compliance is toned down. This may result in many Web sites will enhance their WCAG rating overnight!
  • 20. WCAG & Holistic Context
    • Proposal for a museum’s accessibility policy:
      • Museum services will seek to engage its audiences, attract new & diverse audiences, ...
      • Museum will take reasonable measures to maximise access to its services.
    • Interpretations:
      • Second Life, Web 2.0, … to attract new audiences (e.g. young people)
      • Reasonable measures to ensure Web 2.0 is widely accessible (e.g. WCAG if possible)
  • 21. On Reasonableness
    • How do we know what is reasonable?
      • Every page must be WCAG AA compliant (including HTML-compliance, even if 99% of Web pages fail this test)
      • No Podcasting, as can’t be heard by deaf users (to hell with blind users)
      • No Flash – even if people say they like it
      • No surrealism – people won’t understand it
    • Or:
      • Staff training so they’re informed of best practices
      • Sharing our approaches – and learning from others
      • Engaging with our user communities
      • Doing what museums are expected to do
  • 22. Not In Isolation
    • How do we:
      • Develop staff?
      • Enhance the effectiveness of our approaches?
      • Develop an understand on what is reasonable?
    • Answers:
      • Documenting policies
      • Sharing our experiences
      • Sharing our resources
      • Discussing and debating
  • 23. An Emerging Roadmap
    • Accessibility Summit II held in Nov 2006 agreed:
      • Need for a manifesto:
        • Building on WAI’s foundations
        • Developing a user-centric approach
        • Developing a contextual model
        • Developing an evidence-based approach
      • A roadmap for future work:
        • Engagement with disability communities
        • Engagement with WAI
        • Identifying areas of research
        • Gathering case studies of best practices
    • Follow-up workshop took place at MW 2007
  • 24. Application to Second Life
    • How do I make SL accessible?
    • Wrong question – ask:
      • “ How do I maximise the accessibility of my museum?”
    • Solutions:
      • Wheelchair ramps
      • Web sites
      • Accessible Web sites
      • Web experiences
      • Immersive environments
    • A portfolio of solutions aimed at widening participation
    Compare with the BBC. Is the radio universally accessible to the deaf – or do the BBC have a portfolio of channels?
  • 25. Next Steps for Museums
    • At MW 2007:
      • Museums wiki service described
      • Accessibility 2.0 added to wiki
    • An opportunity for you:
      • Use this to briefly summarise your approaches to accessibility 2.0
    • (And keep copy for use elsewhere)
    http://museums.wikia.com/ wiki/Accessibility_2.0
  • 26. Just Do It!!
    • What not to do:
      • Seek 2 year funding in order to explore implications, set up case study database, QA processes, …
    • Instead:
      • Write case study on the train home!
      • Document what you’ve done - you’ve probably adopted a user-focussed approach anyway! (cf. Tate’s i-Map work described by Caro Howell 2 years ago)
  • 27. What Next?
    • What should the next steps be in development of approaches for Web accessibility in a museum context?